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Search For knowledge.

Systematic& scientific search for pertinent

Art of Scientific investigation
Systematized efforts to gain knowledge
Research involves defining the problems,
formulating the hypothesis, collecting,
organizing and evaluating data , making
deductions or conclusion- Clifford Woody
Research-Systematic approach concerning
generalization and formulation of theory.
Systematic inquiry whose objective is to
provide the information that will allow
managerial problems to be solved.
Descriptive Vs Analytical

Applied Vs Fundamental

Quantitative vs Qualitative

Conceptual Vs Empirical
Descriptive research includes surveys and fact
finding enquiries

E. G. Frequency of shopping , preferences of


Analytical research: includes use of facts and

information already available

E.g. Database of shopping mall to understand the

buying pattern of categories of products
Applied Research aims at finding a solution
for a immediate problem facing a society /
industrial organization,
E.g. Social , economic, political trends

Fundamental Research: concerned with

generalization and formulation of theory
E.g. Generalization of human behavior.
Quantitative Research is based on the
measurement of quantity or amount.
e.g. Age

Qualitative Research is based on the

measurement of qualitative phenomenon.
e.g. Satisfaction
Conceptual Research concerned with some
abstract idea(s) or theory.

E.g to develop new concepts or interpret the

existing (Maslow Need Hierarchy)

Empirical Research- relies on experience and

E.g. measuring the levels of noise pollution found in an urban
area to determine the average levels of sound exposure
experienced by its inhabitants.
Aid in decision making
Facilitate the process of thinking, analyzing ,
evaluation and interpretation of business
environment and business situation.
Provides basis for innovation
R& D helps in developing new product and
Identifies the problem area.
The past two decades have seen dramatic
changes in the business environment.
Emerging from what is, historically, an
economic role, the business organization has
evolved in response to the social and political
mandates of national public policy, explosive
technology growth and continuing
innovations in global communications. These
changes have created new knowledge needs
for the manager and new publics that should
be considered when evaluating any decision.
More Knowledge
Variables exists

Global and
Govt Concern
for Society

Participation of
Explosive stakeholders
Growth more sensitive to
their own
of www interests

Internal Advanced
Database Computing
( Data Mining)
Define clear purpose of research
Detailed Research process
Research design thoroughly planned
Flows in procedural design should be
The analysis of data should sufficiently
adequate to reveal its significance.
Unambiguous presentation of findings
Justification of conclusion
Greater experience in research is warranted.
Exchange- Transactional data is maintained by
organization for retrieval for decision making.
DSS models are developed and adapted to
support each firms own decision problems
Used to retrieve data, transform it into usable
information, and disseminate it to users
Allow managers to interact directly with
To retrieve information
Provides a modeling function to help interpret
information retrieved
Combines marketing data from diverse sources
into a single database, enabling product
managers, sales planners, market researchers,
financial analysts, and production schedulers to
share information.
Characteristics of MDSS:
Discovery oriented
User friendly
Four components of MDSS:
Reports and Displays
Analysis capabilities
Press Release, syndicated
industry studies, Literature
searches, presentations at
conferences, clipping services

Press Release, Recordings

Patent Filing, of public proceedings,
Technological cal/ speeches by elected
presentations at

officials, website of agency
conferences, Literature Legal

Government reports,
Socio-Cultural Economic literature searches

Public Opinion
Organization, syndicated
studies, Govt. Reports,
Business Reports.
Research in HRM
HR policies
Job and Manpower requirements
Job Evaluation
Recruitment, Selection, Placement, Training and
Promotion and Transfer
Wage and Salary Administration
Research in HRM

Labour Relations
Industrial Disputes
Job Enrichment Programmes
Health, Safety and Working Conditions etc
Research in Marketing
Marketing Policies pricing, advertising,
inventory, customer relations, service, channels of
distribution etc.

New Product Development new product ideas,

improvements, packaging, brand name, customer
preferences etc.

Market Forecasting economic forecasts, industry

forecasts, sales forecasts, technology forecasts etc.
Research in Marketing
Sales management
Channels of Distribution
Advertising and sales media selection, sales
promotion etc.
Research in Production
Equipment Purchase and Replacement
Performance Improvement
Work simplification
Inventory Control
Product Design
Process Improvement
Quality Control etc.
Research in Finance
Capital Structure Decisions
Acquisition, Mergers, Liquidation
Sources of funds
Opportunities for Profit
Management of Funds
Management of Assets
Financial Markets and its regulations etc.
Define research problem
Review of literature
A. Review concepts & theories
B. Review previous finding
Formulate hypothesis
Research design
Collect data
Analyze data
Interpret & report
Formulation of general topic into a research
Understand a problem thoroughly
Discussion with colleagues
Examine all literature available
The conceptual research & the empirical
Brief summary
Sources for literature review Academic
journals, conference proceedings, govt.
reports, books
Discuss with colleagues
Examination of data & records
Review similar studies
Field interview
To collect relevant evidence with minimal
It helps in obtaining info.
Skills of researcher
Cost factor
Probability sampling
Lottery & simple table method
Systematic sampling- selecting n th item
from population eg. 100 workers in factory
Stratified sampling- eg. Problems of farmers
in Pune district
Cluster sampling- eg. Administrative
problems of state govt.
Multistage sampling-eg. Effectiveness of
family planning program
Convenience sampling eg. interviewing
workers during lunch time
Purposive sampling eg. IT industries of
India , study is incomplete without Infosys &
Quota sampling opinion of customers about
fast food Male & the female
Snow ball sampling population is unknown
eg. A study of problems of women
entrepreneurs in pune dist.
By observation
Through personal interviews
Telephone interviews
By mailing questionnaire
Through schedules
Categorising of raw data through coding
Classification of raw data into purposeful
Coding- data transformed into symbols
Editing- improvement in the quality of data
Tabulation data- In the forms of tables
Eg. Two samples of weekly wages, samples
form different parts of same city , may be
having two different mean, the two values are
significantly different or it is just a chance of
random fluctuations
Preliminary pages- title page, certificate of
guide, acknowledgement/ declaration, list of
tables, abbreviations
The main text- chapter no 1,2,3 etc.
The end matter- copy of questionnaire,
additional info., bibliography, author index
Research problem is the statement that asks what relation
exists between two or more variables
1. Internal factors- ability of researcher
2. External factors- sponsorship
Researcher should ask

1. Is the problem worth studying ?

2. Is the problem interesting ?
3. Is the problem manageable in size ?
4. Is the problem narrative ?
5. Are sufficient recourses are available? tech, human ,
6. Is the problem is specific?
A useful way to approach research process is
to state the basic dilemma that prompts the
The Management dilemma follows a series of
What is the recommended
nt courses of actions , give the
research finding

What should be asked or observed to
nt obtain the information the manager

What does the manger need to know to choose the
e Best alternatives from the available courses of
What plausible courses of actions available to
Question(s) management to correct the problems or take advantage of
opportunity, and which should be considered?

How can Management eliminate the negative symptoms?
Question How can Management fully capitalized on an opportunity?

ment What Symptoms cause management concern?
What environmental stimuli raise management issue
Discover shortage, tech-
Management line operator
Dilemma training, uneven
performance, part
An increasing number of shortage,
inconsistent repair
letters and about post
servicing, product
purchase services damage during
repair and

question Interview with
manager, call
What should be done to nt package
improve complete care company
program for repair and executives


1. Should tech support operator be given intensive training?

2. Should courier company be replaced by air transport company?
3. Should the repair diagnostics and repair sequencing operations be modified?
4. should the return packaging be modified to include remolded foam inserts?
5. Should metropolitan repair center be established and replace f factory repair facilities?
Choice of the purpose or objectives
E. g. Should we at XYZ corporation reconsider our corporate objectives as
they concern about public image?
Generation and evaluation of solutions
E. g. What should be done to improve after sale service?
Troubleshooting or control situations?
(It involves monitoring the ways in which organization is failing to achieve the
established goals.)
E. g. How well is our program meeting its goals?

The definition of the management question sets the research task. So poorly
defined management questions will misdirect the research efforts.
Investigative questions- questions that research must
answer to satisfactory arrive at the conclusion about
the research question.

Measurement Questions are formulated after the

completion of planning activities- require pilot testing
for refinement.
Two types of measurement questions- predesigned-
pretested and custom-designed questions.
1. Introduction of topic or concept
2. Statement of the problem
3. Literature review
4. Scheme of the chapters
5. Rational of study
5. Objectives of the study
6. Hypotheses
7. Methods of data collection
8. Limitations of study
9. Bibliography