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Instrumentation and Process

Control (IPC)
Sensors for Measurement and
The Measurement of Temperature

Fundamental Temperature : Zeroth Law of thermodynamics

When two bodies are in thermal contact with a third body,

they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.


A B and B - C

Then TA = TC = TB
Basics of Measuring Temperature

Any temperature scale (and number assigned to it )

which based upon one of the physical properties of

materials which vary with temperature is, by nature,

arbitrary and is in principle as good as any other scale

based upon another of these properties.

Basics of Measuring Temperature
Properties of the materials employed in measuring
temperature must have easily observable thermometric

For example

Pressure of a gas in a closed container

Length of a column of mercury in a capillary tube

Resistance of a platinum wire.

Basics of Measuring Temperature
Temperature scale should be reproducible under same conditions
and this reproducibility can only be achieved by specifying
following things.

Particular thermoelectric substance and property employed.

Numbers to be attached to two fixed points.

The relation between the temperature and the thermometric

property which is to be used for interpolating between the fixed
point and extrapolating points.
Basics of Measuring Temperature
Mathematically saying

If temperature is considered linear function of thermoelectric property


T= aTX+bT (1)

Where X = thermoelectric property

The value of aT and bT constants can be determined by the numbers

assigned to the fixed points, In Celsius scale for ice and steam case

0= aTX1 + bT .. (2)

100 = aTX2 + bT .. (3)

Basics of Measuring Temperature

Where X1 and X2 are the values of thermoelectric

property at the ice and steam points.

By computing equation 1,2 and 3 we have

T(C) = 100 [( XX1)/(X2-X1)]

The above equation can be modified by employing

different properties or substances

Basics of Measuring Temperature
For Liquid in glass thermometer

T(C) = 100 [( ll1)/(l2-l1)]

Where l is the length of the column of liquid at

temperature T .

For constant Volume gas thermometer

T(C) = 100 [( PP1)/(P2-P1)]

where P is the pressure at temperature T

Type of Temperature Sensors
Thermoelectric Sensors
Electrical resistance Detector or Resistance Thermometer

Thermal Radiation Detection

Broadband Radiation Thermometer
Narrowband Radiation Thermometer
Chopped Radiation Thermometers
Optical Pyrometers

Liquid Expansion and Vapor Pressure Sensors

Bimetallic types
Glass thermometer

In 1821, Seebeck, an Estonian-German physicist discovered that

when two dissimilar metals are connected, as shown in Figure, and
one of the junctions is heated, there is a continuous flow of current
through the loop.
When the loop is broken and the voltage is measured (Figure 1(b)),
the measured voltage is directly related to the temperature difference
between the two junctions.

This phenomenon where a voltage is produced because of the heating

of the junction of two metallic conductors is called thermoelectric
effect or Seebeck effect.

The junction where heat is applied is called the hot or measurement

junction. The other junction is called the cold junction or reference
junction, and the voltage developed is called thermo-electromotive
force (emf).
The voltage produced is given as follows
eAB = aT
eAB = Seebeck voltage (Emf)
T = temperature at the thermocouple junction,
a = Seebeck coefficient and depend on type of Thermocouple ,
= a small change in voltage corresponding to a small change in
The change in material EMF with respect to a change in temperature is
called the Seebeck coefficient or thermoelectric sensitivity. This
coefficient is usually a nonlinear function of temperature.
Component of Thermocouple

Thermocouples come in several forms. They may be wires insulated from each
other with plastic or glass fiber materials. For high temperature work, the wire pairs
are put inside a tube with mineral insulation. For industrial uses, the sensors comes
in a metal enclosure such as stainless steel
Types of Thermocouples
Advantages of Thermocouple
They are inexpensive.

They are rugged and reliable.

They can be used over a wide temperature range.

Resistance Type thermometer
Working Principle
These work on the principle that the electrical resistance of a
conductor change with temperature. Usually the resistance
increase as the conductor gets hotter.

Resistance relates to temperature in following way

R=Ro ( 1+aT)

Where a is the temperature coefficient of resistance, Ro is

the resistance at 0
Resistance Thermometer or Resistance
temperature Detectors
A basic temperature sensor is made by winding a thin resistance wire
into a small sensor head.
The main type of wire used is Platinum.
The sensors are usually manufactured to have 100 at 0 C and the
value of a is 0.00385- 0.00390. ( depend upon wire resistance )
Operating range is 200-400 C ( depending upon wire material )
Type of Resistance sensor that are made up of a small piece of
semiconductor material.
These are more sensitive than RTD because the resistance
changes a lot for a small change in temperature.
It cost less than platinum wire
Temperature range is Limited -20 to 120 .
The relationship b/w resistance and thermometer is of the
form R= aeb/T
Solve the following Problems
A platinum resistance thermometer has a 100 at 0 C and the value of a is
0.00385. In operation, the resistance is 101 . Calculate temperature.
Answer is 12.87 C
A thermocouple produces an e.m.f in mV according to the temperature
difference between the sensor tip T1 and the gauge head T2 such that
e.m.f = a (T1-T2)+b(T12-T22)
a = 3.5 * 10 -2 and b= 8.2 * 10 -6. The gauge head is at 20 C. The mV output is 12
mV. Calculate the temperature at the sensor.
Answer: 251 C
Modeling the Dynamics and static
Behavior of Chemical Process

Modeling the Dynamics and static Behavior of Chemical

Process requires concepts of



Transport phenomena

It is a prerequisite to the design of controller for chemical

Modeling the Dynamics and static
Behavior of Chemical Process

Dynamic of the chemical process means to timely analyze and

monitor of the behavior chemical process variables .

Generally two approaches are used to analyze the chemical

process behavior with time

Experimental Approach

Theoretical Approach

Modeling the Dynamics and static
Behavior of Chemical Process
Experimental approach: In this case the physical equipment of the
chemical process is available and the various values of input
(disturbance, manipulated variable) are change and through
appropriate measuring devices the outputs of process change with

Such a procedure is time and effort consuming and it is usually quite

costly because a large number of such experiments have to be
Modeling the Dynamics and static
Behavior of Chemical Process
Theoretical approach: This is given in terms of
mathematical equations (differential, algebraic) whose
solution yields the dynamic or static behavior of the
chemical process that is examined.

Need of Mathematical Model of Chemical
The physical equipment of the chemical process we want to control
have not been constructed.
Consequently we cannot experiment to determine how the process
reacts to various inputs and therefore we cannot design the
appropriate control system.
If the process equipment needs to be available for experimentation
the procedure is costly.
Therefore we need a simple description of how the process reacts
to various inputs, and this is what the mathematical models can
provide to the control designer.
Need of Mathematical Model of Chemical
Benefits of Mathematical Model (Theoretical approach )
In simplified way, to analyze how process reacts to various
input in the mathematical form to provide it to the control

Mathematical Model of Process

Lets take Example of Feed-forward controller for system
How to change the manipulated variable to cancel the effect
of disturbances ?
Output = f ( disturbances )
Output = f ( manipulated variable )
Equating two equations we have
f (disturbances) - f(manipulated variable) = 0
State Variables and State Equations
State Variables : The characterizing variables that define the
fundamental quantities such as mass, energy and momentum.
Examples :Density,T, P, Concentration and Flow rate

These state variables define the behavior of a processing systems or

we can say state of system.

The equation that relates the state variables (dependent variable) to

various independent variables by some conservation principle
applied on the fundamental quantities are called state equation. It
constitute the mathematical model.
General Principle of Conservation Laws

The quantity S can be one of the fundamental quantitates

Total mass
Mass of individual components
Total energy

1 1
System 2
For total mass balance, the conservation Laws become as follows

: :
For Mass Balance on component
( ) ( )
= =

: :
For Total energrybalance
() ( + + )
= =

: :
Development of mathematical model of
Heat Tank

Fi, Ti

T h
Q F, T