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Sedimentary basins

Doesnt have to be a place on the Earths surface


with strictly basinal shape, with closed contours, like
a washbowl.
Can be made just by erecting highland in
adjacent area by volcanism.
The most important control on sedimentation is
tectonic (nowadays sedimentary basins are
classified by tectonic ). Climate es a rather distant
second.
If i talk about paleotectonic it is about by the
sedimentary record in sedimentary basins.
The disposition of sedimentary types, sediment
ticknesses, and paleocurrents, in a basin gives
evidence of the existence and location of
elevated areas of the crust created by
tectonism.
Surface mapping.
Rock core samples.
Subsurface geophysics.
Mainly seismic propiling.
Master cross sections.
Stratigraphic sections.
Isopach maps.
Lithofacies maps.
Ratio maps.
Paleocurrent maps.
Draw diagrams.
NATURE OF FILL ( MORE DESCRIPTIVE)
GEOMETRY
PALEOGEOGRAPHY
TECTONIC SETTING ( MORE GENETIC)
1. Active sedimentary basins still
accumulating sediments.
2. Inactive, but little deformed
sedimentary basins showing
more or less their original
shape and sedimentary fill
and
3. Strongly deformed and
incomplete former sedimentary
basins, where the original fill
has been partly lost to erosion,
for example in a mountain belt.
Basin-generating tectonics is the most important
prerequisite for the accumulation of sediments. That
basin classification must be in accordance with the
modern concept of global plate tectonics so will differ
from older classifications and terminology.
Divergent boundaries: Occur where two plates slide
apart from each other.
Convergent boundaries (or active margins): Occur
where two plates slide towards each other commonly
forming either a subduction zone (if one plate moves
underneath the other) or an orogenic belt (if the two
simply collide and compress).
Transform boundaries: Occur where plates slide, or
perhaps more accurately grind, past each other along
transform-faults. The relative movement of the two
plates is therefore either sinistral or dextral.
In order to identify the various basin categories,
one must know the nature of the underlying
crust as well as the type of former plate
movement involved during basin formation, i.e.,
divergence or convergence. Even in the case of
transform movement, either some divergence or
convergence must take place.
REGION BASINS WITH DIVERGENT MARGINS
CONTINENTAL RIFT ZONES ( RIFT BASIN)
ORIGIN:

Large scale mantle convection


Regional updoming: Regional basaltic volcanism
Extensional fault of crust: Lystric normal fault system, subsided/rotated half grabens.
Widening to form central rift graben.

Commonly associated with bimodal volcanism

SEDIMENT COMPOSITIONS
1. Mixed provenance, mainly clastic
2. Exposed crustal rocks at rift margin

EXAMPLES
1. East Africa rift zone
2. Rio Grande rift; Rhine graben

May be subsequently deformed by compressional deformation.


A certain type of such failed rifts is an aulacogen. Aulacogens
represent the failed arm of a triple junction of a rift zone,
where two arms continue their development to form an oceanic
basin. Aulacogen floors consist of oceanic or transitional crust
and allow the deposition of thick sedimentary sequences over
relatively long time periods.
ORIGIN:
Subsidence along a passive margin, mostly due to long-term accumulation of
sediments on the continental shelf
Evolve from oceanic rift basins
Become passive margin basins when MORs - large, wide ocean
basins.
Half graben system evolves into coastal plain-continental shelf &
slope
oceanic abyssal plain system
VOLCANISM
none expected after break-up
perhaps intraplate hot spot volcanism
SEDIMENTATION & PROVENANCE
as for oceanic rift basin
+ well developed shelf-slope seds ( carbonate seds.)
TECTONICS
post-break-up thermal & later isostatic subsidence of continental
margin
transgression
REGION BASINS WITH CONVERGENT MARGINS
CONTINENTAL MARGIN ARC-SUBDUCTION ASSOCIATED
BASINS

TRENCH

ORIGIN :
Formed by subduction of ocean litosphere.
SEDIMENT COMPOSITIONS
metasedimentary debris eroded off accretionary prism
v. minor volcanic debris
pelagic sed.

Example: Western edge of Vancouver Island


ORIGIN:
The area between the accretionary wedge( ocean trench) and
the magmatic arc, largely caused by the negative floating of
the subducting plate pulling down on the overlying continental
crust.
SEDIMENT COMPOSITIONS
voluminous volcanic debris

EXAMPLE: Georgia Strait


Form by rifting and ocean spreading either landward of an
island arc, or between two island arcs.
Submarine basins associated with island arcs and subduction
zones. They are found at some convergent plate boundaries,
presently concentrated in the western Pacific Ocean. Most of
them result from tensional forces caused by oceanic trench
rollback (the oceanic trench is wandering in the seafloor
direction) and the collapse of the edge of the continent. The arc
crust is under extension or rifting as a result of the sinking of the
subducting slab.
-Are formed by depressing and flexuring the continental
crust under the load of the overthrust mountain belt.
-A depression caused by the weight of a large mountain
range pushing the adjacent crust below sea level.
Example: The sediment filled plain south of the
Himalayas
REGION BASINS WITH TRANSFORMANT MARGINS
Transform motions may be associated either with a tensional
component (transtensional) or with a compressional component
(transpressional). Transtensional fault systems locally cause
crustal thinning and therefore create narrow elongate pull-
apart basins.

STRIKE-SLIP BASIN
A pull-apart block (e.g. between two
transform faults) that subsides significantly.
The study of sedimentary basins as a specific entity in
themselves is often referred to as basin modelling or
sedimentary basin analysis. The need to understand
the processes of basin formation and evolution are not
restricted to the purely academic. Indeed, sedimentary
basins are the location for almost all of the world's
hydrocarbon reserves and as such are the focus of
intense commercial interest.