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TESTING STANDARDS & METHODS

For test results to correlate between laboratories it is essential that each test
conducted is to a standard test method. the most commonly used test standards
are:
American society for testing and materials for USA
American association of textile chemist and colorist for USA
BS for United Kingdom
CAN for Canada
DIN Deutsches Institute for Normung : Germany
JIS for Japan (Japan industrial standard)
AS for Australia
BIS Bureau of Indian standard
ISO
EN-ISO
AATCC & ASTM are the preferred standards for the North American continent
while ISO is used for the rest of the world. Individual countries have derived their
own standard methodology but are usually based on either the ISO, AATCC/ASTM
or BS test methods. Recently, with the European Union being formed, a
consolidation of all standard methods used in Europe is begin done. In most cases,
common standards are being evolved which are designated as EN or EN ISO.
FABRIC QUALITY ASSURANCE
SIGNIFICANCE / IMPORTANCE OF TEXTILE TESTING
To determine the suitability of a fabric for a particular end use.
The type of yarn used plays a significance role in determining the quality of the
fabric.
Research and development to enable new and desirable textile products to be
produced.
Product performance and evaluation to determine if the fabric is suitable for the
intended end use.
Quality control to ensure that the fabric will be made properly and efficiently. Thus
claims and returns will be minimized.
Problem analysis to determine why a fabric or textile product is not performing as
desired
Product comparison to determine which material would be the better value.
Proper advertising to enable ads to be truthful and not misleading or false
Adherence to government regulations.
TEXTILE TESTING - DEFINATION
It is used to determine whether or not a product complies with or performs in a
specified manner in relation to a standard or other requirement.
TYPES OF TEST METHODS
Physical tests: These tests are mainly physical or mechanical in nature and
includes breaking strength, abrasion resistance, & pilling propensity.
Chemical Tests: Chemicals are used includes fiber identification using the
solubility method, detection of antibacterial activity of fabrics,&
determination of the presence of mercerization in cotton fabrics.
Tests to determine colorfastness properties: These tests are used to
determine the resistance of fabrics to color change under various
conditions, includes colorfastness to sunlight, washing,& crocking.
Optical Tests: A microscope or another magnifying device is used, includes
grading of wool fibers, fiber identification of textile defects.

Standard atmosphere for Testing - it is necessary to specify the


atmospheric conditions in which any testing is carried out. Therefore a
standard atmosphere has been agreed for testing purposes and is defined
as a relative humidity of 65% and a temperature of 200 C. For practical
purposes certain tolerances in these values are allowed so that the testing
atmosphere is RH 65%+ 2%, 20 + 20 C.
PHYSICAL TESTS
TYPES OF PHYSICAL TESTS
Durability test Tensile Strength, Breaking
Strength, Tearing Strength, Bursting Strength
Friction test Abrasion Resistance, Pilling
Resistance
Appearance test Wrinkle Resistance
Functional test Fabric Dimensional change,
Fabric Flammability.
DURABILITY TEST
REASONS TO CARRY OUT DURABILITY TEST
To check that the fabric conforms to specifications
To note the effects of changes in structural details.
To note the affects of physical and chemical
treatments, exposure to weather, launderings etc.
To obtain some indication of probable performance in
use
To investigate causes of failure and customer
complaints.
To help in the design of a fabric for a specific purpose.
To study the interaction of fibers, yarns and fabric
properties
DURABILITY TEST
TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING - Tensile strength is the
resistance of a material subject to tension by an
external force.
A testing machine used for tests where a pulling force
is exerted on the specimen is called tensile testing
machine.
Each machine has 3 basic elements of strength testing
machine: loading mechanism, clamping mechanism,
recording mechanism.
There are 3 testing machines:
Constant rate of traverse (CRT)
Constant rate of extension (CRE)
Constant rate of load (CRL)
DURABILITY TEST
FABRIC BREAKING STRENGTH - The breaking strength of the material is the
maximum force needed to resist rupture during the tensile strength.
Maximum tensile strength of a specimen is expressed as force per unit of
cross sectional area required to produce rupture.. (kg/cm2 or lbs/ inch2)
Breaking test is one directional test and is suitable for woven fabrics. The
breaking strength is to be evaluated in both warp and the filling directions.
This test can be used to determine the effects of destructive forces on a
woven fabric. This force includes such finishes as embossing, napping&
resin treatments.
The breaking strength test is performed on most woven, non woven and
felted fabrics. It is not recommended for knitted material since they
elongate easily, with the specimen becoming distorted.
This test can be performed with either wet or dry condition

TEST METHODS FOR FABRIC BREAKING STRENGTH


Grab test
Raveled strip test
Cut strip test
Modified grab test
DURABILITY TEST
Tearing strength It is the force needed to continue a tear in a fabric. It is
a unidirectional test like breaking strength test; it is performed in both the
warp and weft directions.
It is only performed on woven fabric. It is particularly important in
industrial fabrics that are exposed to rough handling in use such as tents
and sacks and also those where propagation of a tear would be
catastrophic such as parachutes. Outdoor clothing, overalls and uniforms
are types of clothing where tearing strength is of importance.
Fabric having a plain weave and a high number of yarns per inch will tend
to exhibit lower tearing strength since the yarn cannot move into bunches.
Whereas in twill and satin weave the yarn would shift and bunch together
from the tearing force being exerted.
Resin treatments such as crease resistance finishes which cause the yarns
to adhere to one another also have the same effect. The tensile properties
of the constituent fibers have an influence on tearing resistance.
TEST METHODS:
Tongue Method
Pendulum Method
DURABILITY TEST
Bursting strength - It is the force needed to rupture a fabric
by distending it with a force applied at right angle to the
material. Bursting strength is an alternative method of
measuring strength in which the material is stressed in all
directions at the same time and is therefore more suitable
for such materials.
This is especially desirable for materials such as knits, laces
and nonwovens. There are also fabrics which are
simultaneously stressed in all directions during service, such
as parachute fabrics, filters, sacks and nets, where it may
be important to stress them in a realistic manner.
This test has application in testing woven fabrics that are to
be stressed equally in every direction when in use.

Two Methods:
Diaphragm Bursting Method
Ball Bursting Method
FRICTION TEST
Abrasion is the wearing a way of a section of material by
the rubbing against another surface. Tests for abrasion
resistance is very complex because of the many variables
that influence fabric wear. Fabrics with smooth surface
tend to resist the effects of abrasion to greater degree than
fabrics with rough, non smooth surface. Materials made
with novelty yarns usually possess lower abrasion
resistance.
The resistance to abrasion of a material is greatly affected
by the conditions of the test like specimen tension, type of
abradent, amount of pressure between abradent and
specimen.
Various criteria can be used to determine the end point of
the test. The specimen could be tested until the
appearance of the first sign of wear; or when there is a yarn
break; or with the complete destruction of the fabric in the
test area.
FRICTION TEST
Factors affecting abrasion resistance
Fiber type and properties
Yarn Twist
Fabric Structure

TEST METHODS
Rotary platform double-head method
Flexing and abrasion method
Inflated diaphragm method
Oscillatory cylinder method
Martindale abrasion test
FRICTION TEST
Pilling - It is the formation of clusters or balls of tangled fibers on
the surface of a material occurring from surface rubbing.
These pills are attached to the surface of fabric by one or more
fibers.
The resistance to pilling by a particular fabric will vary with the
conditions of actual use as well as the way in which the individual
wears the garment.
The pills are more noticeable when the degree of color contrast
with the fabric is great. Lint pills are usually more noticeable than
regular pills.
The development of pills is accompanied by surface changes, like
change of color, development of fuzz, or reduction of cover.
Usually the pilling specimens are rated by comparing them to actual
samples or photographs showing a range of pilling effects.

Test Methods
Random tumble pilling method
Brush and fabric to fabric method
APPEARENCE TEST
FABRIC RESISTANCE TO WRINKLING
Wrinkle may be described as a fold in the fabric.
Greater the resilience of fibers fewer and less sharp the wrinkles will be
Parameters such as percent relative humidity, temperature, time under
pressure, amount of pressure and recovery time must be controlled in the
test.
Wrinkle resistance the fabric is determined by various factors:
A resilient fiber content , such as polyester or wool
Highly twisted yarns
Low yarns per inch
Thick, lofty construction
Finishes such as CRF(Crease Retention Finish) finish for cotton fabrics
A weave with few interlacing, such as 4X4 basket weave.

TEST METHODS
Recovery angle method
Appearance method
Appearance Test
Drape It is the extent to which a fabric will deform
when it is allowed to hang. Drapability of a fabric is
combined effect of several factors such as stiffness,
rigidity, weight, thickness etc. Stiffness, an attribute of
fabric hand is one of the most important factors
determining draping quality of fabric e.g. soft fabric
drapes closer to the body forming ripples whereas stiff
fabric drapes away from the body. Stiffness of fabric
itself depends upon geometrical parameters of the
fabric.

Test Method
Drape meter is used to determine a direct objective
measurement of fabric drape.
AIR PERMEABILITY TEST
The air permeability of a fabric is a measure of
how well it allows the passage of air through
it. The ease or otherwise of passage of air is of
importance for a number of fabric end uses
such as industrial filters, tents, sailcloth's,
parachutes, raincoat materials, shirting's,
down proof fabric and airbags.
Air permeability is defined as the volume of
air in milliliters which is passed in one second
through 100s mm2 of the fabric at a pressure
difference of 100mm head of water.
FUNCTIONAL TEST
FABRIC DIMENSIONAL CHANGE
Dimensional change is the increase or decrease in the length
or width of a fabric called growth and shrinkage respectively.
Increase in dimension s called growth while decrease is called
shrinkage and change is usually expressed in percentage.
Fabric shrink or grow for various reasons. Like exposure to
heat, water or dry-cleaning solvent causes some material to
change its dimensionality.
Some fabrics when dried under tension tend to return to their
original size.

Calculation of percentage of shrinkage (or growth)


% Shrinkage (or growth) = Original length New length X 100
Original length
FUNCTIONAL TEST
Fabric Flammability - Flammability refers burning behavior,
specifically to ease of ignition and continued burning after
ignition
Fabrics can be placed in different categories with regard to
flammability.
Flammable fabrics will be completely consumed when
exposed to fire.
In order to for such fabrics to be nonflammable it has to
undergo some chemical treatment and then called flame
retardant fabric.
If the fabric is developed from inflammable fibres , it is
called flame proof fabrics.

Test Method
FLAMMABILITY TESTER - 45-Degree Angle Test
COLORFASTNESS TEST
COLOR FASTNESS It is property of a pigment or dye
to retain its original hue, especially without fading,
running, or changing when wetted, washed, cleaned;
or stored under normal conditions when exposed to
light, heat, or other influences.
Types Of Colorfastness - It is adversely affected by:
Washing
Light
Crocking
Abrasion
Gases in Atmosphere
Frosting
Perspiration
Heat
Other Tests
Snagging - A snag is a loop of fibre (or yarn) that
is pulled from a fabric when it is in contact with a
rough object. Snags detract from the appearance
of the fabric but do not reduce any of its other
properties. Fabrics made from bulked continuous
filament yarns are particularly susceptible to the
formation of snags although woven fabrics with
long floats can also suffer from this problem.
Test Method
Mace snagging test
Other Test
Stiffness - It is a special property of fabric. It is
the tendency of fabric to keep standing without
any support or tendency to resist bending and
deflection. It is a key factor in the study of handle
and drape of fabric.

Test Method
Cantilever bending test.