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6.

NETWORKS,
LARGE AND SMALL
Network
Computer network
A combination of computers connected
through transmission media.
LAN(Local Area Network)
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
WAN (Wide Area Network)

Internetwork (e.g. Internet)


Networks can be connected using
connecting device.
Model and Protocol
Model
the specification set by a standards
organization as a guideline for designing
networks.
Protocol
a set of rules that controls the interaction of
different devices in a network/internetwork.
6.3
CATEGORIES
OF
NETWORKS
Categories of networks
Figure 6-3
LAN (Local Area Network)
Allow resource sharing between computers.
Computers
Peripheraldevices
Transmission medium (e.g. cable)

3 types of topology
Bus topology
Star topology
Ring topology
LANs Figure 6-4

Hub
a device that facilitates connection
LAN acts logically like a bus.

Star
the dominant topology today.
MAN Figure 6-5
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
Uses services provided by a network service
provider. (Tel. Company)
Individualusers computers
Organizations LANs

Many Tel. Company provide a popular MAN


service called SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Services)
Priorto SMDS's arrival in 1995,
the only way to connect LANs was through
a dedicated private line.
WAN Figure 6-6
WAN (Wide Area Network)

The connection of individual computers or LANs


over a large area (country, world).

User using a telephone line to connect to an ISP


(Internet Service Provider) is using a WAN.
Negotiates fee
ISP
Tel. company
6.4

CONNECTING
DEVICES
Figure 6-7
Connecting devices
Figure 6-8
Repeater (L1)

Regenerates the signal.


Extends the physical length of a network.
Note:

Repeaters operate at the first layer of


the OSI model.
Bridge/Switch
Bridge
A traffic controller
Divide a long bus into smaller segments
so that each segment is independent trafficwise.
Regenerate data

Switch
A sophisticated bridge with multiple interfaces.
A station that needs to send a frame sends it directly to
the switch.
Figure 6-9
Bridge (L1-L2)
Note:

Bridges operate at the first two


layers of the OSI model.
Figure 6-10
Switch
Router
Connect LANs, MANs, and WANs.
Routes a packet based on the logical address
(network layer) of the packet.
Connect two independent networks: LAN-WAN,
LAN-MAN, WAN-WAN
V.S.
Bridge
filtersa frame based on the physical address (data-
link layer) of the frame.
Connect two segments of a LAN or two LANs
belonging to the same organization.
Figure 6-11
Routers (L1-L3) in an internet
Note:

Routers operate at the first three


layers of the OSI model.
Gateway (L1-L7)
A protocol converter.
Understands the protocols used by each
connected network and is able to translate
from one to another.
Figure 6-12 Connecting devices and the OSI model

internetworking

IP address packet

Mac address networking


frame
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
a company that provides access to the Internet. For a monthly fee,
the service provider gives you a software package, username,
password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you
can then log on to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web,
and send and receive e-mail.
ICP Internet Content Provider

YahooAOLICP
ICPICP

Web portal
A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and
services, such as e-mail, forums, search engines, and on-line
shopping malls.
ASP (Application Service Provider)
ASP ASP