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Chapter 4

Treatment of Industrial Effluent


and Preliminary Treatment

Asst.Prof.Dr.Harnpon Phungrassami
Pollution Load
1.Concentration
Ex. Units of BOD, COD, SS, TDS normally
expressed in the units of mg/L, g/m3 or ppm

2.Population equivalent
Hydraulic population equivalent = 450 L/per.-day
BOD population equivalent = 90 gBOD/per-day
Pollution Load
3.Loading
Loading = concentration * flowrate
Overview of WWTP
Pre-Treatment processes: physical separation of
bulky items, gravel, sand, grease and oil that
might present in the wastewater.

Primary Treatment: prepare the wastewater to


be ready for biological treatment such as
equalized flow rate, neutralize. The treatment
can be both physical and chemical processes
Overview of WWTP
Secondary Treatment: biological degradation by the
use of microorganisms, under conditions of
aerobic or anaerobic. At the end of the process,
solid sludge is removed from treated water. This
step of treatment mainly reduces BOD and COD
pollutants.

Tertiary Treatment: If necessary, additional


treatments are needed to make the treated water
pas standards. Examples are discoloration,
disinfection, toxic removal,
Overview of WWTP
Preliminary Treatment
Objectives:
-Removal of coarse solids and other large
materials.
-Necessary to enhance the operation and
maintenance of subsequent treatment units.
-Ex. Screening, grit removal, comminutors, air
flotation, equalization
Screening
-Primary function of screening is protection of
downstream facilities rather than effective
removal of solids from the plant influent.

Classification:
Coarse > 50 mm
Medium 15-50 mm
Fine 3-15 mm
Straining < 3 mm
Screening

Quantities of screenings collected from mechanically cleaned bar racks


Screening
Manual bar screens
-The manual bar screen with a bar spacing
traditionally of approximately 25 mm. These
bar screens are normally fixed on a rail
inclined at 45 to 65 to the flow.
Screening
Screening
Efficiency:
Screening
Design basis:
Screening
Design basis:
Screening
Ex. A manual bar screen is to be used in an approach
channel with a maximum velocity of 0.64 m/s, and a
design flow of 300 L/s. the bars are 10 mm thick and
openings are 3 cm wide. Determine
1.The cross section of the channel, and the dimension
needed
2.The velocity between bars
3.The head loss in meters
4.The number of bars in the screen
Grit chamber
-Primary purpose of grit chamber is to protect
pumps and other mechanical equipment.
-Velocity of the water through the chamber is
maintained sufficiently high so as to prevent
the settling of most organic solids.
-Most grit particles have settling velocity < 0.03
m/s
-Well designed grit chambers typically remove
95% of grit particles with diameter > 0.2 mm
Grit chamber
Grit chamber

g ( p )D 2

Vs
p

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Grit chamber
Setting Model

Vs = settling velocity of the particle


Vl = horizontal velocity of liquid flow
Grit chamber
A particle that is just removed has a settling velocity v0.

v0 = h / t = Q / A
Where: t = V/Q
A = surface area of the basin
Grit chamber
Design Criteria
Grit chamber
Ex. A water treatment plant has a flow rate of
0.6 m3/sec. The settling basin at the plant has
an effective settling volume that is 20 m long,
3 m tall and 6 m wide. Will particles that have
a settling velocity of 0.004 m/sec be
completely removed? If not, what percent of
the particles will be removed?
Grit chamber
Ex. Design an aerated grit chamber with an
average flow of 11.3 mgd (0.5 m3/s) with a
peaking factor of 2.75. Assume detention time
is 2 minutes, two chambers in use all the time,
wide to depth ratio of 1.1:1 and a depth of 8
ft.
Grit chamber
Ex. Given data:
(1) Two grit chambers used
(2) Max. flow: 1.56 m3/sec
(3) Design peak flow: 1.321 m3/sec
(4) Detention time: 4 min at Qmax
(5) Air supply rate: 7.8 L/sec.m of tank length
(6) Chamber width: 3.5 m
(7) Average water depth: 3.65 m
(8) Freeboard: 0.8 m
Grit chamber
(1) Geometry of Grit Chamber
(1) Volume:
(2) Total depth:
(3) Surface area:
(4) Length:
Grit chamber
(2) Design of air supply system
(1) Air required:

(3) Surface rise rate


(1) Overflow rate:
Comminutor
Adopted to supplement coarse screening and
serve to reduce the size of large particles so
that they will be removed in the form of a
sludge in subsequent treatment processes.
Comminutor
Equalization
The wastewater produced by an industrial
facility often varies in overall wastewater flow
rate as well as concentration of pollutants.

Then EQ is the operation aimed at eliminating or


minimizing the problems associated with such
fluctuations in wastewater flow and
characteristics.
Equalization
-Minimize fluctuations in flow rate to WWTP
-Reduce fluctuation in organic load or
concentrations of pollutants to prevent shock
loading of biological treatment system
-Reduce fluctuation in wastewater pH
-Minimize fluctuations in the amount of
chemicals to be added to chemical treatment
plant
Equalization

Flow equalization
Equalization
In the flow balance method, a plot of cumulative
volume versus time is developed, which is the
well-known Rippl diagram. The steps required
to create a Rippl diagram and to use this
diagram to calculate the equalization volume
are outlined as follows:
Equalization
(1) The first step is to draw a cumulative volume curve based on the
wastewater flow. The volume that flows within a specified periodic
time period is calculated based on the flow. The cumulative volume
is obtained by adding the volume at the start of a preselected time
period to the volume in the next time period. The resulting volume
is then added to the volume in the subsequent time period. This
process is continued until a cycle of low-flow and high-flow is
completed (typically 24 h).
(2) The second step is to determine the required equalization volume
by drawing a line parallel to the average flow rate and tangent to
the cumulative influent flow diagram. The equalization volume is
calculated by the vertical distance from the point of tangency to the
straight line. There could be several points of tangency on the
cumulative influent flow curve.
Equalization

The required equalization volume will be equal to sum of the vertical distances AB and CD.
Equalization
Ex. The flow rate at different time levels is given
in Table 1. Calculate the volume of an
equalization basin.
Equalization
Equalization
Ex. Determine volume of EQ
Equalization
Equalization

Concentration equalization
Equalization
A volumetric balance can be made around the
EQ tank:

or for a finite time interval


Equalization
The mass of BOD5 entering the basin is given by the
product of the inflow (Qin), the BOD5
concentration (So) and the time interval:

The average BOD5 concentration (Savg)

V tank-pre = previous volume


Equalization
The mass of BOD5 flowing out of the basin
during the time period =
Equalization
Ex. The daily flow cycle for WWTP is given in the
table below using 4 h time increments.
Determine BOD concentration outflow.
Oil and Grease Removal
Oil can be present in wastewater as a result of a
number of industrial operations such as
petroleum refining, metal working, food
processing.
The concentration of oil in the wastewater can
vary greatly typically within 100-100000 ppm
Oil and Grease Removal
Neutralization
Neutralization is a common practice in wastewater
treatment and waste stabilization. If a waste
stream is found to be hazardous because of
corrosivity, neutralization is the primary
treatment used.

Neutralization is the process of adjusting the pH of


water through the addition of an acid or a base,
depending on the target pH and process
requirements.
Neutralization
Neutralization
pH

pH is the reference indicator for neutralization.


Many chemical processes such as metal
precipitation and water softening, which are
involved in neutralization are pH dependent.