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Lecture # 3

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Contents of the lecture
Water
Earths water supply & distribution
Hydrologic cycle
Pollution of water
Sources of water pollution
Types of water pollution
Types of water pollutants
Acid rain
Water borne diseases
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Water is essential to life on earth.

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Three forms of Water.

Solids: When water becomes very cold and freezes, it will


change from a liquid to solid. It has a definite form and
shape.

Liquids: When water takes the shape of its container, it is


in a liquid form.

Gases: When water is seen in a vapor form and has no


definite size or shape, it is in a gas form.

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Water Resources
Sea water

surface water

Ground water

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Sea water
Seawater or salt water is water from a sea or ocean. On average,
seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L).
This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of
seawater has approximately 35 grams of dissolved salts. Average
density at the surface is 1.025 g/ml.

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Surface Water
Water naturally open to the atmosphere; water from lakes, ponds,
reservoirs, rivers, streams, etc.
Although the only natural input to any surface water system is
precipitation. The total quantity of water in that system is also
dependent on factors like storage capacity in lakes, the permeability of
the soil beneath, the runoff characteristics of the land in the nearby
land, the timing of precipitation and local evaporation rates. All of
these factors also affect the proportions of water loss.

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Ground water
Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface
in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A body of
permeable rock which can contain or transmit groundwater is called
aquifer.
The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock
become completely saturated with water is called the water table.

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The earth's water supply

If the world's water supply were only 26 gallons,


our usable supply of fresh water would be only
2.5 teaspoons!
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Worlds water Supply
Only about 0.014% of the earth's total volume of water is
easily available to us as

Soil moisture
Atmospheric water vapor
Lakes, streams and rivers

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Interesting Fact!
More than half of the world's water supply is contained
in just nine countries:

United States, Canada, Colombia, Brazil, the


Democratic Republic of Congo, Russia, India,
China and Indonesia

Over 1.5 billion people do not have access to clean, safe


water.

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Water consumption
We use water for drinking,
irrigation, industrial purposes
and energy production. Water
use
agriculture and energy
production - 80%
industry and public use - 20%

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Hydrologic cycle - water cycle

It describes the continuous


movement of water on, above or
below the surface of the earth
Powered by energy from the sun
Hydrologic cycle purifies water

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Pollution of water
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Water Pollution

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Where do Water pollutants come from?
Point Sources A single definable source of the pollution,
e.g. a factory, a sewage plant, etc. Point-source pollution is
usually monitored and regulated.

Non-point sources No single source, but a wide range of


sources, e.g. runoff from urban areas, or farmland. Non-
point sources are much more difficult to monitor and
control.

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Types of water pollutants
Pathogens
Organic pollutants
Inorganic pollutants

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Pathogens
Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. Coliform
bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of water pollution.
Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters which have
caused human health problems include:

Burkholderia pseudo mallei


Cryptosporidium parvum
Giardia lamblia
Salmonella
Norovirus and other viruses
Parasitic worms (helminths)

High levels of pathogens may result from inadequately


treated sewage discharges into the surface water and poorly managed
livestock operation
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Organic pollutants
Detergents
Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such
as chloroform
Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances like
fats and grease
Insecticides and herbicides
Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels and lubricants
Tree and bush debris from logging operations
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents from
improper storage.
Chlorinated solvents
Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetics
Pharmaceutical drugs

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Inorganic pollutant
Acidity caused by industrial discharges
Ammonia from food processing waste
Industrial by-products
Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphateswhich are found in
storm water runoff from agriculture
Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites and logging
Heavy metals

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Non-persistent (degradable) water pollutants
These compounds can be broken down by chemical
reactions or by natural bacteria into simple substances such
as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
If the pollution load is high, this process can lead to low
oxygen levels.
E.g. paper, leaves, leather, cardboard, some plastics,
clothes.

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Persistent (Non-degradable) water pollutants

This is the most rapidly growing type of pollution


This includes substances that degrade very slowly or
cannot be broken down at all;
They may remain in the aquatic environment for years or
longer periods of time.
Some pesticides, industrial chemicals (like
hexachlorobenzene), radioactive materials and metals,
glass etc.

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Pollution of Water

1. Surface water pollution


2. Groundwater pollution
3. Microbiological pollution
4. Oxygen depletion pollution
5. Nutrients pollution
6. Suspended matter pollution
7. Chemical pollution
8. Thermal pollution
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Pollution of Water

1. Surface water pollution

It is the visible form of pollution and


can be seen on waters in lakes,
streams, rivers. E.g. plastic bottles,
shopping bags and trash from human
consumption

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Pollution of Water

2. Groundwater pollution

Effects drinking water and aquifers


below the soil caused by highly toxic
chemicals and pesticides from farming

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Pollution of Water

3. Microbiological pollution

Natural form of water pollution caused


by microorganisms. E.g. bacteria and
viruses cause serious diseases.

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Pollution of Water

4. Oxygen depletion pollution

Some microorganisms in water use up


the available oxygen, called as oxygen
depletion which results in lower
oxygen.

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Pollution of Water

5. Nutrients pollution

Found in waste water and


fertilizers. They can cause excess
vegetation in water such as algae
and weeds which use up oxygen
in water hurting marine life.

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Pollution of Water

6. Suspended matter pollution

It occurs when pollutants enter the


water and do not mix with water
molecules. These suspended matter
forms fine silt in water.

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Pollution of Water

7. Chemical pollution

There is a lot of chemical run off from


factories into the water bodies which
includes metals, solvents, pesticides
from industries. They add poison to
wildlife in water.

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Pollution of Water

8. Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in


the temperature of a natural body of
water caused by human influence.
Elevated water temperatures
decreases oxygen levels, which can
kill fish, and can alter food
chain composition, reduce species
biodiversity.

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Acid rain
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is
unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels
of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on
plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is
caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide,
which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to
produce acids. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced
naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is
produced by volcanic eruptions. The chemicals in acid rain
can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such
as bridges, and erosion of stone statues.

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Chemical reactions
In the gas phase sulfur dioxide is oxidized by reaction with the
hydroxyl radical via an intermolecular reaction
SO2 + OH HOSO2
which is followed by:
HOSO2 + O2 HO2 + SO3
In the presence of water, sulfur trioxide (SO3) is converted rapidly to
sulfuric acid:
SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)

Nitrogen dioxide reacts with OH to form nitric acid:


NO2 + OH HNO3

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Acid deposition
Wet deposition

Wet deposition of acids occurs when any form of precipitation (rain, snow,
and so on.) removes acids from the atmosphere and delivers it to the
Earth's surface. This can result from the deposition of acids produced in
the raindrops.

Dry deposition

Acid deposition also occurs via dry deposition in the absence of


precipitation. This can be responsible for as much as 20 to 60% of total
acid deposition. This occurs when particles and gases stick to the ground,
plants or other surfaces.

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Consequence of Acid Rain

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Destroys stone work!

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Destroys forests!

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Effects plants!

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Harms aquatic life!

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Damage buildings!

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Water borne diseases
Diseases caused by the ingestion of water contaminated with
pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites include:
cholera
typhoid
Dysentery
Other diarrheal diseases

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How???
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1. Conserve water
Turn off the tap when water isn't necessary and try to take shorter
showers if possible. This not only helps prevent water shortages, but
reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment.

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2. Don't throw litter into sinks
Paints, oils and other similar items should be disposed of
in the trash.

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3. Help clean up litter in water-filled areas

This includes beaches, lakes, oceans. Make sure it is safe


to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.

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4. Contain and compost yard waste.
Yard waste that sits around can easily wash into storm drains when it rains.
Even if the waste doesn't contain chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides,
the introduction of large quantities of sticks, leaves, and grass clippings can
overwhelm waterways with unhealthy quantities of nutrients.

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