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-the capacity of plants to adapt to their

environment which enable them to survive

under a wide range of environmental
1. Morphological adaptations
-presence of metamorphosed or specialized
organs which perform non-typical functions
e.g. Pneumatophores or modified roots
of certain trees growing in marshes
- modified petiole of water hyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes) which serves as floaters
Storage roots of radish and carrot

-closing of stomates of desert plants during the

day to conserve water
e.g. Bromeliads and cactus
Scotch elm or Wych elm
A deciduous plant or tree is one that loses all
of its leaves for at least a part of each year.
Some deciduous plants or trees shed their
leaves prior to cold winters, others
shed before dry seasons or other seasonal
event, such as heavy rainfall, in some locations.
There are two types of deciduous forests,
each of which has its own distinct biome (or
ecosystem) of specific and specialized plant
and other life.
* The Temperate deciduous forests, where the
plants cycle in response to temperatures
extremes, are found primarily in Asia, Europe and
* The Tropical or Semi-Tropical deciduous
forests, where the plants cycle in response
to rainfall or drought conditions, are found
primarily in South America and Africa.

A few deciduous tree examples are Birch, Oak,

Maple, Willow, Hickory, Apple, Pear, and Plum.
A few deciduous plant examples are Ivy, Fern,
Rose, Blueberry, and Azalea
Aerenchyma is an air channel in the roots of
some plants, which allows exchange of gases
between the shoot and the root. The channel
of large air-filled cavities provides a low-
resistance internal pathway for the exchange
of gases such as oxygen and ethylene
between the plant above the water and the
submerged tissues.
Aerenchyma form in roots subject to anoxia
such as occurs during flooding of plants and
- Increase in the amino acid proline and ABA in
plants during periods of moisture stress to
regulate increased water-holding capacity of
tissues for moisture and stomatal closure to
conserve water
- Increase in heat shock proteins when plants
are subjected to sudden and transient sub- or
supra optimal temperatures to help plants
detoxify ammonia concentrations in their
-increase in calorific respiration in aroids to help
volatilize certain essential oils to attract
pollinators at the time of anthesis