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CHAPTER 1(b)

TECHNICAL DRAWING &


TERMINOLOGY
TERMINOLOGY: GENERAL

CONT
CONT
TERMINOLOGY: FASTENERS
There are many types of holes may be on engineering drawings.
The more common ones, associated with drilling, reaming and/or
tapping.
TERMINOLOGY: FASTENERS
Bolts, screws, and stud
Threaded fasteners. Bolts
have a shank partially
threaded, screws
are threaded along the entire
Length and stud have
threaded at both ends
HEXAGON HEAD BOLT HEXAGON HEAD SCREW

STUD SET
SCREW
approximate
dimensioning
methods for drawing
hexagon headed
metric bolts,
nuts and plane
washers.
ABBREVIATION
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION

SCREW THREAD
SPRING
SHAFT
KNURLING
LONGCOMPONENTS
GEARS
SCREW THREAD

FUNCTIONS OF SCREW THREAD:

1. Transmitting power, e.g. square thread in a


vice or a lathe

2. Adjusting parts relative to each other (usually


a vee-thread)

3. Fastening parts together, e.g. a nut and bolt


(vee-thread)
SCREW THREAD TERMINOLOGY
External thread: A thread on the outside of a cylinder such as a bolt

Internal thread: A thread cut on the inside of a part such as nut

Major diameter: The smallest diameter that can be measure on a screw thread

Pitch diameter: The diameter of an imaginary cylinder passing through the


threads at points at which the thread width is equal to the space between
the threads

Lead: The distance that a screw will advance when turn 360 degree

Pitch: The distance between the crest of threads. Pitch is found mathematically
by dividing one Inch of a particular thread

Crest: The peak edge of a screw thread

Thread angle: The angle between threads cut by the cutting tool

Root: The bottom of the thread cut into a cylinder


Thread form: The shape of the thread cut into a threaded part

Thread series: The number of thread per inch for particular


diameter, which result in 3 series: coarse, fine, and extra fine.
Coarse series provides for rapid assembly, and extra-fine series
provides for the fine adjustment.

Thread class: The closeness of fit between 2 mating threaded parts.


Class 1 represents a loose fit, and class 3 a tight fit.

Right hand thread: A thread that will assemble when turned


clockwise. A right-hand thread will slope downward to the right on
an external thread when the axis is horizontal, and in the opposite
direction on an internal thread.

Left hand thread: A thread that will assemble when turn


counterclockwise. A left-hand thread slopes downward to the left on
an external thread when the axis is horizontal, and in the opposite
direction on an internal thread.
METRIC THREAD SPECIFICATION (ISO)

BASIC DESIGNATION
Each note begins with the letter M, which designates the note as
metric note, followed by the diameter in mm and the pitch in mm
separated by the X sign. The pitch can omitted in notes for coarse
threads, but it is preferred by U.S. standards that it be shown.

Example:

M12 x 1

M12 = Diameter of the bolt, screw, or stud


1 = Pitch value
BLIND TAPPED HOLE
THROUGH TAPPED HOLE
SPRINGS
COMPRESSION SPRING
Helical compression springs have applications to resist
applied compression forces or in the push mode, store energy
to provide the "push". Different forms of compression springs
are produced. There are conical, barrel, hourglass, or straight
conical compression springs. These compression springs can
be made with or without variable spacing between coils. Round
wire springs can store more energy than rectangular wire
compression springs.
TENSION SPRING

Tension springs are made from spring steel and


are designed to give a specific force along a
specific length.
Used in industrial robots, but are also important
components in perambulators and door locks.
SUBJECT CONVENTION
SHAFT DETAILS
Used to fix a component to one of a shaft or spindle so that
a torque may be transmitted. Examples below are:

1. Square on shaft Machine handle, valve wheel spindle.


2. Serrated shaft Steering wheel to column on car
3. Splined shaft Drive shaft on machine or vehicle when
sliding also has to take place, e.g. in gear box
DRIVE SHAFT
SHAFT ENDS
Square:
Frequently used for hand driven adjustments with removable
handles, such as those found on machine tools, etc.

Serrations:
Often used for push fit components such as plastic fans or pulleys,
or levers such as motorcycle gear shifters.
KNURLING

DIAMOND KNURL

STRAIGHT KNURL
BEARINGS
Some examples of rolling element bearings. Arrows
indicate directions of load bearing.

Deep groove Angular contact


Roller Taper roller

Standard drawing
representation of a bearing.

Thrust
GEARS
BEVEL GEAR
SPUR GEAR
WORM AND WHEEL