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TURBO SUPERVISORY

INSTRUMENTATION
Steam Turbine
INDEX

Turbo Supervisory Instrumentation


Casing Expansion
Eccentricity
Axial Shift
Differential Expansion
Speed
Phase Shift
Bearing Temperature
Sensors
Monitoring System
Why TSI

Turbines needs very close monitoring and supervising


certain physical phenomena which it undergoes during
various stages of operation like start-up, loading, load
changes and coasting down.
The Turbo supervisory instrument system is an aid which
enables to interpret the information for safe and proper
operation of steam turbine.
WITHOUT Monitoring and Protection Systems
TSI
The Turbo supervisory instrumentation provides information
on:
1. Misalignment
2. Unbalance by a multitude of causes
3. Thrust bearing failure
4. Thermally bowed rotor
5. Mechanically bowed bent rotor
6. Babbit loss on radial bearing
7. Radial rubs.
Turbo Supervisory Instrumentation

Casing expansion
Thrust position
Differential expansion
Eccentricity
Valve position
Shaft Relative Vibration
Bearing Vibration
Turbine speed and acceleration
Phase angle
Bearing temperature
TYPICAL LAYOUT FOR 500 MW TSI - BHEL
Turbine Casing Expansion

The expansion or growth of the turbine's casing is the


measurement of how much the turbine's casing expands
or grows as it is heated.
The turbine casing is anchored near the middle of LP
casing and is free to expand axially on either directions
from the anchor point.
The Casing Expansion measurement is utilized by
operators to monitor the proper thermal growth of the
turbine's casing during startup, operation, and shutdown.
Large turbine cases grow or expand thermally, in some
case up to several inches.
Casing Expansion Measurement

Casing Expansion is measured by:

1. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

2. Dial Gauge
Casing Expansion

Case Expansion
Monitor

LVDT
Transmitter

T
LVD LVDT (Linear Variable
Differential Transformer)
Case Expansion

Case
Dual case
exp. Monitor
Sensor

LVDT

Drive Unit
Eccentricity

It is measured as a deviation of the mass centre from the


geometrical centre of the bearing journal.
Every machine, when built is left with certain amount of
inherent eccentricity on account of the deficiency in
machining, sag due to its weight and the clearances at
the bearings.
Eccentricity

This is proportional to the maximum rotor


deflection occurring at the middle of shaft.
The rotor deflection shifts the centre of gravity of
the rotor thus creating an unbalance in the
rotating mass which in turn generates excessive
vibrations when the machine is running at normal
speeds.
Thus eccentricity measurements provide
information on the onset of vibration even when
the machine is at barring gear speed or low
speeds.
Eccentricity

O/P Eccentricity

Peak to Peak Eccentricity


Eccentricity

A rotor which has been sitting idle during overhaul or has


been inadvertently stopped during coast-down for an
extended period will develop a bow or bend.
This condition must be corrected by turning gear
operation and, possibly, with auxiliary heating prior to
high speed operation to prevent internal clearance
rubbing.
Thus Eccentricity helps operator to make decision on
start-up of Turbine.
Eccentricity

Eccentricity measurement is important during Turbine


slow roll.
After a turbine is brought to speed and under load
Eccentricity measurement is locked to zero.
Eccentricity Measurement

Probe(s) are mounted outside the pressure case as far


from the bearing (Node Point) as practical as it is
impractical to mount Probe midspan on the rotor where
the eccentricity measurement would be the highest.
Eccentricity Collar
Eccentricity

Tecc MSecc

Tspan
BSpan
Eccentricity Measurement

Assuming uniform stiffness and weight, the rotor mid-


span eccentricity may be expressed as the ratio of the
transducer span from the bearing over the transducer
measured eccentricity to 1/2 the bearing span over the
midspan eccentricity or calculated using the following
formula,
(Tecc x Bspan)/Tspan = MSecc

Where Tecc = Transducer measured eccentricity

Bspan= Bearing Span


Tspan= Transducer span from bearing
MSecc= Midspan eccentricity
Eccentricity Measurement

Type of measurement: Eccentricity is electrically


measured by measuring the variation of an a.c current in
a coil due to the variation in the proximity of the target
material. There are two methods being used worldwide
to measure eccentricity.
(i) Inductive transducer operating at excitation
frequencies 50HZ to 20KHZ
(ii) Proximity (Eddy current) transducer operating at
excitation frequencies 500KHZ to MHZ.
Eccentricity Measurement

The transducers of both types are mounted as to


measure the varying air gap of a collar specially
machined on the rotor. The variation in the gap as the
collar rotates, provides the data of the peak to peak
excursion of the rotor.
Eccentricity measurement

Monitor

Driver
Mounting bracket

sensor

Machine case

Shaft
Eccentricity
Eccentricity
Eccentricity
Turbine Bearing Vibrations

Eddy Current
Probe

bearing

bearing
housing

Oil
Soft Wedge
Metal (load
(Babbit) zone)
Turbine Bearing Vibrations

Vibration is the back and forth motion of the machine or


machine parts under the influences of oscillatory forces
caused by dynamically unbalanced masses in the
rotating system.
Vibrations originate from the rotating mass centre and
are transmitted radially and axially to the supports.
i.e.bearing pedestals called radial and axial vibration.
Turbine Bearing Vibrations

Initial level of vibrations depend upon the net unbalance


left in the machine during the manufacturing and erection
stages
This initial vibration level increases in due course of
operation of the machine on account of:
Fast out of balance changes like fracture etc.
Slow out of balance changes like corrosion, erosion,
deposits bends, etc.
Self excited rotor vibrations like steam pulsation etc.
Mechanical looseness in pedestal faults in coupling,
bearing etc.
Turbine Bearing Vibrations

Excessive vibrations may lead to mechanical failure of


the turbine components and calls for extremely reliable
monitoring system.
Bearing pedestals are the points where normally the
vibration measurements are made.
Turbine Bearing Vibrations
Vibrations are usually measured as the amplitude of the
maximum exercise of the vibrating point in microns. It is
either given as the single amplitude (peak) or double
amplitude (peak to peak).
The other way of measuring vibrations is by measuring
the velocity of the motion of the vibrating point. This
measurement is being considered very useful. It is
measured in mm/sec (R.M.S).
Sometimes a third mode i.e. the acceleration of the
motion of the point adopted. The acceleration measures
the amount of vibrating Force.
Radial Shaft Vibration in X&Y direction
45 Deg

Mounting arrangement

Sensors

Shaft
Radial Shaft Vibration

Oscillator-
Vibration
Demodulator
Extension Monitor
(Driver)
Vertical cable
center

45 45 Sensor

Sensor
Rotor
ABSOLUTE BEARING VIBRATION MEASUREMENT

Velocity sensor/
Monitor
accelerometer

Mounting pad

Junction box
Bearing housing

shaft
The Velocity Probe
Piezoelectric Acceleration Transducer
Output Voltage Force
Acceleration Vibration

Mass Weight

Electrode

Piezoelectric e
Device
Electrode
Casing
Stud Bolt

Vibrating Object Vibration


The Accelerometer
Radial Shaft Vibration
Radial Shaft Vibration
Axial Shift

The axial thrust is the result of the impact of the steam


on either sides of the blades in each stage.
Though attempts had been made to balance and nullify
the thrust by reversing the direction of steam flow in H.P.
and I.P. cylinders and providing double flow L.P. cylinder,
there exists, however, a net thrust in the direction of
generator called working thrust.
In order to take the thrust, thrust bearing is provided at
the front end of the H.P. cylinder where steam enters.
The axial thrust, causes the thrust collar to move either
towards the working pads or towards the surge pads
depending on the direction of axial thrust.
Axial Shift
The thrust bearing is the anchor point of the rotor in axial
direction.
The axial thrust may increase on either directions on the
following conditions:
More/less resistance developed in the steam flow path on
account of salt deposits/erosion, wearing off, etc.
Thrust bearing failure.
Oil flow failure/inadequate flow to thrust bearing.

The measurement system indicates the position of the


thrust collar with respect to the working pads. The
indication determines the extent of wear of thrust pads. It
is imperative to continuously monitor the position of
thrust collar as axial shift beyond permissible limits could
lead to mechanical interference and severe rubbing.
Axial Shift

The range of measurement is from (1.5) to (1.5) mm of


axial shift. The 0 reference position of the rotor is that
position when the collar touches the woking pads.
The positive axial shift as per convention is the
movement of the collar i.e. the rotor in the direction of
the generator and the negative axial shaft occurs when
the collar moves towards front pedestal direction.
Usually the working value under normal condition will be
from 0 to -0.5 mm which is called Free Floating Zone
beyond which on either direction, the collar will start
rubbing the respective pads.
Axial Shift Measurement

Eddy current pick ups mounted facing the collar axially,


measure the gap and give the axial position of the rotor.
Axial Shift

Oscillator-
Demodulator
Extension (Driver)
cable Thrust
Monitor

Rotor

Sensor
Diff Expansion/Rotor Expansion

Differential Expansion on a turbine is the relative


measurement of the rotor's axial thermal growth with
respect to the casing.
Rotor Expansion on a turbine is the absolute
measurement of the rotor's axial thermal growth with
respect to the turbine's foundation.
Differential Expansion
A typical large steam turbine unit will have a thick case,
on the order of 12" .
Due to the mass of this casing, it will expand and
contract at a slower rate than the relatively thin (hollow)
rotor.
During turbine startup, extra care must be used to
ensure that the casing has been properly heated and
expanded sufficiently to prevent contact between the
rotor and the casing.
Differential Expansion
A standard convention is followed that if the shaft
expands more than the casing it is said to be a positive
expansion.
If the shaft contracts or casing expands more than the
shaft it is said to be negative expansion.
A high positive expansion occurs:
During start up conditions
After extended period of no load/low load running
followed by sudden loading..
When the exhaust temperature is too high
Restraint of casing sliding/expansion
A high negative expansion occurs:
During cooling down/shut down
After extended period of full load running followed by
no load/low load running
When exhaust hood temperature is too low.
Rotor Expansion
Casing Expansion

HPT Expansion IPT Expansion LPT Expansion


Differential Expansion
Sensor
A) Disc Type

Disc on shaft
Mounting Bracket
B) Ramp Type

Sensors
Ramp arrangement
Differential Expansion
Driver
Differential Ramp target
Expansion type
Monitor

Rotor

Sensor
Rotor
Ramp target
type
Rotor
Complementary input type
Valve Position

The Main Steam Control (Throttle) Valve position


indication is actually a measurement of the amount a
valve is open. This measurement is usually made
with a Linear Variable Differential Transformer
(LVDT).
Valve Position

Actuator
LVDT
Transmitter
LVDT Valve Position
Monitor
Main
Steam

Valve

Rotor
Speed

This is the speed at which the Turbine is rotating and it is


indicated in revolutions per minute.
Turbine speed is measured by observing a multi-toothed
gear wheel located inside the front pedestal.
Shaft rotational speed

Oscillator-
Extension Demodulator Speed Monitor
cable (Driver) (Tachometer)

Sensor

Rotor
Speed Measurement
ACCELERATION

Acceleration is usually monitored during startup to


prevent over-torquing the rotors, prior to line
synchronization.
Once the generator has been synchronized and is being
controlled by load dispatchers the acceleration rate is not
monitored.
Acceleration rate measurements use a speed input to
derive its output.
Speed Measurement

Monitor

Mounting bracket

Gear Wheel

sensor
Housing
Phase

Phase or phase angle, is a measure of the relationship


of how one vibration signal relates to another vibration
signal and is commonly used to calculate the placement
of a balance weight.
This parameter is not usually displayed continuously but
is monitored periodically.
Installation involves locating or installing a once-per-turn
event such as a key or notch that the Eddy Probe will
view.
Phase Reference
Its a reference pulse used for analysis & Diagnosis purpose

sensor

Notch for reference or


Key way
Bearing Temperature
Bearing temperature is a measure of the how hot a
bearing is operating. It may be due to overloading, mis-
alignment, improper lubricant pressure and/or flow.
Nearly all turbine generator bearings are installed with
bearing temperature sensors. These sensors may be
Thermocouples or RTDs.
Turbovisory Parameters

Temperature of bearings is a measure of the


how hot a bearing is operating. It may be due to
Overloading
mis-alignment
improper lubricant pressure and/or flow.
Nearly all turbine generator bearings were
originally installed with bearing temperature
sensors. These sensors may be thermocouples
or RTDs.
TSI

SENSORS
Proximity Probe

One very common type of proximity probe is known


commercially as a "Proximiter", which is a trademark of
the Bentley Nevada Company.
The Proximity Probe, also called an "Eddy Current
Probe" or "Displacement Transducer", is a permanently
mounted unit, and requires a signal-conditioning
amplifier to generate an output voltage proportional to
the distance between the transducer end and the shaft.
It operates on a magnetic principle, and is thus sensitive
to magnetic anomalies in the shaft. Care should be taken
that the shaft is not magnetized to assure the output
signal is not contaminated.
Eddy Probe System
A Eddy Probe system consists of a matched component
system: a pickup, an extension cable, and a signal sensor.
The signal sensor generates a high frequency oscillating
RF signal that is sent through the extension cable to the
pickup tip.
The pickup tip, having a wound coil of fine wire, radiates a
electromagnetic field.
As the radiated field is bisected by the rotor surface, eddy
currents are created on the rotor surface.
As the rotor surface moves closer to the pickup tip, a
greater amount of eddy currents are created inversely
proportional to the gap between the surface and the
pickup tip.
The signal sensor contains a demodulator which
measures the increase in eddy currents, and generates an
equivalent DC voltage proportional to the gap.
Proximity Probes

Gap

When installed, Eddy Current Probes must be gapped


properly. Gap should be set for -12.0 VDC, this
corresponds to an approximate mechanical gap of
0.060" or 60 mils.
The voltage method of gapping the Probe is recommended
over mechanical gapping.
Principle of Eddy Current Sensors

Driver

Sensor
Coil
Conditione
Bridge Demodulat Amplifier
.
`r
Circuit or
.
Output
Linerizer
.
Oscillator
.
Magnetic
Flux
Eddy
Current

Target(Metal) Voltage
Displacement
Field Installation

Driver
Sensor
Extension cable
Driver

Junction box
Proximity/Eddy probe

Whenever the expected range exceeds a single


transducer range a complimentary system is required. A
complimentary system utilizes two (2) Eddy Probe
transducers viewing the opposing faces of the collar or
ramp. The complimentary system extends the operating
full range of the system. This system operates such that
as the collar or ramp moves out of the operating range of
one transducer it moves into the operating range of the
second transducer.
As Eddy Probe systems operate on the proximity theory
of operation, they are not effected by oil or other non-
conductive material that may come between the target
area and the transducer.
Eddy Probes

Calibration

All Eddy Probe systems (Probe, Cable and Oscillator


Demodulator) should be calibrated prior to being installed.
This can be done by using a Static Calibrator, 24 VDC
Power Supply and a Digital Volt Meter.

The Eddy Probe is installed in the tester with the target set
against the Eddy Probe tip. Target attached is then moved
away from the Eddy Probe in 0.005" or 5 mil increments.
The voltage reading is recorded and graphed at each
increment. Eddy probe will produce a voltage change of
1.0 VDC 0.05 VDC for each 5 mils of gap change while
the target is within the linear range.
INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY SENSORS

Inductive proximity sensors are used for non-contact


detection of metallic objects. Their operating principle is
based on a coil and oscillator that creates an
electromagnetic field in the close surroundings of the
sensing surface.
The presence of a metallic object in the operating area
causes a dampening of the oscillation amplitude.
The rise or fall of amplitude of such oscillation is
identified, which is inversely proportional to the gap.
LVDT
Theory of Operation

LVDTs are electromagnetic devices that have


three coils of wire wound on a hollow tube and a
metal rod moving inside the hollow tube.
The center coil of wire is excited by a supply
voltage which induces a voltage in the other coils
as the rod or plunger travels throughout its range.
When the plunger is centered in its range the
induced voltage of the two secondary coils is
equal in magnitude, but opposite polarity.
As the plunger moves to either side of the center
position the voltage of one of the secondary coils
increases while the other secondary coil
experiences a decreased voltage.
VELOCITY TRANSDUCERS

Velocity Transducers basically comprise of a Siesmic


mass which as a result of the vibration, allows a magnet
to move relative to a coil in which is generated an e.m.f.
Either the magnet or the coil may be fixed to the
vibrating body.
A typical detector consists of permanent magnet rigidly
fixed to the casing with coils arranged as siesmic mass.
Dial Gauge
TSI

Monitoring System
Typical shinkawa TSI
HMI
TSI
Typical system configuration
MEAS1

MEAS2
71.0 Micron
VM-5 MONITORS
42.6 Micron
MEAS1 GAP MEAS2
100% 100% Feature & Benefits:
90% 90%

80%
Simultaneous Display of complete
80%
Information on Single back light LCD
70% 70% display.
Digital and Bar graph Indication of
60% 60%
measured value.
50% 50% Alarm Setting Display.
40% 40%
Gap Voltage Display for displacement
sensor unit.
30% 30% Exchangeable Display Scale.
20
Gap Alarm Range Display.
20%
%

10% 10% DISPLAY OF ALL PARAMETERS


0% 0% WITHOUT ANY OPERATION.
TSI
TSI
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