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HALL SENSOR

Contents:
What is Hall Sensor?
Hall probe
Working Principle
Materials for Hall Sensor
Signal processing and interface
Advantages
Disadvantages
WHAT IS HALL SENSOR?
Hall sensor - is a transducer that varies its
output voltage in response to a magnetic field.
Hall effect sensors are used for proximity
switching, positioning, speed detection, and
current sensing applications.
In its simplest form, the sensor operates as an
analog transducer, directly returning a voltage.
With a known magnetic field, its distance from
the Hall plate can be determined. Using groups
of sensors, the relative position of the magnet
can be deduced.
Hall sensor is combined with circuitry that
allows the device to act in a digital (on/off)
mode, and may be called a switch in this
configuration. Commonly seen in industrial
applications such as the pictured pneumatic
cylinder, they are also used in consumer
equipment.
example: some computer printers use them to
detect missing paper and open covers. When high
reliability is required, they are used in keyboards.

*commonly used to time the speed of wheels and


shafts.
*used in brushless DC electric motors to detect
the position of the permanent magnet. In the
pictured wheel with two equally spaced magnets,
the voltage from the sensor will peak twice for
each revolution. This arrangement is commonly
used to regulate the speed of disk drives.
Hall Probe

Hall probe contains an indium compound


semiconductor crystal such as indium antimonide,
mounted on aluminum backing plate, and
encapsulated in the probe head. The plane of the
crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle.
Connecting leads from the crystal are brought
down through the handle to the circuit box.
Engine fan with hall effect sensor
WORKING PRINCIPLES

When a beam of charged particles passes through a


magnetic field, forces act on the particles and the beam is
deflected from a straight path. The flow of electrons
through a conductor is known as a beam of charged
carriers. When a conductor is placed in a magnetic field
perpendicular to the direction of the electrons, they will
be deflected from a straight path. As a consequence, one
plane of the conductor will become negatively charged
and the opposite side will become positively charged. The
voltage between these planes is called Hall voltage.
When the force on the charged particles from the electric
field balances the force produced by magnetic field, the
separation of them will stop. If the current is not
changing, then the Hall voltage is a measure of the
magnetic flux density. Basically, there are two kinds of
Hall effect sensors. One is linear which means the output
of voltage linearly depends on magnetic flux density; the
other is called threshold which means there will be a
sharp decrease of output voltage at each magnetic flux
density.
Commonly used circuit symbol
MATERIALS FOR HALL EFFECT SENSOR
The key factor determining sensitivity of Hall effect sensors
is high electron mobility. As a result, following materials are
especially suitable for Hall effect sensors:
- gallium arsenide (GaAs)
- indium arsenide (InAs)
- indium phosphide (InP)
- indium antimonide (InSb)
- graphene
SIGNAL PROCESSING AND INTERFACE
Hall effect sensors are linear transducers. As a result, such
sensors require a linear circuit for processing of the sensor's
output signal. Such a linear circuit:
- provides a constant driving current to the sensors
- amplifies the output signal
In some cases the linear circuit may cancel the offset voltage
of Hall effect sensors. Moreover, AC modulation of the driving
current may also reduce the influence of this offset voltage.
ADVANTAGES
A Hall effect sensor may operate as an electronic switch.
* Such a switch costs less than a mechanical switch and is
much more reliable.
* It can be operated up to 100 kHz.
* It does not suffer from contact bounce because a solidstate
switch with hysteresis is used rather than a mechanical
contact.
* It will not be affected by environmental contaminants
since the sensor is in a sealed package. Therefore, it can be
used under severe conditions.
In the case of linear sensor (for the magnetic field strength
measurements), a Hall effect sensor:
* can measure a wide range of magnetic fields
* is available that can measure either North or South pole
magnetic fields
* can be flat
DISADVANTAGES

Hall effect sensors provide much lower measuring accuracy than


fluxgate magnetometers or magneto resistance -based sensors.
Moreover, Hall effect sensors drift significantly, requiring
compensation.
Circuit of Hall Sensor