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# JAR Module 15 Gas Turbine Engine

## Sub Module 15.1

Fundamentals
Scalars and Vectors
Matter

## Mass A measure of amount of

fundamental matter an object is
composed of
Units [Scalar]: Kilogram (Kg), Pound (lb),
Slug
Matter

## Weight the effect of gravity on an

object
Units [Vector]: Newton (N), Pound (lb)
Matter

## Density mass per unit volume

Density (D) = Mass (M) / Volume (V)
Units [Scalar]: Kilograms per cubic meter,
Slugs per cubic foot
Specific Gravity Density of an object
when compared with the density of pure
water
Specific Gravity (SG) = Density / Density of water
Dynamics

## Motion When the position of an

object changes in relation to another
object
Dynamics
Displacement change in position of an
object in a given direction
Units [Vector]: - Same as Distance -
Distance the length of the path covered by
an object in motion
Units [Scalar]: Mile, Inch, Kilometer
Distance

Displacement
Dynamics
Speed Distance covered in a unit time
Units [Scalar] : Kilometers per Hour (Kph),
Miles per Hour (Mph), Inches per second (Ips)
Velocity Displacement per unit time
Units [Vector] : - Same as Speed
Acceleration - This term describes the rate
at which velocity changes. If an object
increases in speed, it has positive
acceleration; if it decreases in speed, it has
negative acceleration.
Units [Vector] : - meters per second squire (m/s2)
Dynamics - Velocity

## Absolute Velocity Velocity of an object

relative to a fixed object
Relative Velocity Velocity of an object
compared to another object in motion
VC
C
VA VB
F A B
Dynamics

## Momentum the product of Mass into

Velocity
Units [Vector] : Kilogram meters per second

V Mass : M
Velocity : V
M Momentum = M x V
Dynamics Newtons Laws

## Newtons First Law

A body at rest will remain at rest and a
body in motion will remain in motion,
unless acted upon by an unbalanced
force

## This Law gives rise to the concept of Inertia.

Dynamics Newtons Laws

## Newtons Second Law

Rate of change of momentum is
proportional to the applied force and
the change occurs in the direction of the
applied force

## This law defines force.

Dynamics Newtons Laws
Force That which attempts to change
the shape or position of a body
Force may also be defined as a push or a pull
upon an object.
Units [Vector]: Newton, Pound force (lbf)
U<V
U V

F F
M M

Time=0 Time=t
Dynamics Newtons Laws

## Centrifugal Force - M2r or MV2/r

Force that tends to cause an object in
circular motion to move away from the
centre

Centripetal Force
Restraining force that maintains an
object in circular motion
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Newtons Third
Law
To every action there
is an equal and
opposite reaction

## This law defines reaction.

Dynamics Newtons Laws

Reaction Engines
A family of engines
that develop a
motive force called
thrust by expelling
gasses in the
opposite direction.
Dynamics Newtons Laws

Dynamics

## Work is done when a force causes an

object to move through any distance
Work = Force X Distance
Units: Newton meters, Foot pounds

Energy

## Power is the rate of doing work

Power = Work / Time
Units: Watt, Horsepower

Power = 550ftlb/t

Time = 0 Time = t

Energy

## Energy is the capacity to do work

Units: Joule, British Thermal Units (BTU)

Energy

## Potential Energy is the energy a

body possesses due to its condition,
position or its chemical state.
Potential energy = Weight X Height
(due to position)
Energy
Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the
energy possessed by an object, resulting
from the motion of that object.

Kinetic Energy 1
2 mv 2
Energy

## Pressure force per unit area

Pressure = Force X Area
Units: Pounds per square inch (psi), Bar (B),
Inches of Mercury (InHg), Pascal (Pa)

## F1 A Pressure (P1) = F1/A

A
F2
Pressure (P2) = F2/A
Energy - Pressure

## Absolute Pressure pressure relative to a

complete vacuum
Units: Psia
Gauge Pressure pressure relative to
ambient pressure
Units: Psig
Differential Pressure difference between
two pressures
Units: Psid
Energy

## Heat is a form of energy, the addition

of which, increases the internal energy
of an object,
thereby raising its temperature.
Energy

## Temperature is a measure of the

kinetic energy of molecules of a body
and Rankine
Energy - Temperature

## Conversion between temperature scales

Fahrenheit Celsius Celsius Fahrenheit
10 C = 1.80 F 9 0
C
0
F 32
5( 0F 32) 5
0
C
9

## Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Rankine

K = 0C + 273 R = 0F + 460
Energy - Temperature

## Static Temperature is a measure of

the heat contained in a fluid

## Total Temperature is a measure of

the total energy contained in a fluid
Total = Static + Dynamic
Temperature Temperature Temperature
* Dynamic temperature is the temperature rise when kinetic
energy in a fluid flow is converted to equivalent heat energy
Gas Statics

Boyles Law
If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is
kept constant, absolute pressure of the gas is
inversely proportional to its volume
Pressure (P) X Volume (V) = Constant (C)
Gas Statics Boyles Law
Gas Statics

Charless Law
If the pressure on a given quantity of gas is
held constant, the volume of the gas is
directly proportional to the absolute
temperature
Volume (V) = Constant (C)
Temperature (T)
Gas Statics Charless Law
Gas Statics

## Combined Gas Law

Derived by combining Boyles and
Charless Laws

PV
C
T
P Pressure V Volume T- Temperature C - Constant
* Above remains true only if Mass is kept constant
Gas Statics

## Perfect Gas Equation

For unit mass of gas;
PV
R R Gas Constant
T
PV RT
Gas Dynamics

## Static Pressure Pressure exerted by

a mass of stationary gas, equally on all
directions
Dynamic Pressure Pressure exerted
if a flow of gas were brought to a
complete stop
Total Pressure A measure of the
total kinetic energy contained in a flow
of gas
Gas Dynamics

## Total Pressure = Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure

(Pt) (Ps) (Pd)
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Continuity Theorem
For fluids in steady motion an identical
mass of fluid passes each cross-section
of a duct in a unit time
Density X Velocity X Area = Constant

VA C
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Bernoullis Theorem
In an ideal fluid stream the total energy
remains constant

## Pressure + Dynamic + Potential = Total

Energy Energy Energy Energy

## Pressure energy is due to Static Pressure

Dynamic energy is Kinetic Energy
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic
Here;
From Bernoullis Theorem P is Static Pressure

1 is Density
P V gH C
2
V is Velocity
2 g is gravitational acceleration
H is height
* Changes in potential energy may be C is a constant
neglected due to negligible effect
Hence;

1
P V C
2

2
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

## Duct Theory (Venturis Principle)

Whenever fluid is in motion the pressure
applied on the surrounding surfaces will be
less than if it was stationary
Therefore in a streamlined flow , if velocity
increases the static pressure decreases and
vice versa.
Velocity Pressure Velocity Pressure
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Convergent Duct
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Divergent Duct
Gas Dynamics - Subsonic

Divergent Duct
Gas Dynamics
Speed of Sound is the distance travelled per
unit time by a sound wave as it propagates
through an elastic medium. In dry air at 20 C
(68 F), the speed of sound is 343.2 metres
per second (1,126 ft/s; 1,236 km/h; 768 mph;
667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.914 s or a mile in
4.689 s.
Speed of Sound is affected only by the changes
in local air temperature
Speed of Sound
a 49 .022 T
Where T is local temperature in Rankine
Gas Dynamics

Shock Wave
Gas Dynamics

Supersonic airflow
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

## Normal Shock Wave

Air passing through a Normal Shock wave
Air Velocity decrease to subsonic

## Direction of flow will not change

Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

## Oblique Shock Wave

Air passing through an oblique shock wave
Air Velocity will decrease, but will remain

supersonic
Air Static pressure Increases

## Direction of flow may change

Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

## Supersonic Airflow through a

Convergent duct
Velocity Decreases
Static Pressure Increases
Supersonic Airflow through a Divergent
duct
Velocity Increases
Static Pressure Decreases
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic
Gas Dynamics - Supersonic

## Mach Number the speed of an object

expressed as a ratio to the local speed
of Sound

## Mach Number (M) = True Airspeed(TAS)

Local Speed of sound (a)
Thermodynamics

## Law I (Conservation of Energy)

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but
can only be transformed in form

## Law II (Transformation of Energy)

Heat energy can only transfer from a
warmer body to a colder body
Thermodynamics

No heat transfer to and from the system
(across the boundary)
Thermodynamics

Efficiency
Mechanical Efficiency (Overall
Efficiency) - ratio of useful work output
from a machine to the energy input
Thermal Efficiency the ratio of K.E
imparted to accelerating gasses in the
combustion chamber to the energy
released by combustion (energy input)
Propulsive Efficiency the ratio of
energy output from an engine to the
propulsive work done.
Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

## Heating Processes in Thermodynamics

Constant Volume Heating (Isochoric)
Constant Pressure Heating (Isobaric)
Constant Temperature Heating (Isothermal)
Hyperbolic Expansion (heated or
expanded in a way P*V is a constant)
Polytropic Expansion - is
a thermodynamic process that obeys the
relation:pvn=C}
Thermodynamics

## Constant Volume Heating

(Isochoric)
Gas heated at constant volume
Temperature rises
Pressure rises
As no external work is done energy stored
internally
Thermodynamics
Constant Pressure Heating (Isobaric)
External work is done during expansion
Pressure and Temperature rises
Constant pressure is applied during heating
Thermodynamics

## Constant Temperature Heating

(Isothermal)
Thermodynamics
Expansion assumed to be frictionless
No heat is supplied or rejected during expansion
External work done during expansion
Thermodynamics

Hyperbolic Expansion
An expansion that maintains
Pressure X Volume constant

Polytropic Expansion
The actual pressure and volume change that
occurs in real gasses
Thermodynamics

Cycle
A process that begins with some known
conditions and ends with those same
conditions
Examples
Constant Volume cycle (Otto cycle)
Constant Pressure cycle (Brayton cycle)
Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

## Pressure on thermal efficiency

Engine Configurations

Power Engines
Reaction Rngines
Engine Configurations

## Reaction engines, which derive their

thrust by jet reaction. Jet reaction is
defined as an internal reaction to a
mass of air accelerated through the
engine. As they require the energy in
the airflow to provide thrust a minimum
amount of energy is withdrawn by the
turbines for engine operation.
Engine Configurations

## Power engines, which provide a

mechanical output to drive another
device. These engines do not rely on
jet reaction and indeed jet reaction may
cause handling problems. Maximum
energy is withdrawn by the turbines for
engine operation and to power the
mechanical output.
Engine Stations
Station 0 air is air before the intake, this becomes station 1 air
in the intake and by pass casing. Station 2 air is air in the fan
and compressor and may be further divided down by adding a
decimal figure after the 2. This is usually indicates the stage,
however some engines do not conform in this area. Station 3
is compressor discharge air which is the highest pressure air in
the engine. After combustion this becomes station 4 air and
remains station 4 air through the turbine, again this may be
modified by adding a decimal figure for each stage. Behind
the turbine it becomes station 5 air, becoming station 6 or 7
air aft of the tail cone. Station 7 air is just before the
propelling nozzle and station 8 air at the narrowest point of
the propelling nozzle. Finally the air behind the nozzle is
referred to as station 9.