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UNIVERSIDAD POLITCNICA SALESIANA

DEPARTAMENTO DE
INGENIERA ELCTRICA

Dr. CARLOS GALLARDO

Campus Kennedy FACULTAD DE INGENIERA


Edificio Ingeniera Elctrica
Av. Rafael Bustamante 450 y ELCTRICA
Gonzalo Zaldumbide

Quito-Ecuador

Telfono: (593-2) 3962919


LECTURE 1 :
(593-2) 3962920

carlos.gallardo@epn.edu.ec
HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

Prof. Dr. Carlos Gallardo (Ph.D)

2015
HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

In 1954, with the commissioning of a 20-MW, 90-km link


between the Swedish mainland and Gotland Island. In less than
30 years, a typical systems power rating had increased to 1800
MW. Transmission voltages and currents had increased over the
same time span from 100 kV to 533 kV and from 200 to 2000
amperes.
The use of AC for the Swedish underwater link was not possible
because the intermediate reactive compensation required for
cable transmission was not feasible. The availability of a type of
mercury-arc valve invented by U. Lamm in Sweden during World
War II made this first DC underwater link possible. Its reliable and
economic operation justified

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

HVDC interconnections in western


Europe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-voltage_direct_current

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

1. Iceland -UK (option) 1100MW


2. M oyle From UK - Auchencrosh to UK - N. Ireland- Ballycronan More
3. Norway - UK (option) 1200MW
4. Viking cable (option) Germany to Norway 600MW
5. Kattegat (Option) Norway to Denmark-Zealand, or Norway to Sweden-South
6. en:Fenno-Skan From Finland - Rauma to Sweden - Dannebo
7. Vyborg
8. en:Estlink From Estonia - Harku to Finland - Espoo
9. en:N orN ed From Norway - Feda to Netherlands - Eemshaven
10 en:Cross-Skagerak 1,2&3 From Denmark - Tjele to Norway - Kristiansan
11 en:Konti-Skan 1&2 From Denmark - VesterHassing to Sweden - Stenkullen
12 Gotland From Sweden - Vstervik to Sweden - Yigne
13 NordE.ON 1||Germany - Diele||Germany - Borkum 2 platform
14 en:Storeblt_HVDC . Denmark- Fyn Island - Sjlland to Denmark-
Zealand island
15 (purposely blank)
16 en:Sw ePol From Sweden - Strn to Poland - Slupsk
17 en:Baltic-Cable From Germany - Lbeck- Herrenwyk to Sweden -
Kruseberg
18 en:Kontek||Denmark - Bjaeverskov || Germany - en:Bentw isch
19 en:East W est I nterconnector from Ireland - Leinster to UK - Anglesea,
Wales. Expected completion 2008.
20 BritNed, UK to netherlands. Expected completion 2010.
21 en:HVDC Cross-Channel - France - Les Mandarins to UK - en:Sellindge
22 en:HVDC I taly-Corsica-Sardinia "SACOI" - Suvereto, Sardinia, Italy to
Lucciana, Corsica, France to Codrongianos, Italy (mainland)
23 Sapei - Sardinia to Italian mainland
24 Cometa From Spain - Valencia to Spain - en:M allorca
25-28 EuroMed options:
25 Algeria - Spain
26 Algeria - Sardinia
27 Tunis - Sicily
28 Tripoli - Sicily
29 en:HVDC I taly-Greece Greece - Arachthos to Italy - Galatina

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Major HVDC Systems in Operation (1980).
Systen and Year Operationatol Capacity DC Voltage, kV Length of Route, km Value Type Six Bridge kV Pulse
,MW Rating kA

Moscow-Kashira U.S.S.R. 30 200 130 (overhead) Mercury arc 200 0,15


(experimental), 1950

Gotland, Sweeden, 1954 20 (1954) 100 98 (cable) Mercury arc and 50 0,2
30 (1970) thyristor

Cross-Chanel, England-France, 1961 160 + 100 65 (cable) Mercury arc 100 0,8

Volgograd-Dombass, U.S.S.R., 1962 750 + 400 472 (overhead) Mercury arc 100 0,9

Konti-skan Denmark-Sweden, 1965 250 + 250 95 (overhead) Mercury arc 125 1.0
85 (cable)

Sakuma I, Japan, 1965 300 2X125 0 Mercury arc 125 1.2

New Zaland, 1965 600 + 250 567 (overhead) Mercury Arc 125 1.2
120 (cable)

Sardinia- Italy, 1965 200 200 290 (overhead) Mercury Arc 100 1.0
120 (cable)

Vancouver Stage III, Canada, 1968/69 312 +260 41 (overhead) Mercury Arc 130 1,2
32 (cable)

Stage I, U.S., 1970 320 2X80 0 Thyristor, air cooled 10 2.0


Eel River, Canada, 1972 and insulated

Nelson River Bipole I, Canada, 810 (1973) +150 890(overhead) Mercury arc 150 1.8
1973/75 -300
1080 + 360
(1975)

Kingsnort, England, 1975 640 + 266 82 (cable) Mercury arc 133 1.2
3 substationns)

Cabora Bassa, Mozambique, South 960 + 266 1410 (overhead) Thyristor, oil-cooled 133 1.8
Africa, 1975 and insulated

Nelson River Bipole I, 1620 + 450 890 (overhead) Mercury Arc 150 1.8

Table shows a listing of major protects in operation today.

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Politcnica Salesiana
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High-Volatge Direct-Current Transmission
Systen and Year Operationatol Capacity DC Voltage, kV Length of Route, km Value Type Six Bridge kV Pulse
,MW Rating kA

Canada, 1975/76 552 (1976 +200 41 (overhead ) Thyristor, air cooled 140 1,72
Vancuver Stages IV and V, Canada, -140 32 (cable) and insulated
1976/78 +260 (winter)

Tri-States, U.S. 1976 792 (1978) -280 0 Thyristor, air cooled 25 2.0
(winter) and insulated
100 50

Cabora-Bassa 1440 +266 1410 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 133 1,8
(1977) -533 and insulated

Mozambique-South Africa, 1977/79 1920 + 533


(1979)

Square Butte, U.S., 1977 500 + 250 745 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 125 1.0
and insulated

Skagerrak, Norway-Denmark, 1976/77 500 + 250 100 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 125 1.0
130 (cable) and insulated

EPRI Compact Substation, 100U.S., 100 100(400 kV to 0.6 (cable) Mercury Arc 50 1.0
1978 ground)

CU, U.S., 1978 1000 + 400 656 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 200 1.25
and insulated

Inga-Shaba, Zaire, StageI, 1976 560 + 500 1700 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 250 0,56
and insulated

Nelson River Bipole 2, Canada, + 250 + 250 920 (overhead) Thyristor, air cooled 125 1.8
1978/81 + 500 and insulated

Shin-Shinano, Japon, 1978 150 +125 0 Thyristor, air cooled


and insulated

Hokkaido-Honsshu, Japan, 1979 150 + 250 124 (overhead) Mercury arc


44 (cable)

Major HVDC Systems Operation (1980) Source: EPRI Journal

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High-Volatge Direct-Cvurrent Transmission

Schematic diagram of a Thury


HVDC transmission system

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission

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Convertidores.

El dispositivo que permite el control de velocidad es el convertidor de


frecuencias. Existen varias posibilidades tcnicas para realizar un
convertidor:

- Convertidores de frecuencia con modulacin por amplitud de pulsos


(PAM).
- Convertidor de frecuencia con modulacin por anchura de pulsos
(PWM).
- Inversor de corriente (CSI).

Unidos a travs de un circuito intermedio de DC elementos pasivos de


aislamiento C/L.
Circuito intermedio que alimenta ondulador es una tensin independiente
de la carga

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Rectificador.
Ms utilizado es el trifsico tipo B6 (seis diodos) conexin
conocida como puente de Gratz.

Potencial mismo fase


asegura retorno de la
corriente

Diferencia entre las dos


envolventes superior e inferior
de los voltajes UA y UB.

Potencial mismo
Este puente se puede utilizar fase conduce
en una red de alterna sin
transformador tericamente
desfasados 120 elctricos

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Tensiones en el Rectificador.
# pulsos de rectificador = #ciclos de ripple del voltaje continuo*
ciclos del voltaje alterno rectificador de dos vas es de 6 pulsos.

V1 nulo cuando diodo conduce


eb-ea cuando conduce diodo 3
eb-ec cuando conduce diodo 5

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Converters.

Commutation process explained. When just valves 1 and 2 are conducting, the DC
voltage is formed from two of the three phase voltages. During the overlap period
the DC voltage is formed from all three phase voltages.

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Corriente en la Carga del Rectificador.

L transformador 0
L alisado
Circuito intermedio:
Elementos de filtrado del V
y I que entrega el
rectificador.
C reduce efecto ripple
(rizado) del V.
L acumuladores
inductivos, reducen rizado I

Id=Ud/Rc =1.35UL

Corriente en la carga del rectificador.

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Rectificador Trifsico no Controlado.

Rectificador no controlado de seis pulsos.

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Rectificador Trifsico.

Formas de onda y ngulo


de conduccin de los
diodos, de un
Rectificador Trifsico de
6 pulsos

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Rectificador Trifsico Controlado.

Este tipo de rectificador permite variar el


voltaje promedio de salida, empleando para
su funcionamiento tiristores de potencia con
los cuales se puede variar el ngulo de
disparo y por ende la potencia entregada a la
carga.

Rectificador controlado de seis pulsos.

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Rectificador Trifsico Controlado.

Formas de onda del voltaje


de entrada, voltaje de
salida, corriente de
entrada y corriente de
salida a travs de los
tiristores

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Ondulador con Modulacin de Anchura de Pulso.
Cada fase esta formada por dos troceadores (tiristores o
transistores), uno para cada polaridad +E/2 E/2 durante la
conduccin (Tr1 y Tr4).

D1 y D2 Devuelven energa
al ondulador

Cebado polarizado leyes


de modulacin

Fase del ondulador.


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Ondulador con Modulacin de Anchura de Pulso.
Leyes de modulacin instante de conmutacin de
conduccin de los troceadores implementan con
microprocesadores incorporados al convertidor.
Comparan voltajes de referencia (SEAL BUSCADA) con una
seal triangular simtrica f(portadora)=nf1.

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Anlisis conversor AC-DC-AC.

Inversor con Modulacin SPWM (por fase)

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Voltajes Resultantes entre Fase y Neutro.

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Voltajes Resultantes VAB, VBC y VCA.

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Ondulador con Modulacin de Anchura de Pulso.
Para motores de induccin a jaula, y en el rango de hasta 500 kW
usan IGBT (transistores Bipolares de Compuerta Aislada) o
MOSFET (Transistores de Efecto de Campo).
tconmutacin s y fconmutacin 16 kHz.

Inversin de velocidad se
hace sobre la electrnica
de control

Formas de onda terica de un ondulador PWM.

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Rectificador Trifsico Controlado.

Circuito y formas de onda de un rectificador trifsico de doce pulsos.

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Voltajes Resultantes VAB, VBC y VCA.

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HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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Main Applications of HVDC.

HVDC transmission is advantageous in the following areas of


application:
For long underwater cable crossings (wider than 32 km). In six of
the first seven commercial schemes, submarine cables are the
medium of power transfer. The design is such that the forecast
increase in transmission capacity will be met by HVDC operation
at 1200 kV.

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Main Applications of HVDC.

HVDC transmission is advantageous in the following areas of


application:
For long-distance, bulk-power transmission by overhead lines,
when the savings in cost of a dc line would more than
compensate for the cost of converter stations. We show the
comparative costs of ac and dc overhead lines versus distance of
transmission. The break-even distance is abscissa of the
intersection of the dc transmission cost with the transmission
cost. If the transmission distance is longer than the break-even
distance, the dc is cheaper than ac.

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Main Application of HVDC.

Total cost/distance

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Main Application of HVDC.

Comparative Costs of AC and DC Overhead Lines for Various Distances

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Main Applications of HVDC.

HVDC transmission is advantageous in the following areas of


application:
Inherent short-time overload capacity that can be used for
damping system oscillations. Two systems when interconnected
by ac lines sustain instability.

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Main Applications of HVDC.

HVDC transmission is advantageous in the following areas of


application:
A requirement to provide an intertie between two systems
without raising the short-circuit level appreciably can be met by
using a HVDC link.
Two systems having different frequencies may be tied together
through a dc interconnection.

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Some Limitations of HVDC Transmission.

The lack of HVDC circuit breakers is regarded as a limitation to


HVDC transmission.
In AC circuits, circuit breakers take advantage of the current zeros
occurring twice per cycle. Grid control in converter valves on radial
lines is used to block the dc temporarily.
The realization of multiterminal systems requires the use of HVDC
circuit breakers.

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Some Limitations of HVDC Transmission.

The reliability and maintenance of converters have been a major


problem for dc systems with mercury-arc converters. This
difficulty has been resolved in projects using thyristor valves.
The production of harmonics due to converter operation leads to
audio frequency telephone line interference. Filters on both sides
of the dc system are required to suppress these harmonics.

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HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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HVDC Converters.
A HVDC converter is simply a controlled switch suitable for HVDC
transmission purpose. The converter can conduct in either direction
depending on the controlled times of closing and opening as well as on
the Circuits EMF. Unidirectional conduction is desired, and devices with
this property are called valves.

A glass - envelope mercury - arc rectifier valve

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HVDC Converters

The mercury-arc rectifier is a steel vessel that is evacuated

Mercury is advantageous since it is a liquid metal that


can easily vaporaize and condense

A Single-Anode Mercury-Arc Valve. (Source: IEEE Spe trum, August 1966.

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HVDC Converters

The symbol for a controlled mercury-arc valve is shown in figure .


Symbols for a controlled valve of any type (mercuryarc or solid-
state) are shown in figure.

Symbol for Controlled Valve


Symbol for Controlled Mercury-Arc Valve

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HVDC Converters.

The thyristor is a special type of diode that in order to start


conduction must have not only a positive anode-cathode voltage
but also a high enough positive pulse applied to a third electrode
called the gate. Once conduction starts, the voltage across the
thyristor drops to a low value, and the current rises to a value
limited by the external circuit only.
To achieve the voltage ratings desired for a valve, thyristors may be
strung together in series.
With thyristor valves it is possible to tap into any point of the
thyristor chain. Consequently it is possible to adopt the 12-pulse
bridge configuration.

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HVDC Converters.

In the 6-pulse bridge circuit used with mercury converters, the


significant harmonic components are the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th, in
contrast with only 11th and 13th in the case of the 12-pulse bridge.
Thus there is significant saving in cost of filters to reduce these
harmonics when thyristor valves are used.

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HVDC Converters

Load voltage regulated by


thyristor phase control.
Red trace: load voltage.
Blue trace: trigger signal.

Three-phase full-wave (Graetz) bridge rectifier circuit using thyristors as the switching
elements.
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Rectificador Trifsico Controlado.

Circuito y formas de onda de un rectificador trifsico de doce pulsos.

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Operacin del Rectificador y Ondulador Trifsico.

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HVDC Converters

Voltage and current waveforms for a six-pulse bridge


at alpha=20 with overlap angle of 20

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HVDC Converters

Valve voltage and current for inverter operation with =20 and =20

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HVDC Converters

A 12-pulse HVDC converter using mercury arc valves, with a bypass valve and bypass switch
across each of the two 6-pulse bridges

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HVDC Converters

A 150-kilovolt, 1800 A mercury-arc valve in the Nelson River DC Transmission


System in Manitoba, Canada

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HVDC Converters

A 12-pulse HVDC converter using thyristor valves

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HVDC Converters

A twelve-pulse thyristor converter for Pole 2 of the HVDC Inter-Island between the
North and South Islands of New Zealand.
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HVDC Converters

Three-phase, two-level voltage-source converter for HVDC

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HVDC Converters

Operating principle of 2-level converter, single-phase representation.

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HVDC Converters

One method of generating the PWM pulse train corresponding to a given signal is the intersective PWM:
the signal (here the red sinewave) is compared with a sawtooth waveform (blue). When the latter is less
than the former, the PWM signal (magenta) is in high state (1). Otherwise it is in the low state (0).

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HVDC Converters

Three-phase, three-level, diode-clamped voltage-source converter for HVDC

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HVDC Converters

Operating principle of 3-level, diode


clamped converter, single - phase
representation.

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HVDC Converters

Three-phase Modular Multi


- Level Converter (MMC)
for HVDC.

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HVDC Converters

Operating principle of Modular Multi-


Level Converter (MMC) for HVDC,
with four series-connected
submodules per valve. For clarity
only one phase of the three is
shown.

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HVDC Converters

MMC valve showing possible conduction states.

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HVDC Converters

Full-bridge MMC submodule.

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HVDC Converters.

The availability of high-current thyristor devices makes it possible


to replace the series-parallel configurations that were necessary
to obtain the required current ratings in earlier converter designs.
A standard single converter with several high-voltage devices
coupled in parallel is used. This eliminates the need to control
series valves. Moreover, there is no need to install the parallel
converters at the same site.
Fiber-optic devices are used for simultaneous triggering of the
devices as well as for monitoring purposes

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HVDC Converters

A bank of six 2000 A thyristors (white disks arranged in a row at top, and seen edge-on)

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HVDC Converters

Valve hall containing thyristor valve stacks


used for long distance transmission of power
from Manitoba Hydro dams.

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Rectificador Trifsico Controlado.

Some other attributes for thyristor-based HVDC.

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HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

Direct-current links are classified according to the number of


conductors used. The monopolar link has one conductor (usually of
negative polarity) and uses ground or sea return.

A Monopolar link

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

Two conductors, one positive, the other negative, are used in a


bipolar link. The neutral points given by the junctions between the
converters are grounded at one or both ends.

A Bipolar Link

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

Each terminal of a bipolar link has two converters of equal-rated


voltage in series on the dc side, shows a bipolar link.

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

The homopolar link has two or more conductors, all having the
same polarity (usually negative), and always operates with ground
return. This is advantageous since on fault the entire converters
can be connected to the remaining nonfaulted conductor or
conductors.

A Homopolar Link

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

A block diagram of a bipolar HVDC transmission system, between two stations designated A and B. AC
represents an alternating current network CON represents a converter valve,
either rectifier or inverter, TR represents a power transformer DCTL is the direct-current transmission
line conductor, DCL is a direct-current filter inductor.

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Classification of Direct-Curent Links

BP represents a bypass switch, and PM represent power factor correction and harmonic filter networks
required at both ends of the link. The DC transmission line may be very short in a back-to-back link, or
extend hundreds of miles (km) overhead, underground or underwater. One conductor of the DC line
may be replaced by connections to earth ground.

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

Long distance HVDC lines carrying hydroelectricity from Canada's Nelson river to
this converter station where it is converted to AC for use in southern Manitoba's grid

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

Two HVDC lines cross near Wing, North Dakota.

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

Bipolar system pylons of the Baltic-Cable - HVDC in Sweden.

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High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission.

A single-phase, three-winding converter transformer. The long valve-winding bushings, which


project through the wall of the valve hall, are shown on the left. The line-winding bushing
projects vertically upwards at centre-right

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HIGH-VOLTAGE DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION.

CONTENTS
1: Introduction to HVDC.

2: Main Aplications of HVDC.

3: HVDC Converters.

4: Classification of Direct-Current Links.

5: Some Advantages of HVDC


Transmission.

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

The primary economy in DC transmission is that only two


conductors per circuit are needed rather than the three required for
AC. DC transmission towers carry less conductor dead weight,
smaller, less costly to fabricate, and easier to erect.
.

Typical transmission line


structures for approx.
1000 MW

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

For the same amount of power transmitted over the same size
conductors, line losses are smaller with DC than with AC.
Neglecting ac skin effect, AC line losses are 33 percent greater
than DC line losses.

Typical transmission line


structures for approx.
1000 MW

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Example 1.

Show that the ratio of AC line loss to the corresponding DC loss is


1.33 assuming equal power transfer and equal peak voltages for
both options.

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Example 1.

Note that even though the power transfer is the same, line is
simpler and cheaper, with two conductors as opposed to three. This
leads to requiring two-thirds of the insulators that would be
required for the ac line.

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Example 2.

A new DC transmission system is compared with a three-phase AC


system transmitting the same power and having the same losses
and size of conductor.

Assume that the direct voltage for breakdown of a insulator string is


equal to the peak value of the alternating voltage to cause
breakdown.

Show that the DC line will not only have two conductors instead of
three for the AC line, but in addition the insultion level will only 87
percent of that of the ac line.

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Example 2.

Thus the DC line will not only have two conductors instead of three,
the insulation level will only be 87 percent of that of the ac line.
The previous examples clearly deal with two extreme cases, savings
in the line loss are achieved while maintaining equal insulation
level.

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Example 3.

Assume that a design choice for a ratio y of the losses in the DC


case to losses in the alternative. Thus,

This choice leads to a specific ratio of DC voltage to peak AC


voltage. Show that in this case.

Assume equal power transfer in both cases.

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Example 3.

The result of Example indicates that a saving (reduction) in line losses results
in an increase in the required voltage (insulation level), assuming
insulation levels as the reference.

A compromise choice can be made based on the economic trade-offs.

Variation of Insulation Ratio with Loss Ratio for Equal Power Transfer

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Problem A-1.

Consider an existing three-phase, doble-circuit, AC line in relation to


its conversion to DC with three circuits. Assume the same
insulation level. Show that the ratio of power transmitted by DC to
that by AC is given by:


= 2

Show also that the percentage loss ratio is

1
= =0.707
2

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Problem A-2.

Assume a particular desing criterion specifies that the ratio of


insulation level for a DC bipolar line to the insulation level for the
equivalent AC three-phase line (equal power transfer) is x. Show
that the corresponding losses are related by:
4 2
=
3

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Problem A-3.

The losses for a proposed AC line are 60 MW. Find the


corresponding losses if a DC line is designed such that the ratio of
insulation level for the DC line to that for the equivalent AC three-
phase line is 0.87.

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

In the event of a single-line fault on a DC line, the remaining


conductors will still be functional through the use of ground return.
This enables the repair of faulty sections without considerable
reduction in service level.

The fact that each conductor can act as an independent circuit is a


contributing factor to the reliability of DC transmission lines.

Switching surges on DC lines are lower than those on AC lines. In


AC overhead lines, attempts are made to limit them to peak values
of two or three times the normal maximum voltage value as
opposed to 1.7 times in the DC case.

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

Radio interference and corona losses during foul weather are lower
in the DC case than in the AC case.

The AC resistance of a conductor is commonly known to be higher


than its DC resistance, due to skin effect.

A DC transmission link has no stability problem.

Interconnecting systems by a DC link will not increase short-circuit


currents of the AC systems nearly as much as interconnection via
AC links. This can save on synchronous condenser requirements in
the systems.

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

The transient reactance of some hydro plants is abnormally low (to


the stability limit), necessitating a higher generator cost. This would
not be required if DC transmission is used.

One of the most important economies achieved can be appreciated


if we observe that using DC transmission, the prime-mover speed
need not be confined to correspond to 50 or 60 Hz, but could
rather be chosen for best economy.

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Some Advantages of HVDC Transmission.

The reactive power produced by the cables shunt capacitance


greatly exceeds that consumed by the series inductance. This is
due to loading below surge impedance level to avoid overheating.

In a 60 Hz cable 40-80 km Long, the charging current alone equals


the rated current. Shunt compensation could theoretically rectify
this problem. However, this is difficult to implement in submarine
cable applications. Direct-current cables have no such limitations.

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Reactive Power Requirements of Long Overhead AC and DC
lines at Full Load as a Function of the Length of Line.
A DC line itself does not require reactive power. The converters at
both ends of the line draw reactive power from the AC system
connected. This is independent of the line length. In contrast with
AC where reactive power varies almost linearly with distance

Ferranti effect

In AC lines, It is not feasible to close both ends at exactly the same instant. Clearly this difficulty
is avoided in DC lines.

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