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Year 11 PDHPE

Core 2 Body in Motion


Section 1
The Body in Motion

After completing this unit, you will be able to demonstrate knowledge of:
how the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and
respond to movement
what the relationship is between physical fitness, training and movement
efficiency
how biomechanical principles influence movement.
2.1 How the bodys musculoskeletal and
cardiorespiratory systems influence and
respond to movement
Anatomy is the study of the structures of the body and their relationships. In
anatomy, descriptions of the body assume that the body is in a specific
position, called the anatomical position. In this position the person is standing
upright, facing forward with their hands down by their sides with their palms
facing forward.
The body can also be divided into planes. The three planes of the body are:
sagittal plane vertical plane that divides the body into left and right
frontal plane vertical plane that divides the body into front and back
transverse plane horizontal plane that divides the body into top and bottom.
Directional terms are used to locate various body structures in relation to
each other
Anatomical position
When determining a position on the
body, use the anatomical position as
you see on the left.

The following slide details directional


terms.
Skeletal System
The roles of the skeletal system are:
support bones provide a framework for the body
protection bones protect many internal organs from injury
movement skeletal muscles attach to bones; when muscles pull on
bones they produce movement
storage of minerals bone tissue stores several minerals, particularly
calcium and phosphorous
blood cell production red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
are formed in the marrow
storage of energy a secondary reserve of chemical energy is stored in
the marrow.
Bones
Bones are made up of:
Compact bone contains few spaces and forms the external layer of all bones
Spongy bone contains marrow, which produces blood cells.
There are four principal types of bones based on shape long, short, flat and
irregular:
Long bones have greater length than width and consist of a shaft; they
consist mostly of compact bone encasing spongy bone (e.g. femur, tibia, fibula,
phalanges, humerus, radius and ulna)
Short bones are somewhat cube shaped and nearly equal in length and width;
they are spongy bone except for the surface, which is a thin layer of compact
bone (e.g. carpals and tarsals)
Flat bones are generally thin and composed of two thin plates of compact
bone encasing spongy bone (e.g. cranial bones, sternum, ribs and scapula)
Irregular bones have complex shapes; they also vary in the amount of spongy
and compact bone (e.g. vertebrae and some facial bones).
Two other, classified by location:
Sesamoid: small bones embedded in tendons where pressure develops, for
example, the patella (kneecap)
Sutural bones: Small bones located between the joints of some cranial bones
Major bones involved in movement
The adult skeleton consists of 206 bones grouped into two
divisions: the Axial skeleton and the Appendicular
skeleton.
The bones of the axial skeleton lie around the axis: skull
bones, breastbone, ribs and bones of the backbone.
The appendicular skeleton contains the bones of the upper
and lower limbs plus the girdles that connect the
extremities to the axial skeleton.
Key:
Blue
bones-
axial
skeleton
Cream
bones-
Appendic
ular
skeleton
Vertebral
column protects
the spinal cord,
and consists of
24 movable
vertebrae in
three sections
(7 cervical, 12
thoracic, 5
lumbar), with 5
fused bones in
the sacrum and
4 fused bones to
form the
coccyx.
Structure and function of joints
A joint (articulation) is the point at which bones meet and
articulate with each other.
Joints allow movement and hold the skeleton together.
Although they are the weakest part of the skeleton, they
still provide great resistance to any forces trying to push the
bones out of alignment.
Function and stability of a joint is determined by:
The way in which the articulating bones fit together.
The flexibility of the connective tissue binding the joint.
The position of the muscles, tendons and ligaments around
the joints.
Synovial Joints (freely movable joint)
Most joints in the body are synovial joints. They have common features that allow for
movement. These include:
Articular cartilage covers the end of the bone providing cushioning and reducing
friction during movement
Synovial cavity space that separates the two articulating bones.
Ligaments join bone to bone
Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant with the synovial cavity
Joint capsule encloses the cavity and contains the fluid
Fibrous capsule encloses the bones and synovial cavity
Synovial membrane secretes fluid into the joint
Meniscus inward growing cartilage that absorbs shock, pressure and enhances
stability
Bursae saclike structures that are strategically placed to alleviate friction
Tendon join muscle to bone.
Synovial joint

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sW3-9zM9ohE
Types of Synovial Joints
Synovial joints can be classified into six categories:
Gliding joint: Articulating bones are usually flat. Side to side and back and forth
movements are permitted. Gliding joints include the carpals, tarsals and vertebrae.
Hinge joint: The convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another.
Movement is in a single direction allowing flexion and extension. Hinge joints include
knee, elbow and ankle.
Pivot joint: A rounded surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by
another. Primary movement is rotation. An example is the atlas of the neck rotating.
Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint: An oval shaped bone fits into an elliptical cavity of
another bone. It allows side-to-side and back-and-forth movement. The joint at the
wrist is an ellipsoid joint.
Saddle joint: One bone is saddle shaped while the other bone is shaped like a rider.
Movement is side to side and back and forth. The thumb is a saddle joint.
Ball-and-socket joint: Consists of a ball-like surface that fits into a cuplike
depression of another. They allow flexion and extension, adduction and abduction and
rotation. The shoulder also allows circumduction. The hip and shoulder are the only
examples in the body.
Joint actions
Joint actions are as follows:
flexion movement at the joint reduces the angle between the bones
extension movement at the joint increases the angle between the bones
hyperextension and hyper flexion makes the joint go beyond its normal range of motion
circumduction the distal end of the body moves in a circle
rotation the movement of a bone around its axis
abduction movement of a bone away from the midline of the body
adduction movement of a bone towards the midline of the body
dorsiflexion the foot flexes toward the shin
plantarflexion the foot points toward the ground
supination movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned anteriorly
pronation movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned posteriorly
inversion movement of the sole of the foot inward
eversion movement of the sole of the foot outward
View clip www.youtube.com/watch?v=q84mnY-6ov8

(ensure it is watched up to 5.35 and attempt the test at the end)


Practical application
Movement Major Bones Joints Joint action

Push up- Up phase Humerus, ulna, Shoulder (ball and Shoulder flexion
radius, carpals, socket), elbow (hinge Elbows extension
metacarpals, joint), carpals into Wrists hyper extension
phalanges, scapula, metacarpals Phalanges extension
clavicle, vertebrae (ellipsoidal joint),
carpals into
phalanges (ellipsoidal
joint)

Push up- Down phase

Squats Up phase

Squats- Down phase


Movement Major Bones Joints Joint action**

Shooting a netball goal Phase 1: Phase 1: Phase 1:


(focus on arms). Focus on
preparation, action, Phase 2: Phase 2: Phase 2:
follow through phase.
Phase 3: Phase 3: Phase 3:

Kicking a ball on the Phase 1: Phase 1: Phase 1:


ground (focus on kicking
foot). Focus on Phase 2: Phase 2: Phase 2:
preparation, action,
follow through phase. Phase 3: Phase 3: Phase 3:
Movement Major Bones Joints Joint action

Push up- Down phase Humerus, ulna, radius, Shoulder (ball and Shoulder flexion
carpals, metacarpals, socket), elbow (hinge Elbows flexion
phalanges, scapula, joint), carpals into Wrists hyper extension
clavicle, vertebrae metacarpals Phalanges extension
(ellipsoidal joint),
metacarpals into
phalanges (ellipsoidal
joint)

Squats- up phase Femur, pelvic girdle, Hip (ball and socket), Hips extension, knees
tibia, fibula, tarsals, knee (hinge joint), extension, tarsals flexion,
metatarsals and tarsals into metatarsals phalanges extension
phalanges (ellipsoidal joint),
metatarsals into
phalanges (ellipsoidal
joint)

Squats- down phase Femur, pelvic girdle, Hip (ball and socket), Hips flexion, knees
tibia, fibula, tarsals, knee (hinge joint), flexion, tarsals flexion,
metatarsals and tarsals into metatarsals phalanges extension
phalanges (ellipsoidal joint),
metatarsals into
phalanges (ellipsoidal
joint)
Revision questions

Textbook: page 80
Research and Review
1-6