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Aileen Concepcion M.

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that
causes lifelong infection in humans. HCMV has a
prevalence of 55-100% within the human population,
depending on different socioeconomic and geographical

Primary HCMV infection is generally asymptomatic in

healthy hosts but can cause severe and sometimes fatal
disease in immunocompromised individuals and neonates.
HCMV is the leading infectious cause of congenital
abnormalities in the Western world, affecting 1-2.5% of all
live Maria
Gabrielle Stack, births.
Stacey, Cardiff University, UK
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
HCMV intrauterine infection and can cause significant
morbidity, including low birth weight, hearing loss, visual
impairment, microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, and
varying degrees of mental retardation.

HCMV also causes serious disease in organ transplant

recipients and AIDS patients, either after primary infection
or reactivation of latent infection. In immunocompromised
individuals, HCMV infection is often controlled by early
treatment with antivirals but problems exist such as
toxicity, the emergence of antiviral-resistant HCMV strains
Gabrielle Stack, the availability
Stacey, of antiviral drugs in developing
Cardiff University, UK
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)

A complex -herpesvirus
Large genome (230kb)
Slow replicating
Restricted host range
A hallmark of all herpesviruses is the ability to establish latent
During LATENCY, viral genomes are maintained in absence of viral
replication = No overt disease
The virus exits latency by REACTIVATION resulting from poorly
characterized stimuli = Disease in immunocompromised host
While once considered benign, the latent infection is associated with
age-related immune senescence and increased risk of
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
Virion Structure

200 nm DNA core
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)
Via body fluids: CMV has been cultured from multiple
sites, including urine, blood, throat, cervix, semen, stool,
tears, and breast milk.

Typical owl's eye inclusion seen on HE stain.
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)

Gabrielle Stack, Maria Stacey, Cardiff University, UK
Gene: UL16
Protein: Protein UL16
Function: Plays a role in escape from host immune
response. Blocks the interaction between the host
KLRK1 receptor with the ligands ULBP1 and ULBP2.
ULBPs activate multiple signaling pathways in
primary NK cells, resulting in the production of
cytokines and chemokines. The sequestration of
diverse KLRK1 ligands in the endoplasmic
reticulum and cis-Golgi apparatus of cells by UL16
inhibits the activation of NK cells