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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK


Set Notation and Venn Diagrams
Always read math problems completely before beginning any
calculations. If you "glance" too quickly at a problem, you may
misunderstand what really needs to be done to complete the problem.

Whenever possible, draw a diagram. Even though you may be able


t o v i s u a l i z e t h e s i t u a t i o n m e n t a l l y, a h a n d d r a w n d i a g r a m w i l l a l l o w
you to label the picture, to add auxiliary lines, and to view the
situation from different perspectives.

Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK


Assessment at a glance
Paper 2 (Extended) Candidates should have an electronic
calculator for all papers. Algebraic or
Short-answer questions based on the Extended curriculum.
graphical calculators are not permitted.
70 marks. Externally marked. Three significant figures will be required

1 hour 30 minutes in answers except where otherwise


stated.
Weightage 35% Candidates should use the value of from
Paper 4 (Extended) their calculators if their calculator
provides this. Otherwise,
Structured questions based on the Extended curriculum.
they should use the value of 3.142 given
2 hours 30 minutes on the front page of the question paper
only.
130 marks. Externally marked.
Tracing paper may be used as an
Weightage 65% additional material for all of the written
papers.
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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Syllabus
Use language, notation and Venn diagrams to describe sets and
represent relationships between sets.

Definition of sets e.g.

A = {x: x is a natural number}

B = {(x,y): y = mx + c}

C = {x: a < x < b}

D = {a, b, c, }
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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Notation
Set : set is a collection of objects, with something in common {}

Number of elements in set A n(A)

is an element of

is not an element of
Universal Set : set which contains all the available elements for that problem
Complement of set A : everything that is not in A A

The empty set : the set with no elements. Shown by { }

A is a subset of B AB

A is a proper subset of B AB

A is not a subset of B AB

A is not a proper subset of B AB

Union of A and B : is in either set AB

Intersection of A and B: must be in both sets AB

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Venn Diagram
Most of the relationships between sets can be represented by means of
diagrams known as Venn diagrams.

Venn diagrams are named after the English logician, John Venn (1834-
1883). These diagrams consist of rectangles and closed curves usually
circles. The universal set is represented usually by a rectangle and its
subsets by circles.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Common Area

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
A set is a well-defined collection of objects. Example: The collection of all rational numbers less than 10 is a set whereas the collection of all the
brilliant students in a class is not. This is because the collection of all the brilliant students in a class is not well defined. The criterion for
determining a brilliant student may vary from person to person.

Sets are usually denoted by capital letters A, B, S, etc. and the elements of a set are usually denoted by small letters a, b, t, u, etc. We give
below a few more examples of sets used particularly in mathematics, viz.

N : the set of all natural numbers {1,2,3,}

Z : the set of all integers

W : the set of whole numbers {0,1,2,3,}

Q : the set of all rational numbers

R : the set of real numbers i.e. all points on the number line

Z+ : the set of positive integers

Q+ : the set of positive rational numbers, and

R+ : the set of positive real numbers.

If x is an element of a set S, then we say that x belongs to S. Mathematically, we write it as x S. If y is not an element of a set S, then we say
that y does not belong to S. Mathematically, we write it as y S.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
There are two methods of representing a set.

Roster or tabular form: In this form, all the elements of a set are listed, separated by commas and
enclosed within braces { }. In this form, the order in which the elements are listed is immaterial, and
the elements are not repeated.

Example: The set of letters forming the word TEST is {T, E, S}.

Set-builder form: In this form all the elements of a set possess a single common property which is not
possessed by any element outside the set.

Example: The set {2, 2} can be written in the set-builder form as { 2 4 = 0}.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
A subset is a set contained in another set

It is like you can choose ice cream from the following flavors:

{banana, chocolate, vanilla} ,


You could choose any one flavor {banana}, {chocolate}, or {vanilla},

Or any two flavors: {banana, chocolate}, {banana, vanilla}, or {chocolate, vanilla},

Or all three flavors (no that isn't greedy),

Or you could say "none at all thanks", which is the "empty set": {}

A set with n elements has subsets


The empty set is a subset of every set, including the empty set itself.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
A is a proper subset of B if and only if every element in A is also in B, and there exists at least one
element in B that is not in A.

This little piece at the end is only there to make sure that A is not a proper subset of itself.
Otherwise, a proper subset is exactly the same as a normal subset.

{1, 2, 3} is a subset of {1, 2, 3}, but is not a proper subset of {1, 2, 3}.

{1, 2, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4} 4 .

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
A set which does not contain any element is called an empty set or a
null set or a void set. It is denoted by the symbol or { }.

Example: The set {x : x N, x is an even number and 8 < x < 10} is an


empty set.

A universal set is all the elements, or members, of any group under


consideration.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
Intervals as subsets of R:

Let a, b R and a < b. Then,

{y : a < y < b} is called an open interval and is denoted by (a, b). In the open interval (a, b), all the
points between a and b belong to the open interval (a, b), but a, b themselves do not belong to this
interval.

{y : a y b} is called a closed interval and is denoted by [a, b]. In this interval, all the points
between a and b as well as the points a and b are included.

[a, b) = {y : a y < b} is an open interval from a to b, including a, but excluding b.

(a, b] = {y : a < y b} is an open interval from a to b, including b, but excluding a.

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
Remember
Problems with number of elements of a set: For two intersection sets A
and B we can use the rule
= + ( )

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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK
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Set notations and Venn Diagrams@MK