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CHOOSING A LINE SIZE

AND WALL THICKNESS


Outcomes
1. Know the LINE SELECTION
CRITERIA
2. Use Right STEPS TO
CHOOSE A LINE SIZE AND
WALL THICKNESS
3. Apply in an EXAMPLE
CALCULATIONS
International Standards:

The international standard for Pipeline Transportation Systems is


ISO 13623. Currently, this is in final draft form

American National Standards:

In the absence of statutory requirements, or ISO standards, it is common


industry practice worldwide, to design and operate pipelines in accordance
with American National Standard codes
ANSI/ASME B31.4 : for Liquid Pipelines
ANSI/ASME B31.8 : for Gas Pipelines
ANSI/ASME B31.3 : Process Piping

Other National Standards:

Some countries have developed their own national standards. These include:
British Standard BS 8010
Dutch Standard 3650
Canadian Standard CSA Z662

Note:
These are normally applicable only in these specific countries. It is expected
that once the ISO standard has been issued, these countries will formally
adopt the ISO
SELECTION CRITERIA

S E L E C T IO N C R IT E R IA

L IN E S IZ E W A L L T H IC K N E S S

V E L O C IT Y PRESSURE DROP STANDARDS AND


R E Q U IR E M E N T S

G A S L IN E S A N S I B 3 1 .1 A N S I B 3 1 .3 A N S I B 3 1 .4 A N S I B 3 1 .8

L IQ U ID L IN E S D E S I G N F A C T O R ,F

T W O -P H A S E L I N E T E M P D E R A T IN G
F A C T O R ,T

L O C A T IO N C L A S S
1 ,2 ,3 A N D 4
LINE SIZE CRITERIA
PRESSURE DROP
Important for long flowline
Important for flowline between equipment
operating at the same or nearly the same pressure
Equivalent length and elevation changes to be
considered
VELOCITY
Below maximum to prevent erosion, noise or
water hammer
Above minimum to minimize surging and
transporting sand or solid particles
LINE SIZE CRITERIA (contd..)

EROSIONAL FLOW Ve , Erosional Velocity.

How it occurs? How to determine?


Liquid droplets impact API RP14E or BS 8010-Part 3
the wall with enough suggests:
force to erode the
metal and exposing it C
to the fluid and allowing Ve
( m )1 2
more corrosion to occur
C = Empirical constant.
= 122 continuous services
= 152.5 non-continuous
services
LINE SIZE CRITERIA (contd..)
VELOCITY
LIQUID LINE GAS LINE
Max velocity 15 ft/s Max velocity 60-80 ft/s (20-
(5m/s) and min velocity 25 m/s) and min velocity is
is 3 ft/s (1m/s) 10-15 ft/s (3 5 m/s)
Sized to minimize liquid settling
Sized to maintain a
out and effect of noise and
velocity sufficient to corrosion
keep solid particles from Pressure less than 1000 psi,
depositing erosional velocity is not
Fluid velocity in oil lines: significant
Gas velocity in gas lines:
Q1 Qg TZ
V 0.012
d2 V 60
d 2P
PRESSURE DROP CRITERIA, P -Liq

Liquid Flow Equation

P < 10%P1
PRESSURE DROP CRITERIA, P -Gas

Weymouth Equation

For small diameter, shot-run


pipes

Within production facilities where


Reynolds Number are expected to be high
Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner
and Leffler
0.51
P2 P2
Q g 0.028.E .0.1961 2 .d 2.53
S .Z .T .L

PRESSURE DROP CRITERIA, P

Panhandle B Equation
0.51
P P 2 2
Qg 0.028.E P
P

1
.0.961
2
.d 2.53
S .Z .T .L
E = Efficiency factor
P P2 P1 S = Specific gravity
Z = Compressibility factor
T = Absolute temperature
L = Pipeline length
For large diameter, long-run pipes
P1= Inlet pressure
d = Internal diameter
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
STANDARDS AND STANDARDS AND
REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS
ANSI B 31.3 - Power ANSI B 31.4 Liquid
Piping. This standard deals Petroleum Transportation
with steam and is required by Piping System. This
the U.S Coast Guard on all standard is normally used in
rigs onshore oil production
ANSI B 31.3 Chemical facilities
Plant and Petroleum ANSI B 31.8 Gas
Refinery Piping. This Transmission and
standard is required by the Distribution Piping
US Minerals Management System. This standard is
Service for offshore platform normally used for gas lines in
in federal, state waters and onshore production facilities
offshore facilities in other and when transporting or
parts of the world distributing gas.
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
(contd..)
ANSI B 31.3
Pd o 100
t tc tth 100 Tol
2 ( SE PY )
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
(contd..)
ANSI B 31.4

Pd o
t
2( FS )
P = pipeline pressure
do = outside diameter
F = 0.72, for oil line
S = Min. yield stress
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
(contd..)
ANSI B 31.8

Pd o
t
2( FETS )
Determination of Wall
Thickness:

The most important element in pipeline mechanical


design

Wall thickness - function of the:


pipelines maximum allowable operating pressure
the yield strength of the steel pipe used.

P and t determine:
the number and locations of pump or compressor stations
along the pipeline. If a higher pipeline operating
pressure is chosen, the power at each station can be
greater, and the stations can be farther apart. This
benefit is offset, however, by the additional expense of
thicker wall pipe.
The internal pressure of the transport fluid induces a circumferential
stress in the pipe wall, which is commonly known as Hoop Stress
Hoop stress can be calculated by using a simplified formula, usually
known as Barlows formula as illustrated in Figure below . Barlows
formula, however, is not the most accurate formula to calculate pipeline
wall stress. It overestimates the maximum hoop stress. But most
pipeline codes specify that Barlows formula be used in pipeline design.
Usually, Barlows formula is re-written in another form to derive an
expression, as shown in Figure below , which is used to calculate the
required wall thickness.
This formula takes into account an additional parameter,
called a design factor, F. The purpose of using a design
factor is to keep the circumferential stress of the pipe at a
fraction of the yield stress, as a safety precaution.
Different values of design factor, F, are used depending
on the type of service and pipeline route.
For oil pipelines, a design factor of 0.72 is used for all
locations.
For gas pipelines, a design factor of 0.72 is used for
remote and sparsely populated areas, such as deserts and
tundra. For low populated areas, such as fringe areas of
towns, industrial areas, a design factor of 0.60 is used.
For well-populated areas, such as residential and
industrial areas and shopping centers, a design factor of
0.50 is used. And for areas where there are multistory
buildings, or where traffic is heavy, a design factor of 0.40
is used.
For offshore risers, a design factor of 0.50 or 0.60 is used
depending on local regulations.
Pipe / Steel properties

The minimum yield


strength is the key
property of steel used
in pipeline design. This
figure shows the
relationship between
stress and strain. The
minimum yield
strength is defined as
the tensile stress
required to produce a
total elongation of 0.5
%.
The most common industry standard for steel pipeline is the API 5L.
This standard specification covers both normal ( Grade B with yield
strength of 35,000 psi/240 Mpa) and high strength steels ( X-42 to
X-80 with yield strenth of 42,000 psi/290 Mpa to 80,000 psi/550
Mpa).
The most common grades used in pipeline design
are grades X42 through X65. Lower grades, such
as Grade B, and higher grades are used in some
cases. When using higher grades, problems have
been encountered, such as weldability and
hydrogen embrittlement caused by cathodic
protection.
Several grades of pipe are commercially available, offering a
range of strengths, such as Grade X42 through X46, X52,
X60, X65, and up to X70.
Standard nominal pipe
sizes range from 4-
inch (100 mm) up to
80-inch (2000 mm) in
diameter. In
petroleum industry,
60-inch is the largest
diameter installed to
date. The standard API
pipe diameters for
both nominal and
actual are shown in
the figure
Above 4-inch (100 mm), the standard size step is 2-inch (50 mm). For
pipe 14-inch (350 mm) and above, the pipe outside diameter equals
nominal size. For smaller sizes, the actual outside diameter is larger
than the nominal size. Pipe manufacturers usually provide a range of
diameters, wall thickness and grade combinations.
and Figure below are examples, showing pipe specifications for a 16-
inch (400-mm) pipe with different wall thickness and grades.
Lower grade pipe, up to grade X52, generally
obtains adequate strength from normalized
carbon steels. For grades X52 and upwards
increased strength requires either additions of
other strengthening elements, rolling techniques,
or quenching and tempering.
STEPS TO CHOOSE A LINE SIZE AND
WALL THICKNESS

i. Determine the max and min velocity


allowable for specific fluid types
ii. Find pressure drop of the system
iii. Determine the I.D of pipe relative to the
velocity
iv. Determine pressure drop in the pipeline
v. Find the wall thickness based on the
standard
vi. Choose the appropriate pipeline size from
the standard
EXAMPLE CALCULATION
PROBLEM:

A gas with specific gravity of 0.85, viscosity of 0.013 cp and


compressibility factor of 0.67 flows at a rate of 23 MMscfd in a
pipeline. The pipeline is laid in the outskirt of a city. The inlet
pressure of the gas is 900 psi at a temperature of 80 oF. The length
of the pipeline is 7000 ft. The gas flows to a dehydrator that operates
at 800 psi. The rated pressure of the pipeline is 1480 psi. determine
the appropriate line size and wall thickness based on ANSI B 31.8.
Gas Viscosity is 0.013 cP. Pipe materials : ASTM A106 Seamless
Grade B with absolute roughness, = 0.004, with Efficiency Factor : 0.95
EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Pressure Drop Calc
Select Model - General Equations (Both),
Hazen William (Liq), Panhandle &
Weymouth (Gas)
1. Reynold No

Liquid Gas
General Equation
Panhandle B Equation
0.51
P P
2 2
Qg 0.028.E 1
.0.961
2
.d 2.53
S .Z .T .L

P < 10%P1
Line Size & Wall Thickness
GAS LINE
Max velocity 60-80 ft/s (20-
25 m/s) and min velocity is
10-15 ft/s (3 5 m/s)
Sized to minimize liquid settling
out and effect of noise and
corrosion
Pressure less than 1000 psi,
erosional velocity is not
significant
Gas velocity in gas lines:

Qg TZ
V 60
d 2P
Based on P calculated.
Calculate Pd o
t
2( FETS )