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JAR Module 15 Gas Turbine Engine

Sub Module 15.1

Scalars and Vectors

Mass A measure of amount of

fundamental matter an object is
composed of
Units [Scalar]: Kilogram (Kg), Pound (lb),

Weight the effect of gravity on an

Units [Vector]: Newton (N), Pound (lb)

Density mass per unit volume

Density (D) = Mass (M) / Volume (V)
Units [Scalar]: Kilograms per cubic meter,
Slugs per cubic foot
Specific Gravity Density of an object
when compared with the density of pure
Specific Gravity (SG) = Density / Density of water

Motion When the position of an

object changes in relation to another
Displacement change in position of an
object in a given direction
Units [Vector]: - Same as Distance -
Distance the length of the path covered by
an object in motion
Units [Scalar]: Mile, Inch, Kilometer

Speed Distance covered in a unit time
Units [Scalar] : Kilometers per Hour (Kph),
Miles per Hour (Mph), Inches per second (Ips)
Velocity Displacement per unit time
Units [Vector] : - Same as Speed
Acceleration - This term describes the rate
at which velocity changes. If an object
increases in speed, it has positive
acceleration; if it decreases in speed, it has
negative acceleration.
Units [Vector] : - meters per second squire (m/s2)
Dynamics - Velocity

Absolute Velocity Velocity of an object

relative to a fixed object
Relative Velocity Velocity of an object
compared to another object in motion

Momentum the product of Mass into

Units [Vector] : Kilogram meters per second

V Mass : M
Velocity : V
M Momentum = M x V
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Newtons First Law

A body at rest will remain at rest and a
body in motion will remain in motion,
unless acted upon by an unbalanced

This Law gives rise to the concept of Inertia.

Dynamics Newtons Laws

Newtons Second Law

Rate of change of momentum is
proportional to the applied force and
the change occurs in the direction of the
applied force

This law defines force.

Dynamics Newtons Laws
Force That which attempts to change
the shape or position of a body
Force may also be defined as a push or a pull
upon an object.
Units [Vector]: Newton, Pound force (lbf)


Time=0 Time=t
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Centrifugal Force - M2r or MV2/r

Force that tends to cause an object in
circular motion to move away from the

Centripetal Force
Restraining force that maintains an
object in circular motion
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Newtons Third
To every action there
is an equal and
opposite reaction

This law defines reaction.

Dynamics Newtons Laws

Reaction Engines
A family of engines
that develop a
motive force called
thrust by expelling
gasses in the
opposite direction.
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Balloon to Gas Turbine Engine


Work is done when a force causes an

object to move through any distance
Work = Force X Distance
Units: Newton meters, Foot pounds

Refer the notes


Power is the rate of doing work

Power = Work / Time
Units: Watt, Horsepower

Power = 550ftlb/t

Time = 0 Time = t

Refer the notes


Energy is the capacity to do work

Units: Joule, British Thermal Units (BTU)

Refer the notes


Potential Energy is the energy a

body possesses due to its condition,
position or its chemical state.
Potential energy = Weight X Height
(due to position)
Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the
energy possessed by an object, resulting
from the motion of that object.

Kinetic Energy 1
2 mv 2

Pressure force per unit area

Pressure = Force X Area
Units: Pounds per square inch (psi), Bar (B),
Inches of Mercury (InHg), Pascal (Pa)

F1 A Pressure (P1) = F1/A

Pressure (P2) = F2/A
Energy - Pressure

Absolute Pressure pressure relative to a

complete vacuum
Units: Psia
Gauge Pressure pressure relative to
ambient pressure
Units: Psig
Differential Pressure difference between
two pressures
Units: Psid

Heat is a form of energy, the addition

of which, increases the internal energy
of an object,
thereby raising its temperature.

Temperature is a measure of the

kinetic energy of molecules of a body
Units: Celsius, Centigrade, Kelvin, Fahrenheit
and Rankine
Energy - Temperature

Conversion between temperature scales

Fahrenheit Celsius Celsius Fahrenheit
10 C = 1.80 F 9 0
F 32
5( 0F 32) 5

Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Rankine

K = 0C + 273 R = 0F + 460
Energy - Temperature

Static Temperature is a measure of

the heat contained in a fluid

Total Temperature is a measure of

the total energy contained in a fluid
Total = Static + Dynamic
Temperature Temperature Temperature
* Dynamic temperature is the temperature rise when kinetic
energy in a fluid flow is converted to equivalent heat energy
Gas Statics

Boyles Law
If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is
kept constant, absolute pressure of the gas is
inversely proportional to its volume
Pressure (P) X Volume (V) = Constant (C)
Gas Statics Boyles Law
Gas Statics

Charless Law
If the pressure on a given quantity of gas is
held constant, the volume of the gas is
directly proportional to the absolute
Volume (V) = Constant (C)
Temperature (T)
Gas Statics Charless Law
Gas Statics

Combined Gas Law

Derived by combining Boyles and
Charless Laws

P Pressure V Volume T- Temperature C - Constant
* Above remains true only if Mass is kept constant
Gas Statics

Perfect Gas Equation

For unit mass of gas;
R R Gas Constant
Gas Dynamics

Static Pressure Pressure exerted by

a mass of stationary gas, equally on all
Dynamic Pressure Pressure exerted
if a flow of gas were brought to a
complete stop
Total Pressure A measure of the
total kinetic energy contained in a flow
of gas
Gas Dynamics

Total Pressure = Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure

(Pt) (Ps) (Pd)
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Continuity Theorem
For fluids in steady motion an identical
mass of fluid passes each cross-section
of a duct in a unit time
Density X Velocity X Area = Constant

Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Bernoullis Theorem
In an ideal fluid stream the total energy
remains constant

Pressure + Dynamic + Potential = Total

Energy Energy Energy Energy

Pressure energy is due to Static Pressure

Dynamic energy is Kinetic Energy
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic
From Bernoullis Theorem P is Static Pressure

1 is Density
P V gH C
V is Velocity
2 g is gravitational acceleration
H is height
* Changes in potential energy may be C is a constant
neglected due to negligible effect


Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Duct Theory (Venturis Principle)

Whenever fluid is in motion the pressure
applied on the surrounding surfaces will be
less than if it was stationary
Therefore in a streamlined flow , if velocity
increases the static pressure decreases and
vice versa.
Velocity Pressure Velocity Pressure
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Convergent Duct
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Divergent Duct
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Divergent Duct
Gas Dynamics
Speed of Sound is the distance travelled per
unit time by a sound wave as it propagates
through an elastic medium. In dry air at 20 C
(68 F), the speed of sound is 343.2 metres
per second (1,126 ft/s; 1,236 km/h; 768 mph;
667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.914 s or a mile in
4.689 s.
Speed of Sound is affected only by the changes
in local air temperature
Speed of Sound
a 49 .022 T
Where T is local temperature in Rankine
Gas Dynamics

Shock Wave
Gas Dynamics

Supersonic airflow
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

Normal Shock Wave

Air passing through a Normal Shock wave
Air Velocity decrease to subsonic

Air Static pressure Increases

Air Temperature increases

Direction of flow will not change

Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

Oblique Shock Wave

Air passing through an oblique shock wave
Air Velocity will decrease, but will remain

Air Static pressure Increases

Air Temperature increases

Direction of flow may change

Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

Supersonic Airflow through a

Convergent duct
Velocity Decreases
Static Pressure Increases
Supersonic Airflow through a Divergent
Velocity Increases
Static Pressure Decreases
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

Mach Number the speed of an object

expressed as a ratio to the local speed
of Sound

Mach Number (M) = True Airspeed(TAS)

Local Speed of sound (a)

Law I (Conservation of Energy)

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but
can only be transformed in form

Law II (Transformation of Energy)

Heat energy can only transfer from a
warmer body to a colder body

Adiabatic process
No heat transfer to and from the system
(across the boundary)

Mechanical Efficiency (Overall
Efficiency) - ratio of useful work output
from a machine to the energy input
Thermal Efficiency the ratio of K.E
imparted to accelerating gasses in the
combustion chamber to the energy
released by combustion (energy input)
Propulsive Efficiency the ratio of
energy output from an engine to the
propulsive work done.

Overall = thermal x prop = Propulsive Power/Fuel Power


Heating Processes in Thermodynamics

Constant Volume Heating (Isochoric)
Constant Pressure Heating (Isobaric)
Constant Temperature Heating (Isothermal)
Adiabatic Expansion (no heat Tx)
Hyperbolic Expansion (heated or
expanded in a way P*V is a constant)
Polytropic Expansion - is
a thermodynamic process that obeys the

Constant Volume Heating

Gas heated at constant volume
Temperature rises
Pressure rises
As no external work is done energy stored
Constant Pressure Heating (Isobaric)
External work is done during expansion
Pressure and Temperature rises
Constant pressure is applied during heating

Constant Temperature Heating

Adiabatic Expansion
Expansion assumed to be frictionless
No heat is supplied or rejected during expansion
External work done during expansion

Hyperbolic Expansion
An expansion that maintains
Pressure X Volume constant

Polytropic Expansion
The actual pressure and volume change that
occurs in real gasses

A process that begins with some known
conditions and ends with those same
Constant Volume cycle (Otto cycle)
Constant Pressure cycle (Brayton cycle)

Otto cycle (Constant Volume Cycle)


Brayton Cycle - (Constant Pressure)


Brayton Cycle - (Constant Pressure)


Pressure on thermal efficiency

Engine Configurations

Power Engines
Reaction Rngines
Engine Configurations

Reaction engines, which derive their

thrust by jet reaction. Jet reaction is
defined as an internal reaction to a
mass of air accelerated through the
engine. As they require the energy in
the airflow to provide thrust a minimum
amount of energy is withdrawn by the
turbines for engine operation.
Engine Configurations

Power engines, which provide a

mechanical output to drive another
device. These engines do not rely on
jet reaction and indeed jet reaction may
cause handling problems. Maximum
energy is withdrawn by the turbines for
engine operation and to power the
mechanical output.
Engine Stations
Station 0 air is air before the intake, this becomes station 1 air
in the intake and by pass casing. Station 2 air is air in the fan
and compressor and may be further divided down by adding a
decimal figure after the 2. This is usually indicates the stage,
however some engines do not conform in this area. Station 3
is compressor discharge air which is the highest pressure air in
the engine. After combustion this becomes station 4 air and
remains station 4 air through the turbine, again this may be
modified by adding a decimal figure for each stage. Behind
the turbine it becomes station 5 air, becoming station 6 or 7
air aft of the tail cone. Station 7 air is just before the
propelling nozzle and station 8 air at the narrowest point of
the propelling nozzle. Finally the air behind the nozzle is
referred to as station 9.