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Domain Eukarya:

Kingdom Animalia
Learning outcomes
Describe the unique characteristics
of Kingdom Animalia.
State the classification of Animalia
into nine phyla.
Describe the unique

Unique characteristics characteristics of


Kingdom Animalia

Nutritional mode = heterotrophs (herbivors,


omnivors, carnivors)

Cells structure = eukaryotes (true nucleus,


organelles with membrane, no cell wall)

Reproduction = mostly sexually reproduce

Movement = move from place to place by


specialized muscle cells

Organization = multicellular, few to many cells


Describe the unique

Unique characteristics characteristics of


Kingdom Animalia

Diploid
Eukaryote
Animals digest their food
Glycogen as carbohydrate
storage
Phylogenetic Tree
1 : Tissue true tissue (eumetazoa)/ no true
tissue (parazoa)

2 : Body symmetry Asymmetry/Radial/


Bilateral

3 : Body cavity acoelomate(no)/


pseudocoelomate (false)/ coelomate (true)

4 : Pattern of development
protostome/deuterostome

5 : Segmentation segmented/ not


segmented
Body Symmetry
Germ layers
Diploblastic Triploblastic

2 germ layers: 3 germ layers:


- ectoderm - ectoderm
- endoderm - mesoderm
- endoderm
Body Cavity
Acoelomates
NO coelom @ body cavity

cavity
Body Cavity
Pseudocoelomates
Coelom is NOT completely lined by
mesoderm
Body Cavity
Coelomates
Coelom is completely lined by
mesoderm
Pattern of Development

Protostome Deuterostome
State the
9 Phyla of Animalia classification of
Animalia into nine
1. Phylum Porifera phyla

2. Phylum Coelenterata/Cnidaria

3. Phylum Platyhelminthes

4. Phylum Nematoda

5. Phylum Annelida

6. Phylum Arthropoda

7. Phylum Mollusca

8. Phylum Echinodermata

9. Phylum Chordata
Learning outcomes
Describe the unique characteristics
of Porifera
Phylum Porifera
Eg: Sponges
(Leucosolenia sp.)
Describe the unique
characteristics of

Unique characteristics Porifera

Many pores (porocytes/ ostia)

Asymmetry
No true tissue (digestion within
cells)

Almost all are sessile


Describe the unique
characteristics of

Unique characteristics Porifera

Hermaphrodites (male+female)

Reproduce by sexually and asexually

Suspension feeders/ filter feeders

Body has endoskeleton made up of


spicules. Spicules provide structural
support & deter predators
Water system in Porifera
Sponges have collar cells, or choanocytes,
flagellate cells that create water current to
bring foods to the cells also trap and
phagocytose food particles
Amoebocytes in mesohyl, pick up food from
choanocytes, digest it and carry the
nutrients to the cells that need them
Amoebocytes also secrete spicules
Amoebocytes develop into sperm and eggs
Choanocytes propel
the water through
the pores of the
sponges into a
central body cavity
(spongocoel) and
then out of the
sponges via osculum.
Water in through porocytes/ ostia
and out through larger opening
called osculum

Create water current that brings


food to the cells
Learning outcomes
Describe the unique characteristics of
Coelenterata
State three common classes:
i. Class Hydrozoa (hydra, Obelia sp.)
ii. Class Scyphozoa (jellyfish, Aurelia sp.)
iii. Class Anthozoa (sea anemone, Actinia sp.)
Phylum Cnidaria/ Coelenterata
Describe the unique
characteristics of

Unique Characteristics Coelenterata

Radial symmetry
True tissue (eumetazoa)- diploblastics
Gastrovascular cavity has a single opening.
Both serves as mouth and anus.
Have cnidocytes (stinging cells). Functions:
self-defense and capture prey
Describe the unique
characteristics of
Coelenterata
Unique Characteristics
Dimorphism - 2 body forms
- Polyp (Tubular organism closed
at one end with a mouth
surrounded by tentacles at the
other end)
- Medusa (free-swimming
organism with a mouth at the end
of a central projection, jellylike
umbrella shaped)
Defense & Capture prey
Tentacles have
specialized cells, called
cnidocytes that contain
stinging organelles
called nematocysts

When stimulated,
nematocyst releases a
coiled, hollow thread,
puncturing and injecting
poison into prey
Classification of Cnidaria

Class Hydrozoa (hydra, Obelia sp.)

Class Scyphozoa (jellyfish, Aurelia


sp.)

Class Anthozoa (sea anemone,


Actinia sp.)
Hydrozoa- alternation of polyp and medusa
stages in most species (polyp form only in
Hydra)

Scyphozoa- free-swimming medusa most


prominent form; polyp stage often reduced

Anthozoa- solitary or colonial polyps; in most no


medusa stage
Dimorphism in the life cycle
of Obelia sp.

1) Polyp generation is
sessile.

2) Polyps are equipped


with tentacles that are
specialised for feeding.

3) Feeding tentacles
known as hydranth.
Dimorphism in the life cycle
of Obelia sp.

4) Polyps without
tentacles are specialised
for reproduction.

5) Reproductive polyps
known as blastostyle.

6) Reproductive polyps
produce medusae by
budding asexually.
Dimorphism in the life cycle
of Obelia sp.

6) Reproductive polyps
produce medusae by
budding asexually.

7) Free-swimming medusae
reproduce sexually.

8) The egg and sperm fuse


forming zygote.
9) Zygote develops into ciliated planula larva.

10) Larva develops into polyp that forms new


colony.

11) Colony grows as new polyps bud and remain


attached.
Life cycle of Obelia sp.
Feeding Polyps

Reproductive Polyps