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Data Acquisition

SYSTEM INTERFACING
Introduction - Elements of data acquisition and control - Overview of I/O process, Analog
signals, discrete signals, Data conversion process and Frequency signals, over framing.
Data Acquisition System

Analog Signal
Signal Conditioner

ADC

Communication Digital
Processing
TYPICAL DAQ SYSTEM
ELEMENTS
SIGNALS
Signals are physical quantities that are
functions of an independent variable (such as
time) and contain information about a natural
phenomenon
Two types of signals may be defined; digital
and analogue.
- Digital signals provide information regarding
the voltage state (typically hi or low) and/or
the rate of change of these states
- An analogue signal typically provides voltage
level, shape or frequency content
information.
Signal types and classes
Two types of Digital signals:
- on-off - pulse train,
Three types of analogue
- DC - AC - frequency domain
Total of 5 signal classes

ADC - analogue to digital converter, which converts the analogue signal


into a digital signal which can be read by a computer
DAC - digital to analogue converter, which converts a digital signal to an
analogue signal
TTL - transistor to transistor logic
Analog Signals

Analog signals directly measurable quantities in terms of


some other quantity
Examples:
Thermometer mercury height rises as temperature
rises
Car Speedometer Needle moves farther right as you
accelerate
Stereo Volume increases as you turn the knob.
Digital Signals

Digital Signals have only two states. For digital


computers, we refer to binary states, 0 and 1. 1 can
be on, 0 can be off.
Examples:
Light switch can be either on or off
Door to a room is either open or closed
TRANSDUCERS
A transducer is a device which converts a physical
phenomenon into a measurable electrical signal.
Analog vs. Digital Signal
Analog signals:
Continuous, expressed in decimal system
No limitation on the maximum/minimum value
Can not be processed by computer

Digital signals: binary number system


All numbers are expressed by a combination of 1 & 0
The maximum value is limited by # of bits available
Examples of A/D Applications

Microphones - take your voice varying pressure


waves in the air and convert them into varying
electrical signals
Strain Gages - determines the amount of strain
(change in dimensions) when a stress is applied
Thermocouple temperature measuring device
converts thermal energy to electric energy
Voltmeters
Digital Multimeters
Signal Conditioning

Functions: modify the analog signal to match the


performance of the ADC
Pre-filtering: remove undesirable high frequency
components
Amplification: amplify the signal to match the dynamic
range of the ADC
Just what does an
A/D converter DO?
Converts analog signals into binary words
Analog Digital Conversion
2-Step Process:

Quantizing - breaking down analog value is a set of finite states


Encoding - assigning a digital word or number to each state and matching
it to the input signal
Step 1: Quantizing

Output Discrete Voltage


States Ranges (V)
Example:
0 0.00-1.25
You have 0-10V signals.
1 1.25-2.50
Separate them into a
set of discrete states 2 2.50-3.75
with 1.25V increments. 3 3.75-5.00
(How did we get 1.25V? 4 5.00-6.25
See next slide)
5 6.25-7.50
6 7.50-8.75
7 8.75-10.0
Quantizing

The number of possible states that the


converter can output is:
N=2n
where n is the number of bits in the AD
converter

Example: For a 3 bit A/D converter, N=23=8.

Analog quantization size:


Q=(Vmax-Vmin)/N = (10V 0V)/8 = 1.25V
Encoding

Output Output Binary Equivalent


Here we assign the States
digital value (binary 0 000
number) to each
1 001
state for the
computer to read. 2 010
3 011
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111
Types of ADCs

Flash ADC
Sigma-delta ADC
Dual slope converter
Successive approximation converter
Flash ADC

parallel A/D
Uses a series of
comparators
Each comparator
compares Vin to a
different reference
voltage, starting
w/ Vref = 1/2 lsb
Sigma-Delta ADC

Integrator
Digital
Vin + +
- low-pass
Sample
decimator
-
filter
Oversample
r Serial output
1-bit
DAC

Oversampled input signal goes in the integrator


Output of integration is compared to GND
Iterates to produce a serial bitstream
Output is serial bit stream with # of 1s proportional
to Vin
Dual Slope converter
Vin
tFIX tmeas
t

The sampled signal charges a capacitor for a fixed amount


of time
By integrating over time, noise integrates out of the
conversion.
Then the ADC discharges the capacitor at a fixed rate
while a counter counts the ADC's output bits. A longer
discharge time results in a higher count.
Successive Approximation
Is Vin > ADC range?

- Sets MSB
SAR DAC
VIN +
Converts MSB to
1000 0000
0100
analog using DAC
Out
Compares guess to
If no, then test next bit
input
Set bit
Test next bit
What is a DAC?

A digital to analog
converter (DAC) is a
device that converts
digital numbers (binary)
into an analog voltage or
current output.
1 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 DAC
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What is a DAC?
Analog Output Signal

0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011
Digital Input Signal
Purpose

To convert digital values to analog voltages


Performs inverse operation of the Analog-to-
Digital Converter (ADC)

VOUT Digital Value

Reference Voltage

Digital Value DAC Analog Voltage

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Types of DAC Circuits

1. Resistor String
2. Binary Weighted Resistor
3. R-2R Ladder

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Types of DAC Circuits

1. Resistor String
2. Binary Weighted Resistor
3. R-2R Ladder

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Types of DAC Circuits

1. Resistor String
2. Binary Weighted Resistor
3. R-2R Ladder

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Resistor String DAC

Components of a String DAC


Resistor String supply
discrete voltage levels
Selection Switches
connect the right voltage level
to op-amp according to input
bits
Op-amp amplifies the
discrete voltage levels to
desired range, keeps the
current low

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Binary Weighted Resistor DAC
Basic Idea:
Use a summing Vref
op-amp circuit R
Rf
Use transistors to 2R
switch between 4R
high and ground - Vout
Use resistors +
scaled by two to 2nR
divide voltage on
each branch by a
power of two
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R-2R Resistor Ladder DAC

Vref Each bit controls a switch between


ground and the inverting input of the
op amp.

The switch is connected to ground if


the corresponding bit is zero.

0 0 0 0
4 bit converter

Simplest type of DAC


Requires only two precision resistance valuce (R and 2R)
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