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VOLTAGE SAG AND ITS

MITIGATION

By GUIDED BY :
Mayur Dilip Dhande Prof. D. P. YAVALKAR
B.E. Electrical
Government College of
Engineering, Jalgaon
mayurdhande11@gmail.com
CONTENTS

Voltage sag
Sources of voltage sag
General causes of voltage sag
Characteristics of voltage sag
Effects of voltage sag on commercial installations
Measurement and characterization of voltage sag
Impact and cost of voltage sag
Mitigation of voltage sag
Conclusion
References
VOLTAGE SAG
A decrease in RMS voltage at the power frequency
for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1 minute, reported as
the remaining voltage.

TYPES
1)Single phase sags
2) Phase to phase sags
3) Three phase sags
SOURCES OF SAGS AND SHORT
INTERRUPTIONS
Power systems have non-zero impedances, so every
increase in current causes a corresponding reduction in
voltage.
There are two sources of voltage sags:

1) Large increases in current.

2) Increases in system impedance.

Think of the power system as a tree

Facility-sourced voltage sags

Utility-sourced voltage sags


GENERAL CAUSES OF VOLTAGE SAGS
VOLTAGE SAGS DUE TO FAULTS
May be symmetrical or unsymmetrical in nature

VOLTAGE SAGS DUE TO MOTOR STARTING


symmetrical in nature

VOLTAGE SAGS DUE TO TRANSFORMER ENERGIZING


Unsymmetrical in nature
CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLTAGE SAG
MAGNITUDE OF SAG:
Type of fault
Fault impedance
System Configuration
Distance of the fault from the point of consideration
DURATION OF SAG:

PHASE-ANGLE JUMP: affects power electronic convertors


POINT-ON-WAVE: phase angle at which the sag occurs
EFFECTS OF VOLTAGE SAG ON
COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS
CHILLER SYSTEM
o causing the trip

LIGHTING CIRCUITS

o flickering of the lights (HID)

ESCALATORS

o control contactors and PLC of the escalator may drop off

GENERAL CIRCUITS

o Tripping of MCB and RCD


MEASUREMENT & CHARACTERISATION
OF VOLTAGE SAGS
measured using specialised power quality monitoring
instrumentation
IMPACT & COST OF VOLTAGE SAGS
Typical Financial Loss for Voltage Sags based on
Industry

Industry Financial loss per event


Semiconductor industry 3800000
Financial Trading 6000000 per hour
Paper manufacturing 300000
Telecommunications 30000 per minute
Steel works 350000
Glass industry 250000
Automobile industry 75000
MITIGATION OF VOLTAGE SAG

DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR)


D-STATCOM
PWM switched auto-transformer
SOLID STATE TRANSFER SWITCH (SSTS)
DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR)
The DVR is a series connected power electronic device
used to inject voltage of required magnitude and
frequency.
Basic structure
DVR OPERATION:
The nominal or rated voltage is compared with the voltage variation and the
DVR injects the difference voltage that is required by the load.

Equivalent Circuit Diagram of DVR

Here Vs is the supply voltage, Vinj is the voltage injected by the DVR
and VL is the load voltage.
D-STATCOM

D-STATCOM is a shunt connected device designed to regulate the


voltage either by generating or absorbing the reactive power.

Basic Structure
OPERATION OF D-STATCOM
A D-STATCOM is capable of compensating either bus voltage or
line current. It can operate in two modes based on the parameter
which it regulates.

Voltage Mode Operation


Current Mode Operation
Inductive Operation
Capacitive Operation

Block Diagram of the Control Circuit of D-STATCOM


PWM SWITCHED AUTO-TRANSFORMER
The auto transformer is controlled by a PWM operated power
electronic switch.

Voltage Sag Mitigation Scheme Using Auto Transformer


CONTROL STRATEGY

When there is voltage sag then an error occurs and based on the error
value PWM generator generates pulses to the IGBT switch.
Accordingly, the auto-transformer operates and the load voltage is
maintained constant.

Single-phase Circuit Diagram during Voltage Sag


CONCLUSION
Among the different methods to mitigate the voltage sag, the use of FACT
devices is the best method
The FACT devices like DVR, D-STATCOM are helpful in overcoming the
voltage unbalance problems in power system
D-STATCOM is a shunt connected device and injects current into the system
These devices are connected to the power network at the point of interest
protect the critical loads
These devices also have other advantages like harmonic reduction, power
factor correction
The amount of apparent power infusion required by D-STATCOM is higher
than that of DVR for a given voltage sag
DVR acts slowly but is good in reducing the harmonic content
Both DVR and D-STATCOM require more number of power electronic
switches and storage devices for their operation. To overcome this problem,
PWM switched auto-transformer is used for mitigating the voltage sag
Here the number of switches required are less and hence the switching losses
are also reduced
REFERENCES
[1] R.C. Dugan, M.F. McGranaghan, and H.W. Beaty, Electric Power Systems Quality, McGraw-
Hill, 1996.
[2] IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems, IEEE Std. 493-1997, December 1997.
[3] IEEE Standards Board (1995), IEEE Std. 1159-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for
Monitoring Electric Power Quality. IEEE Inc. NewYork
[4] AmbraSannino. Mitigation of voltage sags and short interruptions through distribution system
design. Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Palermo, pp 1-6,2000.
[5] David Chapman, Power Quality Application Guide - The Cost of Poor Power Quality, Copper
Development Association, 2001.
[6].Haque, M. H., "Compensation of distribution system voltage sag by DVR and
DSTATCOM,"Power Tech Proceedings, 2001 IEEE Porto , vol.1, no., pp.5 pp. vol.1,, 2001.
[7]Venkatesh, C.; Reddy, V.P.; Siva Sarma, D.V.S.S., "Mitigation of voltage sags/swells using PWM
switched autotransformer," Harmonics and Quality ofPower, 2008. ICHQP 2008. 13th
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, Sept. 28 2008-Oct. 1 2008.
[8] K. Chan, A. Kara, and G. Kieboom, Power quality improvement with solid state transfer
switches, in Proc. 8th ICHQP 1998, Athens, Greece, Oct. 1998, pp. 210-215