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Department of Electronics And Telecommunication(E&TC)
Introduction Basic working concept of SMPS Applications of SMPS
In low to medium power range (>50W) d.c source of supply is often required A switching regulator does the regulation in the SMPS. A series switching element turns the Space Station
which contain negligible ac ripple which can be controlled in magnitude. The current supply to a smoothing capacitor On and Off. The capacitor voltage controls the time The electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS) uses multiple SMPSs to
SMPS was developed originally by NASA in the 1960 to provide the compact the series element is turned. The continuous switching of the capacitor maintains the convert between the voltage produced by the solar array and battery system, and the
power supply system for space vehicles. voltage at the required level. voltages needed by different modules.
An SMPS is based on a dc chopper with a rectified and possibly transformed Basically it is a device in which energy conversion and regulation is provided by power The eight solar panels generate 262 kW at 160 V DC, used to charge nickel-hydrogen
output. The output voltage amplitude is controlled by varying the mark space semiconductors that are continuously switching on and off with high frequency. batteries that provide power when the solar array is in shadow during Earth eclipse. 160 V
ratio of the chopper. This may be achieved by means of pulse-width controlled They can have the following types: DC system voltage is used for the main power distribution throughout the station. The
or frequency with constant pulse width, the former being more common. SMPS D.C. to D.C. Converter European and American part (USOS) uses 124 V DC as the end-user voltage whereas the
used in a range of application in many electronics devices. They are efficient Forward Converter Russian part (ROS) and the Space Shuttle use 28 V DC. The Space Shuttle implements three
and effective power source. SMPS has several advantages in terms of size, Fly-back Converter fuel cells generating 3036 V DC. Some gets converted into 400 Hz AC power and 28 V DC
weight, cost, efficiency and overall performance. Self-Oscillating Fly-back Converter power.
DC-DC converter Lighting
The primary power received from AC main is Powering of LED circuits is done with SMPS setup as a constant current source, where
rectified and filtered as high voltage DC. It is efficiency is important. They've also been used for supplying incandescent extra-low
Then switched at very fast rate and fed to voltage lighting. Due to this application they're often referred to as "electronic
the primary side of the step-down transformer. transformers".
The step-down transformer is only a fraction of Battery Chargers
the size of a comparable 50 Hz unit thus converter Mobile phone chargers have always been cost sensitive. The first chargers were linear
relieving the size and weight problems. We have the filtered and rectified output at the power supplies but they quickly evolved to the cost-effective ringing choke converter (RCC)
secondary side. It is now sent to the output of power supply. A sample of this output is sent SMPS topology, when new levels of efficiency were required.
back to the switch to control the output voltage. Recently fly-back type is being implemented because of demand for even lower no-load
power requirements. Primary-side sensing fly-back controllers also aid to cut the bill of
Forward converter materials (BOM) by removing secondary-side sensing components such as optocouplers.
Here, the choke carries the current when the Personal computers
transistor is conducting and not conducting. Switched-mode PSUs in domestic products such as personal computers often have
The diode carries the current during the OFF universal inputs, meaning that they can accept power from most mains
Period of the transistor. Therefore, energy electricity throughout the world, with rated frequencies in the 50 - 60 Hz range and a
Switch Mode Power Supply flows into the load during both the periods.
Forward converter Circuit
voltage range between 100 - 240 V AC.
The choke stores energy during the ON Vehicles
Basics Design period and also passes some energy into the output load.

First, AC power passes through fuses and a line filter. Then, it is rectified by a Applications may be found in the automobile industry where ordinary trucks use
full-wave bridge rectifier. Next, the rectified voltage is applied to the power nominal 24 V DC but may need 12 V DC. Ordinary cars use nominal 12 V DC and may need
factor correction (PFC) pre-regulator followed by downstream DC-DC Fly-back converter to convert this to drive equipment. Space vehicles use a variety of power systems and rely
converter(s). In this type, the magnetic field of the inductor on lightweight switched-mode power supplies to convert from voltages produced by solar
Most computers and small appliances use International Electrotechnical Stores energy during the ON period of panels and fuel cells to the voltages required by equipment.
Commission (IEC) style input connector. In general, output connectors and switch. The energy is emptied into the output
pinouts are not standardized and are left up to the manufacturer. voltage circuit when the switch is in the open Why you should go for SMPS
state. The duty cycle determines the output Fly-back converter Circuit The switching action means the series regulator element is either on or off. Very high
voltage. Diagram
efficiency levels are achieved as very little energy us dissipated as heat.
As a result of the high efficiency and low levels of heat dissipation, the switch mode
Self-Oscillating Fly-back Converter power supplies can be compact.
This is the most simple and basic converter based Self-Oscillating Fly-back Switch mode power supply technology also provide high efficiency voltage conversions
Converter Circuit Diagram
on the fly-back principle. During the conduction in voltage step up or Boost applications and step down or Buck applications.
Time of the switching transistor, the current
Through the primary starts Ramping up
linearly with slope Vin/Lp. The voltage
For many designs it is possible to double the power density with material options available
induced in the secondary winding and the
today. Over the next 10 years it is expected that average device volume will be cut in half
Feedback winding make The fast recovery
due to improvements in core materials and increases in switching frequencies. In the
rectifier reverse biased and holds the conducting
future, it may be more economical to use these power supplies for bulk transmission of
transistor ON. When the primary current reaches a peak value, the core begins to saturate
electric power via DC. Their efficiency rivals to that of AC transformers.
and the current tends to rise very sharply. This sharp rise in current can't be supported by Submitted By:
We already have HVDC, and using SMPS or other types of choppers Sameer Khan(380)
the fixed base drive provided by the feedback winding. So then, the switching starts to
may soon be possible in widespread use. We may even have an all-DC Omkar Jadhav(366)
come out of saturation.
house, too, which would implement similar applications of this Shubham Bora(507)
P. Dinesh Krishna(367)