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Katy Ferrar

Kaplan International College London

Autumn 2015
Discuss the following with your
Why do you need to use sources in your written
academic work?
What different ways are there of incorporating
someone elses words in academic writing?
What are the differences between these different
What is the same about all of them?
Reasons why you should use academic sources:
To provide support to your ideas and opinions.
To give your writing academic credibility.
To demonstrate that you have understood what you
have read.
Different ways of incorporating sources into your
Summary, Paraphrase and Direct Quotation
Key similarity:
They all need to be referenced.
Putting the main ideas into your own words

Include only the main points.

Give a citation to show where the main ideas
came from.

Summaries are significantly shorter than the

original and give a general overview of the
source material.
Putting a passage from source material into
your own words.
~ must include a citation for the original author.

Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the

original passage, taking a somewhat broader
section of the source and condensing it slightly.
Must be identical to the original, using a short
extract of the source.
Remember to use quotation marks
Must give a citation for the original author
Source text Leoni, J. (1955) On Architecture. London: Alec Tirani, Ltd.
Extract (from p.14) - all columns rest on a plinth (or dye), which supports a base,
which supports the column, which is topped by a capital

Quote in your essay

According to Leoni the column is always topped by a capital
(1955, p.14).
Koala Bear
Original source
Scientists are investigating the koalas highly specialised
digestive system to understand better the animals
nutritional requirements. This information could lead to
improved diets for captive koalas. At present, they are
fed eucalyptus leaves almost exclusively, but the supply
of these leaves is not always reliable. A variety of dietary
supplements would help to keep the koalas fed and fit.
Experts at the University of Sydney have created a koala
biscuit that they hope will fill the nutritional gap.

(Adapted from: Deyton, L. (1990) More than one cure for extinction, can koalas
bear the twentieth century? New Scientist, 26 Sept.1990, p44.)
Step by Step - Paraphrase
Scientists are researching the particular diet of the koala.
The purpose of this is to understand what they require
from their food.
Currently, their diet mostly consists of eucalyptus leaves.
However, eucalyptus leaves are not always available.
It is thus concluded that koalas will require some dietary
Scientists from The University of Sydney have created a
biscuit to assist in providing the nutrients that koalas
require (Deyton,1990).
Writers report
One of the problems facing the koala is finding enough
of the right kind of food. At the moment, the koala feeds
virtually only on leaves from the eucalyptus tree.
However, a koala biscuit has been developed within
Australia that should provide extra nutrition and a more
varied diet, especially when eucalyptus is not available
(Deyton, 1990:44).
Differing ways of paraphrasing
Changing vocabulary using synonyms or antonyms, e.g. almost
exclusively = only

Changing the grammar of the sentence by:

Changing active to passive and vice versa: e.g. At the moment the
koala feeds on ./At present they are fed on.
Experts at the University of Sydney have created a koala biscuit.
However, a koala biscuit has been developed.

Changing the form of a word, for example from a noun to a verb

or an adjective to a noun, e.g. fill the nutritional gap = provide
extra nutrition
Where to place the source: Examples:

According to Guira (2015) Arsenal will win the FA cup

for the second time this coming year.

Guira (2015) argues that Arsene Wenger is clearly the

best manager in the Premier League.

Arsene Wenger is clearly the most educated manager

in the Premier League, speaking more than five
languages. This is why he is referred to as the
professor (Guira, 2015).
Using different language
The mechanics of paraphrasing:

Original Paraphrase
at present at the moment (synonym)
are fed feeds (passive voice/active voice)
almost exclusively virtually (synonym)
have created have been developed (active-passive)

a variety of dietary supplements a more varied diet (synonyms/change in

word formation)
fill the nutritional gap provide extra nutrition (change in word
Paraphrasing using reporting verbs
Reporting verbs help a writer to show that s/he is using
information from another source. Examples of reporting
verbs when writing are:

Smith argues (that)

Smith concludes (that)
Smith defines
Smith describes
Smith emphasizes
Smith expresses the view (that)
Smith indicates (that)
Smith questions (whether)
Smith claims (that)
Smith demonstrates (that)
Smith discusses
Smith establishes (that)
Smith focuses on
Smith highlights
Smith suggests (that)
Smith shows (that)