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ISLAMIC RENEWAL IN THE

MEDIEVAL AND MODERN


PERIOD:
IBN TAIMIYYAH AND
MUHAMMAD ABDUH
Muhammad Rofiq



PEMBARUAN ISLAM
IBNU TAIMIYAH
DAN
MUHAMMAD ABDUH

Muhammad Rofiq Muzakkir


BEBERAPA TERMINOLOGI

Bidah : perbuatan yang dikerjakan tidak menurut contoh yang


sudah ditetapkan, baik dengan menambah atau mengurangi.
Takhayul : kepercayaan kepada sesuatu yang sakti, padahal
sebenarnya tidak ada.
Khurafat : dongeng (ajaran) yang tidak masuk akal.
Ijtihad : usaha sungguh-sungguh yang dilakukan oleh para
ahli agama untuk mencapai putusan hukum syarak mengenai
kasus yang penyelesaiannya belum tertera di Alquran dan
Sunah.
Taklid : kepercayaan kepada suatu paham ahli hukum yang
sudah-sudah tanpa mengetahui dasar atau alasannya;
peniruan.
SOME TERMINOLOGIES

Bidah (heresy) means something that has been introduced


into the religion of Allah that has no general or specific basis
to support it, whether by reducing or adding something to
islamic teaching.
Takhayyul : superstition
Ijtihad is a serious ef fort performed by an expert in islamic
law to find the islamic verdict/view of certain cases that are
not addressed directly in Quran and Sunnah.
Taqlid : following the decisions of a religious expert without
necessarily examining the scriptural basis or reasoning of that
decision, such as accepting and following the verdict of
scholars of jurisprudence (fiqh) without demanding an
explanation of the processes by which they arrive at it
ABAD KE-13
(ABAD KEMUNDURAN)
Kerajaan Islam di Andalusia jatuh ke tangan Nasrani ( 1213 M)
Dinasti Abasiyah di Baghdad runtuh akibat serangan Bangsa
Mongol (1258 M)
Despotisme para penguasa
Tauhid terselubungi khurafat
Tertutupnya pintu ijtihad
13TH CENTURY
(THE DECLINE PERIOD OF ISLAM)
The fall of Islamic Caliphate in Andalusia
Abbasid Caliphate (Khilafah Abbasiyah) in Baghdad was
devastated by Mongolian troops
The claim of closing of ijtihad gate/the call for taqlid
The widespread of religious innovation (bidah)
krisis secara akidah
merosot secara moral
lemah secara politik
jumud secara pemikiran
CONDITION OF MUSLIM SOCIETIES
IN 13TH CENTURY

Creed crisis
Morality decline
Weak in politics
Stagnation in islamic thought
IBNU TAIMIYAH
(661 -728 H/
1263-1328 M)
Ibn Taimiyyah contributed greatly during the Thirteenth Century
to a wide range of intellectual and political issues confronting
the Muslims during the tumultuous period of Mongol destruction
of Muslim lands.

is a renowned scholar of Islam whose infleunce was felt not


only during his lifetime but extended through the centuries until
the present day

Ibn Taimiyah was, by almost universal consensus, one of the


most original and systematic thinkers in the history of Islam
BIOGRAFI SINGKAT

Lahir di Harran Syiria 1263 H/1328


Menyaksikan kedatangan Bangsa Mongol
Kepakaran : Fiqh (Islamic Law), Hadith, Aqidah (Islamic
Creed), Ushul Fiqh (The Theory of Islamic Law), Philosophy,
Astronomy.
Dipenjara berkali-kali karena ide-ide pembaruannya
Menolak tawassul : berdoa dengan perantara wali (orang soleh yang
sudah wafat)
Menolak pemujaan terhadap makam para wali
BRIEF BIOGRAPHY

Born in Harran, Syiria in 1263 H/1328


Witnessed the Mongol invasian
Expertise : Fiqh (Islamic Law), Hadith, Aqidah (Islamic Creed),
Ushul Fiqh (The Theory of Islamic Law), Philosophy,
Astronomy.
Imprisoned several times due to his renewal thought, such as
Refusing tawassul (prayer toward god through saint)
Refusing special journey to visiting tombs : he condemned the cult of
saints
PEMBARUAN IBN TAIMIYAH

Memurnikan agama Islam. Menentang bid ah, takhayul dan


khurafat.
Mengkritik praktek para sufi yang melakukan ziarah ke kuburan
secara berlebihan.
Mendorong umat Islam berijtihad.
Menolak taklid
REFORMATION OF IBN TAIMIYAH

Purifiying Islam, against religious


innovation (bidah).
Encouraging Ijtihad to be performed
Refusing taqlid (imitation)
SOME WORKS OF IBNU TAIMIYAH


(A Great Compilation of Fatwa)

(The Reputation of the Logicians)

(The Way of the Prophets Sunna)

(The Creed of People from Washit)
MUHAMMAD ABDUH
PIONEER OF ISLAMIC MODERNISM
THE PROBLEMS FACED
BY ISLAMIC WORLD IN
20TH CENTURY
COLONIALISM BY EUROPIAN COUNTRY
INTELLECTUAL STAGNATION/
WIDESPREAD OF IMITATION
DESPOTISM OF RULER
BIOGRAFI MUHAMMAD ABDUH
(1849-1905)

Belajar di Universitas al - Azhar


Bertemu dengan Jamaluddin al - Afghani
Terlibat pemberontakan menentang penguasa Mesir
Diasingkan ke Beirut
Pergi ke Perancis
Menerbitkan majalah al-Ur watul Wutsqa
Memulai halaqah tafsir al-Manar dan menulis Risalah al-
Tauhid di Beirut
Kembali ke Mesir dan menjadi Mufti
Memilih jalur pendidikan dan keagamaan ( al-tanwir al-tsaqafi
wa al-ishlah al-dini)
BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD ABDUH
(1849-1905)

Formal education in Al - Azhar University


Meet an influencial figure, Jamaluddin al - Afghani
Played an important role in people revolt against Egyptian
ruler
Sent to exile in Beirut
Went to France and saw developed civilization
I went to the West and saw Islam, but no Muslims; I got back to the East
and saw Muslims, but not Islam.
Published al-Ur watul Wutsqa (a revolutionary magazine)
Interpreted al-Quran and wrote Risalah Tauhid
Back to Egypt and appointed as mufty
Choose education and religious renewal as the means to
make reformation in Egypt
KARAKTERISTIK PEMBARUAN ABDUH

Rationality / apresiatif terhadap peran akal


Membentengi Islam dari westernisasi
Purifikasi (pemurnian) Islam dari takhayul, bidah dan
khurafat
Back to Quran and Sunnah
CHARACTERISTIC OF ABDUHS THOUGHT

Rationality appreciating the supremacy of intellect


Purifying Islam from heresy and superstition
Back to Quran and Sunnah
SALURAN PEMBARUAN MUHAMMAD ABDUH

Penafsiran al-Quran
Reformasi pendidikan al - Azhar
Mendirikan lembaga dan yayasan sosial
Mendidik sarjana-sarjana muslim

Al-Azhar University
THE MEANS OF REFORMATION

Interpreting the holy Quran


Educational reform
Establishing social movement
Teaching pupils
Prominent pupils:
- Muhammad Rasyid Ridha
- Mustafha al-Maraghi
- Qasim Amin

Al-Azhar University
ASSIGNMENT FOR THE NEXT MEETING

What is the condition or characteristic of


Moslem Society in Indonesia in the
Beginning of 20th Century ?

Write down your answer in a piece of paper.