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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

CFM56-5A/B
Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B
Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

Ignio

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AVISO: S trabalhar no sistema, 5 min.


aps o corte de corrente ao circuito.

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

IGNITION AND STARTING SYSTEM


The ignition system provides the electrical spark needed to start or continue engine combustion.
The ignition system is made up of two independent subsystems. Each subsystem includes an
ignition box and a spark igniter.
The pneumatic starting system drives the engine HP rotor at a speed high enough for a ground or
air start to occur. The start system is made up of the start valve and the starter.

CONTROL AND INDICATING


The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controls the ignition and starting systems either in automatic or
manual mode.
The operation of the start valve and of the ignition system is displayed on the ENGINE ECAM
page.

AUTOMATIC START
During an automatic start, the Electronic Control Unit opens the start valve, then the ignition box
is energized when the HP rotor speed is nominal.
The ECU provides full protection during the start sequence. When the automatic start is
completed, the ECU closes the start valve and cuts off ignition.
In case of an incident during the automatic start the ECU aborts the start procedure.

MANUAL START
During a manual start, the start valve opens when engine MANual START pushbutton is pressed in,
then the ignition system is energized when the MASTER control lever is set to the ON position.
NOTE : there is automatic shut down function in manual mode only for EGT overlimit.

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

CRANKING
Engine motoring could be performed for dry cranking or wet cranking sequences.
NOTE : during cranking ignition is inhibited.

CONTINUOUS IGNITION
With engine running, continuous ignition can be selected via the Electronic Control Unit either
manually using the rotary selector or automatically by the FADEC.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Safety precautions have to be taken prior to working in this area.
WARNING : the Electronic Control Unit sends 115 volts to the ignition boxes, which convert it and
send high voltage, high energy pulses through the ignition leads to the igniters.

MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
To increase aircraft dispatch, the start valve is equipped with a manual override. For this manual
operation, the mechanic has to be aware of the engine safety zones.

WARNING: MAKE SURE THAT THE IGNITION BOXES ARE DE-ENERGIZED BEFORE WORKING ON THE
IGNITION SYSTEM. THE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CAN BE DANGEROUS.
DO NOT TOUCH THE ELECTRICAL CONTACTS, THE IGNITION BOXES CAN CONTINUE TO CONTAIN
NA ELECTRICAL CHARGE WHEN THEY ARE NOT ENERGIZED.

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

IGNITION BOXES
- Upper box for system A.
- Lower box for system B.
The ignition boxes transform 115V-400Hz AC into high voltage (15 to 20 KV), to charge internal
capacitors.
The discharge rate is of one discharge per second and energy delivered is 1.5 joules.

IGNITION LEADS
They are of the insulated wire type and fan air cooled in the core area. They transmit electrical
energy for ignition sparks.

IGNITERS
- right igniter for system A.
- left igniter for system B.
- precautions have to be taken before removal/installation.
- an ignition test is available through MCDU menus to verify the ignition circuit, without removing
it.

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CAIXAS DE IGNIO:
-Circuito de recepo
-Rectificador e
armazenamento
(condensador)
-Circuito de descarga
Input Voltage:
105-122VAC 380-420 Hz
Output Voltage:
1a 5 descargas por seg.
de 15-20KV

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Fan air
introduction

Condutor de cobre, envolvido em


manga de cobre, manga de
Fan air metal e exterior de Nquel.
introduction

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Sistema A

Sistema B

Cada canal pode controlar o switch


de cada sistema de ignio.

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Engine Warning Display
Engine Man Start Panel

Engine Control Panel


System Display

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Se N2<50% e EGT>725C
ECU aborta arranca.

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FIM

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Sistema de Ar

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Em Cruise, o impulso
remanescente 1/5 do
nominal em Sea Level

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Efeito Venturi

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

ROTOR ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM (RACC)


The Rotor Active Clearance Control system (RACC) is controlled by the FADEC system which
maintains HPC rotor blade clearance relative to HPC stator compressor case.

The RACC system modulates the fifth stage High Pressure (HP) compressor bleed air into the
compressor rotor bore to vary and control the clearances.
The air flow to the rotor is mixed with the booster discharge air. By heating the compressor rotor
with fifth stage bleed air, the compressor clearances are reduced. This improves the efficiency of
the compressor and the overall Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of the engine.
When the RACC valve is closed, the total air flow through the rotor is from the booster discharge
air and the clearances are maximized. As the RACC valve opens, the amount and temperature
of the air through the rotor is increased due to the introduction of fifth stage bleed air: then the
clearances are closed to optimize performance.

Rotor Active Clearance Control Valve


The Rotor Active Clearance Control (RACC) valve is a butterfly valve with one inlet port and one
outlet port. The valve has a RACC port and a PCR port. It consists of an outer housing, a rotating
plate, and an integral fuel powered actuator with dual independent transducers for position
feedback. The inlet port receives 5th stage compressor bleed air which is modulated by rotating
the plate. The RACC valve outlet port supplies modulated bleed air. The RACC valve is located
on the HPC compressor case at 12:00 oclock.

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-5A RACC Valve


Schematic

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-5A RACC
Valve

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-5A RACC Valve


Localizao #12 horas HPC case

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-Queima eficiente
-Evita pontos quentes
-Respeita normas emisso NOx
-Boa capacidade light-up
-Nunca provocar Stall

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(Yttrium Zirconate)

30%

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Ceramic Coating

Convergente, para acelerar os gases


da combusto, aumentando a
energia cintica que vai ser
convertida em binrio no rotor HPT.

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Thermally-Densified Coating
(TDC) Rubcoat

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Efeito Venturi

Importante drenagem dos air


seals para evitar condies de
fogo.
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#1 & #3 Thrust Bearing

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

AIR SYSTEM
The engine air system covers the compressor airflow control, turbine clearance control, transient
bleed and cooling.

COMPRESSOR AIRFLOW CONTROL


To limit compressor surge and to provide good acceleration, the engine is equipped with a
Variable Bleed Valve (VBV) system and a Variable Stator Vane (VSV) system.
Both systems are fuel operated by the HydroMechanical Unit (HMU) and controlled by the
Electronic Control Unit (ECU).

VBV SYSTEM
The Variable Bleed Valve (VBV) system controls airflow from the LP compressor to the HP
compressor by using 12 valves.
The VBVs discharge the LP compressor air into the fan air stream to match LP/HP compressor
airflow at low speed and transient operations.

VSV SYSTEM
The Variable Stator Vane (VSV) system controls airflow through the HP compressor by using the
first four rows of pivoting vanes. The first stage is called Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV).
The VSVs provide aerodynamic matching of the HP compressor stages to prevent engine surge.

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

AIR SYSTEM
SAFETY PRECAUTION:
For Removal operation:
- Warning notices must be put to tell persons not to start engine 1(2) and not to set the ENGine
FADEC GrouND PoWeR 1(2) ON.
- Make sure that engine 1(2) has been shut down for at least 5 minutes.

VBV: Variable Bleed Valve.


The Variable Bleed Valves are driven by flexible shafts from the master VBV. The master VBV is
driven by a fuel gear motor assembly which consists of a positive displacement gear motor and
end-of-stroke stop mechanism.
The motor converts pressurized fuel into rotary shaft power driving the gear reduction stage of the
VBV and master ballscrew actuator assembly through the VBV stop mechanism.
CAUTION (Removing the VBV stop mechanism and gear motor): use a second wrench to apply
countertorque to the nipple when you disconnect/connect hydraulic lines on nipples.
Take care not to damage the protecting boot on the VBV fuel gear motor assembly during
removal.

CAUTION (Installing the VBV stop mechanism and gear motor): be careful not to cause damage
to the protecting boot on the VBV fuel gear motor assembly during installation.
Keep the motor perpendicular to the mounting surface to prevent damage to the splines, when
you install the VBV fuel gear motor on the VBV stop mechanism.
Use a second wrench to apply countertorque to the nipple when you disconnect/connect
hydraulic lines on nipples.

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Entre o strut 10 e 11

Evita Stall em condies de baixa


velocidade.
O LPC fornece um caudal demasiado
elevado para o HPC aceitar.

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

VBV AND MASTER BALLSCREW ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY


RIGGING: During installation of the VBV and master ballscrew actuator assembly, use a special
wrench, ratchet-dual purpose VBV man control, to close the VBV door until it contacts the scoop
(refer to AMM 75-31-50).

VBV AND BALLSCREW ACTUATOR ASSEMBLIES


RIGGING: During installation of a VBV and ballscrew actuator assembly, set the VBV door in
closed position using the wrench, ratchet-dual purpose VBV man control (refer to AMM 75-31-50).

VBV FEEDBACK ROD


RIGGING: The VBVs must be rigged in the closed position before adjusting the feedback rod.
To adjust the feedback rod with the RVDT, check that the sensor arm is well aligned with the
sensor mark.
If not aligned, loosen the adjustment nut, remove the bolt and set the assembly by turning the
clevis by half-turns until the sensor arm is aligned with the mark.
(Refer to AMM 75-31-70)

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Instalada entre os Struts 10 e 11.

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Regulao
pela posio
de fechadas

Rotary Variable
Differential Transducer
(RVDT)
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Abrem mais em
condies de
gelo ou ingesto
de gua

Rev Idle => increase open VBV Reduz


desgaste
mecnico

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

Bad Weather

Abertas em baixa rotao,


fecham com o aumento
da velocidade N1.
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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

VSV: Variable Stator Vane

VSV ACTUATORS
There are two VSV actuators and linkage assemblies, one on each side of the engine.
(RH side - channel A)
(LH side - channel B)
Each VSV actuator is hydraulically actuated by the HMU and position feedback is sent to the ECU
by an LVDT contained in the actuator.
NOTE: For removal/installation, the actuator rod is set in the extended position which corresponds
to the VSV fully closed position.
Note that there are no specific rigging tasks because the LVDT defines the actuator position.

VSV BELLCRANK ASSEMBLIES


NOTE: One unit for each actuator. The bellcrank has pre-rigging rods to provide correct
positioning when installed.

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#2 #8 horas

Para optimizar a eficincia do


HPC, posicionando o escoamento
de ar com o ngulo apropriado.
Melhora margem de Stall.
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Abrem com o aumento de


velocidade N2
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Acel/decel
rpido,
schedule para
proteger e
aumentar a
margem stall

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL


There are three systems independently controlled by the ECU and actuated from the HMU which
provide the engine clearance adjustment and transient bleed.
The clearance between the blade tips and the casings is actively controlled in order to optimize
engine performance using cooling air to shrink the LP and HP turbine casings.

HPTACC SYSTEM
The High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (HPTACC) system uses stage 4 and stage 9
HP compressor air to heat or cool the High Pressure Turbine shroud support structure.
The shroud support structure temperature is monitored by the ECU using the T case sensors.

LPTACC SYSTEM
The Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (LPTACC) system uses fan air for external case
cooling of the LP turbine.

TRANSIENT BLEED SYSTEM (TBV)


The Transient Bleed Valve (TBV) improves the compressor stall margin during transient and start
conditions.
The Transient Bleed Valve unloads the HP compressor by discharging stage 9 HP compressor air in
the LP turbine cavity.

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Figure CFM56-5B
-5A HPC only 5th staage bleed

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

HPTACC: High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

HPTACC VALVE
The HPTACC valve has integrated a dual butterfly valves driven by a single fuel powered
actuator.
Position feedback to the ECU is provided by a dual channel LVDT installed on the actuator.
One butterfly valve controls the flow from the 4th stage compressor bleed while the other
butterfly valve controls the flow from the 9th stage compressor bleed.
The 4th stage air is mixed with the 9th stage air downstream of the valve.

NOTE: On CFM56-5A model, instead of 4th stage, 5th stage is used to HPT Clearance Control.

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(Fail safe)

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

LPTACC: Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control

LPTACC VALVE
Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control valve is a butterfly valve. The valve consists of an
outer housing, a control plate, a linear actuator, 2 RVDT sensors for feedback signals and a
butterfly valve actuation.
Under control of the PCR pressure applied at its head end and a PC/PB modulated pressure
applied at its rod end, the linear actuator moves a rack controlling both the opening and closing
of the butterfly valve which regulates the amount of air required for cooling the turbine as a
function of the engine operating configuration (engine rating).

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Curso Electromecnicos A320 FAM CFM56-5A/B

TRANSIENT BLEED VALVE


The Transient Bleed Valve is a butterfly valve driven from the HMU by a fuel powered actuator.
Position feedback to the ECU is provided by a dual channel LVDT installed on the actuator.
The TBV normal and fail safe position is closed.
The TBV controls the air flow from the HP compressor 9th stage to the LP turbine cavity to improve
compressor stall margin during start and transient conditions.

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Transient Bleed Valve


Melhora Stall Margin durante o
arranque e Accel/Decel rpido.

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Fail safe: Closed position

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Pode abrir <80% Abre at N2<80%:


-Rpida acelerao
-Bodie decel
-Flame-out during decel (non-
BSV) diminui ar na cmara
para no apagar motor.
-N2+100 rpm < N2 min
-Ps3+3psi < Ps3 dmd

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Problemas TCC Sensor

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