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INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING

DESIGN
CHAPTER 1
NUR FARAHAIZAN BINTI IDRIS
MEANING OF DESIGN.
According to ABET ;(the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology)
is the recognized accreditor for engineering programs in the US.
Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or
process to meet desired needs.
A decision-making process , include basic sciences, mathematics and
engineering sciences to convert resources optimally to meet a stated
objective.
Among the fundamental elements of the design process are the
establishment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction,
testing, and evaluation.
TYPE OF DESIGN
ADAPTIVE DESIGN

DEVELOPMENT DESIGN

NEW DESIGN
PHASES OF DESIGN PROCESS
PHASE 1 : PRIMARY NEEDS ANALYSIS
PHASE 2 :DEFINE OR REFINE THE PROBLEM
This involves an investigation to find out more information about the problem.
Generic design requirements: strength, reliability, wear, corrosion, thermal
properties, surface appearance, finish, color, life, size, shape, NVH, maintenance,
manufacturability, recyclability, safety, weight, shape, size, flexibility (stiffness),
lubrication, liability, friction

EXAMPLE:
Case Study: Design of a Microlaryngeal Surgical Stabilizer

Surgeons who perform vocal cord surgery currently use microlaryngeal instruments,
which must be use at a distance of some 12-14 in to operate on a surface with a very
small structure (1-2 mm).
The tremor in the surgeons hand can become quite problematic at this scale.
A mechanical system to stabilize the surgical instruments is required. The stabilization
system must not compromise the visualization of the vocal cords.
Constraint List for the Device
Must be made of nontoxic materials AND do not corrode;
Must be sterilisable AND Cost must not exceed $5,000;
Must not have sharp edges SO WILLnot pinch or gouge the patients
Must be unbreakable during normal surgical procedures.

Defining the Clients Design Problem


Product Definition Process includes:
i. Translate and clarify clients wants
ii. Identify limits what cant client have?
iii. Order clients wants
MEANS TO DEFINE THE PROBLEM
Questioning
i. Learn from clients/users/experts.
ii. Prepare for meeting by listing questions and by organizing thoughts.
Brainstorming
i. Early brainstorming session might be useful to gain a list of objectives or
constraints.
ii. Information may be useful when talking to clients.
Synthesis Process
Detailed Design

Determination of all details needed


to build the product

Models and Prototypes


Rapid Prototyping
Production Prototypes
Testing
Design Consideration

Load
Motion of Parts or kinetic product
Selection of material
Form or size parts
Frictional resistance
Convient anf economical features
Ergonomics
Ergonomics Factor in Design

Ergonomics involves the study of


people and their relationship with
the environment around them.
Also known as Human Factors.
Anthropometrical data is used to
determine the size, shape and/or
form of a product, making it more
comfortable for users
Proper ergonomic design is necessary
to prevent repetitive strain
injuries, which can develop over
time and can lead to long-term
disability
ANTHROPOMETRICS
Examples
Ergonomics: the science of designing user
interaction with equipment and workplaces to fit
the user.
4 Ways Human Interact with product
RESIDENTS IN THE WORKPLACE RESIDENTS IN THE AS A SOURCE OF
WORKPLACE POWER
AS A SOURCE OF POWER
AS A SENSOR
ACTING AS A CONTROLLER

AS A SENSOR

HAND PRESS MACHINE

ACTING AS A CONTROLLER
PRODUCT DESIGN SPESIFICATION (PDS)
Its aim is to ensure that the subsequent design and development of a product meets the
needs of the user.
Product design specification is one of the elements of product lifecycle management.
The PDS acts as an initial boundary in the development of products.
Is a structured description of the purpose, functions, characteristics and other kinds of
information that describe the design problem.
Proper PDS is the essential first step in any design process, because a good design will
define a product that satisfies all the objectives of the project.
Product Design Product Design Product Design Product Design
Specifications Specifications Specifications Functional
Customer Needs Engineering Specs Design Specifications

Climbs fast Climbs at 1 ft/s or Articulate the


Functional
Affordable as a faster attributes and
Specifications
birthday present Retail cost is to be behaviors of a design includes:
Fully assembled less than $30
Functions
Uses batteries Uses 2 AA batteries
Provide a basis for Specifications
for power (not included)
evaluating the design
It is safe Has no removable Metrics
small parts Specs are targets
Looks good of the design process From Product
Music loudness Definition to
Plays music as it between 20-30 db Functional
climbs Formalize what the
Luminosity is to be Specifications:
Glows in the more than 5 W client or user wants
dark in terms suitable for From language of
Works for more engineering analysis client to language
Last a long time than 3 hours on 2 AA of engineers.
and design
PDS CATEGORIES

Appearance Competition Customer


Documentation Ergonomics Environment
Installation Product disposal Lead times
Legal and safety Legislation, Maintenance
implications patents and Performance
Materials copyright Product
Processes Packaging and dimensions
Product life transport Quantity
Standards Product cost
Quality
Testing
Performance
Example : PDS Lift / lower a load of 2.5 tonnes (+/- 10%).

Portable Winch Draw in cable in at a rate of 0.2 m/s.

The winch drive should cut out when the load exceeds 10% of the specified load.
Design Brief
Drive to stop lowering load when only 1.5 metres of cable remains on winch drum.
From internal market research, it has
been decided that IWC need to design
a general purpose winch to sell to the Environment
cable and pipe laying market sector. The winch drive and power unit should be power unit.
The winch should be portable but have The unit will be mainly used in European weather conditions. But we could expect sales of
mounting points for the end user. It is about 2% unit volume to the Far East.

important that the winch sits within Temperature ranges:

out current range of 'Excel General -28 degree C European, 12 - 44 degree C - Far East
Purpose winches'. The product may experience humid conditions, corrosion , noise

Product Life Span


1. Product will be on the market for 10 years.

2. Spare parts will be available for a further 5 years after that.

Life in Service
Should withstand an operating period of 1 hr uninterrupted use per day for 5 years.
ASSIGNMENT #1

Find a product, identify the PDS shown on the product pamphlet/manual/box for
at least 15 categories.
Attached together the photocopy of product
MATERIAL SELECTION
Determines the reliability of the Physical properties include:
design in terms of industrial and Color, Size , Shape, Density, Electric, Thermal,
economical aspects. Conductivity

Design to produce a better


performance at lower cost Mechanical Properties
Ability of material to resists mechanical forces and
Wrong selection of material will
load
Fail of the product resulting costs
Strength, stiffness, Elasticity, Plasticity, ductility,
of life-cycle, manufacturing and brittleness, malleability, toughness, creep,
processing increase. hardness

Factor that should be considered in


selecting material:
i. Availability of the material
ii. Suitability of the material for
working condition
iii. Costs of material
Criteria in Selecting Material
Bill Of Material