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RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
SEMESTER 2,
2014/2015
CHAPTER 2

Prepared by: Norizam Sulaiman


BEE4423
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING

SMITH CHART
Invented by Philip Smith in 1939.
It is graphical way to convert reflection coefficient to
impedance (Z),

= ZL

It is used practically for Impedance matching


It is designed to calculate the reflection coefficient and
of transmission line.
Matching Impedance, ZL=Z0
= 2/
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART
Z = R +/- j X, (Impedance), Y = G +/- j B (Admittance)
The chart is normalized (Zn) by dividing the impedance with the
transmission line characteristic (Z0)
ZL=jZ0, =190o Constant Refle
Zn = Z / Z0 = R/Z0 jX/Z0 Coefficient Ci
Inductive, jX

Zn = 0.5 + j1.0 ZL=Z0, =0


Short Circuit (SC) Open Circuit (SC)
ZL=0, =1180o ZL=, =10o
VSWR
Capacitive, -jX
1 circle = 0.5 ZL=-jZ0, =1-90o
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Example 1
Given the ZL for the transmission line below is 50 + j100
where the characteristic impedance of the line is 50
Ohm. Locate the position in the Smith Chart and
determine the reflection coefficient and SWR.
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Example 1
Solution 1: Normalized the load impedance,

ZL / Z0 = 1 + j2

Draw the location in the Smith Chart, then


determine the reflection coefficient
= 0.71 45, towards generator
Next, VSWR can be determined either using
formula below or Smith Chart

(1 + 0.71) / (1-0.71) = 1.71/0.29


= 5.9
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Example 2
Given the ZL for the transmission line below is 200 -
j100 where the characteristic impedance of the line is 50
Ohm. Locate the position in the Smith Chart and
determine the reflection coefficient and SWR.
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Example 2
Solution 1: Normalized the load impedance,

ZL / Z0 = 0.4 - j2

Draw the location in the Smith Chart, then


determine the reflection coefficient
= 0.86 -51.7, towards generator

(1 + 0.86) / (1-0.86) = 1.86/0.14


= 13.2
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
The concept of Impedance Transformation
Towards generator (upper hemisphere
of smith chart)

Towards Load (bottom hemisphere of


smith chart)

L is the length of transmission line in term of , since is


derived from , the actual length of the
transmission line can be determined.
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Impedance
Transformation

The transformation of impedance can determine the


length of transmission line
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
The concept of Impedance Matching

Input Impedance, Zin towards load or Load Impedance,


ZL towards source or input
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Impedance (Z) Vs
Admittance (Y)
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Impedance
Matching (Series Addition)
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Impedance
Matching (Parallel Addition)
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Computer Tool
Download from URL, http://www.fritz.dellsperger.net
Download from Fabian Kung website, fk Smith version 1.15
Agilent ADS software (FKEE Agilent Lab)
Avago AppCAD
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Computer Tool
Example: Use Smith Chart Software (Smith V3.10) to determine
the Impedance Matching for the transmitter shown below;
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Computer Tool
Example: Calculate the width (w) of the 50 microstrip line
using AppCAD. Start with the width of 100 mil until obtaining
the characteristic impedance of 50
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Matching the Antenna
Manual Calculation
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Matching the load
impedance
Determine the input impedance of the transmission line with 1.25 long with
load impedance, ZL = 30 + j40 and Characteristic Impedance, Z0 = 50 .
Determine the and VSWR.

Solution:
1. ZL / Z0 = 0.6 + j0.8
2. Plot the normalized load impedance in smith chart.
3. Draw the reflection coefficient circle, SWR = 2.9.
4. Make a 2 complete revolutions of to complete, then add another 0.25
to stop at 0.37 (0.125+0.25).
5. Then a make a line from the center of the reflection coefficient (1.0) across
the circle of reflection coefficient to the location of 0.37.
6. The new intersection point is the input the normalized input impedance,
0.63 j0.77, then the Input Impedance is 50(0.63-j0.77) = 31.5 j38.5 .
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Quarterwave
Matching
To match the input and load impedance with quarter wavelength
of transmission line
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Quarterwave
Matching
To match the input and load impedance with quarter wavelength
of transmission line
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Stub Matching
The shorted and open stubs are used to cancel the reactive
portion of complex load impedance, match the load to the
transmission line. It is another set of transmission line.
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Stub Matching
Stub Matching of Power Amplifier and Antenna
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Stub Matching
Example: To match the load impedance, ZL= 50 j100 to
75 transmission line using shorted stub.
Solution:
1. Normalized Impedance: ZL / Z0 = 0.67 j1.33
2. Draw the location of the normalized impedance in Smith
Chart.
3. Since, the stub are shunted (in parallel with the load), the
admittance is used instead of impedance by drawing the line
across the center of the reflection coefficient circle and to
opposite direction of the normalized impedance.
4. Rotate the admittance to clockwise to point on the impedance circle
where intersects with R=1 circle, now the admittance is Y=1 + j1.7.
5. The distance between first point impedance with 2nd point impedance is
the stub position from the load.
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: IMPEDANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Stub Matching
Solution:
6. The stub should has impedance with zero resistive components and
opposite polarity of susceptance (Y = 0 j1.7).
7. Find this location in smith chart.
8. Then, measure the length of the sub,
0.334 - 0.25 = 0.084
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN
CHAPTER 2: ADMITTANCE MATCHING
SMITH CHART Admittance
It used when adding lumped component in
parallel
Y = 1/Z

YA YB YC