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DESIGN FMEA

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Training Seminar
on

FAILURE MODE & EFFECT ANALYSIS

DFMEA
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DESIGN FMEA
Origin
FMEA

US-Space program and defence safety system in 1960’s

Common Definitions
Function :

Function of the item being analysed to meet the Design intent.


Includes information regarding the environment in which this
system operates.

Failure Mode:

A ‘Failure Mode’ is the manner in which a component, assembly or


system could potentially fail to meet the design intent. Typical
failure mode may includes, not limited to :

Yield; Fatigue; Material Instability; creep; wear; corrosion;


Cracked Deformed; Leaking.
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DESIGN FMEA
What is FMEA?
FMEA

FMEA is a systemised group of activities to:


1. recognise and evaluate the potential failure of a product /
process and its effects
2. identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance
of potential failure occurring
3. document the process

Why FMEA ?

1. For a company policy where continuous improvement is


emphasized for its product, process
2. FMEA is a living document

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DESIGN FMEA
Who should do FMEA?
FMEA

1. Cross Functional Team Effort – with a leader


2. Team of knowledgeable individuals Ex. Expertise in Design,
Mfg., Assly., Quality., etc.
3. Team should include representatives of sub-contractors and/or
customers

When FMEA should be done ?

1. Essence is timeliness
2. Pro-Active rather than reactive
3. Before process failure mode occurs

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FMEA DESIGN FMEA
Advantages of FMEA

1. Avoids late change crisis


2. Reduces or eliminates chance of
implementing corrective change
3. excellent technique for preventive action
4. interactive process which is never ending

Types of FMEA

1. System FMEA – Power transmission system


2. Design FMEA – Axle shaft
3. Process FMEA – Heat treatment

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FMEA DESIGN FMEA
QS-9000 requirements

• FMEA shall consider special characteristics


• Aiming defect prevention rather than defect detection
• Use FMEA manual & CFT approach

Potential – Design FMEA


Potential Means ‘Anticipated’
It is an analytical technique to assure that potential failure
mode and their associated causes have been considered and
addressed.

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DESIGN FMEA
Design FMEA supports the Design process in reducing the risk of failures by :
FMEA

Aiding in the objective evaluation of design requirements and design


alternatives
• Aiding in the initial design for manufacturing and assembly requirements
• Increasing the probability that potential failure modes and their effects on
system and vehicle operation have been considered in the design/
development process.
• Providing additional information to aid in the planning of thorough and
efficient design test and development programs
• Developing a list of potential failure modes ranked according to their effect
on the "customer", thus establishing a priority system for design
improvements and development testing
• Providing format for recommending and tracking risk reducing actions.
• Providing future reference to aid in analysing field concerns, evaluating
design changes and developing advanced designs.

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DESIGN FMEA
DESIGN FMEA - BLOCK DIAGRAM
FMEA BLOCK DIAGRAM

Helps to analyze the inter-relationship between various parts/


subsystems within each subsystem/ system.

Example :
SWITCH
ON/OFF COMPONENTS
C
A. HOUSING
B. BATTERIES (2 D CELL)
2 C. ON/OFF SWITCH
D. BULB ASSEMBLY
E. PLATE
BULB
ASSEMBLY
3 HOUSING
A
F. SPRING

D ASSEMBLY METHOD

1. SKIP FIT
4 1 4 2. RIVETS
3. THREAD
PLATE BATTERIES SPRING 4. SNAP FIT
E B F COMPRESSIVE FIT
+ 5 5

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ITEM FUNCT. WORK SHEET DESIGN FMEA
FOR ITEM FUNCTION WORK SHEET

CLICK HERE

FOR FMEA FORMAT

CLICK HERE

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DESIGN FMEA
System Level Sub system level Component level
ITEM, FUNCTIONS & FIALURE

Bicycle Frame Upper frame

DESIGN OBJECTIVE FUNCTION


1 provide stable attachment for seat FUNCTION
support 1 provide structural support
1 Minimum 3000 hr. of riding without
need for maintenance & 10,000 hr. POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE ( S ) POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE ( S )
of riding for design life
2 Accommodates mate audits 1 Structural failure of seat support 1 Structural failure
2 Excessive defection of seat support 2 Excessive defection
comfortably to the 99.5 th percentile
3 etc. FUNCTIONS : FUNCTIONS :

POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE : Provide pleasing appearance Provide dimensional control for correct
1 Difficult to steer finishing frame geometry
POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE ( S )
2 difficult to pedal POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE ( S )
1 Finish deteriorates
FUNCTION 2 Paint chips 1 Length of frame mounting points too
1 provide reliable transportation long
2 Length of frame mounting points are too
POTENTIAL FAILURE MODE ( S ) Handle bar Assembly short

1 Chain break frequency Lower front Tube


Front wheel Assembly
2 Tires require frequency
Lower Rear Tube
FUNCTIONS : Rear wheel Assembly

Sprocket Assembly Sprocket Tube

FOR DESIGN FMEA CHECKLIST


CLICK HERE

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DESIGN FMEA
Item Potent Potential
EXPLANATIONS

Function ial Effect(s)


Failur of Failure
e
Mode

• Specify the description


and Function of the item

Example
Item function
• Occupant protection from

weather, noise and side


impact
• Support anchorage for

door hardware

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DESIGN FMEA
Potential Failure Mode Potential Se
EXPLANATIONS

Effect(s) of v
Failure
Review of the past things-gone-
wrong, concerns reports, and
group brainstorming is required.

• List the failure modes those are


possible to occur against the
requirements specified in the
previous column.
• Apart from Engg. specification ,
what would a customer consider
objectionable

Example
Cracked, Deformed, Loosened,
Oxidised, Leaking

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DESIGN FMEA
Clas
Potential Effect(s) of Failure Sev
EXPLANATIONS

s
• List the effects of failure mode on the
function, as perceived by the
customer.
• Describe the effects using the
terminology specified in Severity
rating table
• For each failure mode, more than one
effect can be listed

Example
- Noise
- Erratic Operation
- Poor Appearance
- Unstable
- Intermittent Operation
- Rough
- Inoperative

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DESIGN FMEA
Potential
EXPLANATIONS

Cla Cause(s) /
Severity
ss Mechanism (s)
of Failure

• Assess the seriousness of


the effect in a 1-10 scale
• This rating applies to
EFFECT only (i.e. previous
column)
• Safety related effects
should be rated in Nos.9 or
10

FOR SEVIORITY RANKING


CLICK HERE

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA

O
Potential
c
Cause(s) /
Classification c
Mechanism
u
(s) of Failure
r

• Classify special product


characteristics (e.g. critical,
key, major)

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DESIGN FMEA
Current Current
EXPLANATIONS

Process Proces
Control s Typical Failure causes may
Potential Cause(s) / Occ
s Control include, but not limited to
Mechanism (s) of Failure ur
Preventi s
on Detecti 1 Incorrect material
on specification
2 Inadequate design life
• Indication of Design assumption.
weakness, the consequence 3 Over stressing
of which is the failure mode. 4 Insufficient lubrication
• Describe the causes in such capability
a way that can be eliminated 5 Inadequate / improper
or controlled Maintenance instruction
• Typical cause include : 6 Incorrect algorithm
• Incorrect material 7 Improper software
specified specification / surface
• Inadequate Design life finish specification / travel
assumption specification
• Over-stressing 8 Excessive heat
• Insufficient Lubrication 9 Improper tolerance
Capability specified

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DESIGN FMEA
Current
EXPLANATIONS

Current Proces
Process s FOR
Occurrence Controls Control OCCURANCE
preventi s
on Detecti RANKING
on
• Estimate the probability of
occurrence on a 1-10 scale
• Rate against each causes
CLICK HERE
• Use past data as a basis
(rejection %) for ranking
• Document the basis of
occurrence ranking
• For a new design, if there is no
previous experience, use team
judgement
Don’t consider failure-detecting
measures while giving ranking
(Prototype testing, etc.)

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DESIGN FMEA
Estimate the likelihood of occurrence of potential failure cause /
EXPLANATIONS

mechanism on 1 to 10 scale. In determining this estimate,


questions such as following should be considered.
1 What is the service history / field experience with similar
components , sub system , or systems ?
2 Is component a carryover or similar to previous level
component , subsystem or systems ?
3 How significant are changes from previous level component,
subsystem or systems ?
4 Is component is radically different from previous level
component, subsystem or systems?
5 Is component is completely new ?
6 Has the component application changed ?
7 What are the environmental changes?
8 Has an engineering analysis been used to estimate the
expected the comparable occurrence rate for the application ?
9 Have preventive Controls been put in place ?

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA
D
R
Current Design Controls Current Design Controls et
P
Prevention Detection e
N
ct

• Type of Controls
Level Type

Prevention of Cause ( Design Features/


Prevention
Design Changes)
Detection of Cause and Lead to Corrective
action(Simulation, Model testing)
Detection
Detection of Defects(Design Verification &
Validation)

• List the existing controls, which can detect the causes or failure
mode
If one column form is used then, the following prefixes should be
used
P – before each prevention control
D – before each Detection control

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DESIGN FMEA
Recommen
EXPLANATIONS

Detection RPN
ded Action

• Assess the probability of


controls listed in the previous
column, which will detect the
cause or failure mode
• While giving ranking, assume
the failure is occurred
• Don’t assume ranking is low
because the occurrence is low
• One detection ranking can be
assigned to multiple controls

FOR DETECTION RANKING


CLICK HERE

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA
Responsibil
Recommen ity & Target
RPN
ded Action Completion
Date

• Risk Priority Number


is the multiplication of
severity x occurrence
x detection.
• While calculating
RPN, consider only
highest severity rating
of each failure mode

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DESIGN FMEA
Responsibility
EXPLANATIONS

Recommended Action & Target Action Results


Completion Date

• Policy for RPN to take action


- define a target RPN and anything above that
can be considered for action. For Ex. It can be
50.
- consider only high priority no. for take action
and review periodically
• As a first priority, severity ranking can be reduced
by elimination of failure mode by change in design
• The next priority is to take action on causes to
reduce occurrence ranking
• consider action on controls to reduce detection
ranking
• Action such as , be not limited to following should
be considered
- Review design Geometry and / or Tolerances
- Revised material Specification.
- DOE or other problem solving methods
- Revised Test plan

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA

Actio O D R
Responsibility & Target Se
ns c e P
Completion Date v
Taken c t N

• Specify the responsibility


and target completion date
for every actions identified
• During APQP, the FMEA
completion dates should be
prior to Design Release

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA

Action Results

Se Oc
Actions Taken Det RPN
v c

• Describe the verification results


• Where effectiveness measure is
required, specify the target date
accordingly
• After the assessment of the
actions taken, re-assess the
values of severity, occurrence,
detection and RPN

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EXPLANATIONS DESIGN FMEA
Follow up actions

The design responsible engineer is responsible for ensuring that


all actions recommended have been implemented or adequately
addressed .

The design responsible engineer has several means of ensuring


that concerns are identified and that recommended actions are
implemented . they includes but not limited to followings :

1 Ensuring design requirements are achieved


2 Reviewing engineering drawings & specifications
3 Conforming incorporation in assembly / manufacturing
documentation &
Reviewing process FMEA & Control plans

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POINTS TO CONSIDER DESIGN FMEA
POINTS TO CONSIDER :

• Develop the Block diagram before proceeding with Design FMEA

• While deciding the effect of the failure modes of the item, consider the next
sub-assembly stage onwards upto the level of end-user

• Give the occurrence rating, as far as possible, based on the existing data on
similar previous items

• While listing out the Causes/ mechanism of failure, consider the indication of
Design weakness, which leads to the failure mode.

• While deciding the actions, the priority will be to

• Identify design changes leading to reduction in severity


• Elimination of Design causes of failure leading to reduction in occurrence
• If any of the above is not possible, introduction of new design controls to
reduce the detection.

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DESIGN FMEA
DESIGN FMEA QUALITY OBJECTIVES
DFMEA QUALITY OBJECTIVES

1 DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS : The FMEA drives design improvement as primary


objective.

2 HIGH REISK FAILURE MODES : The FMEA address all high risk failure modes
as identified by FMEA team , with executable action plans. All other failure
modes are considered .

3 A/D/V/ OR DVP & R PLANS : the analysis / Development / validation ( A/D/V)


and / or Design verification plan and report ( DVP & R ) considered the failure
mode .

4 INTERFACES : The FMEA scope includes integration and interface failure


modes in both block diagram & analysis

5 LESSONS LEARNED : The FMEA considered all major “ lessons learned “ as


input to failure mode identification

6 SPECIAL OR KEY CHARACTERISTICS : the FMEA identifies appropriate key


characteristics candidates as input to the key characteristics selection process ,
if applicable due to company policy.

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DFMEA QUALITY OBJECTIVES DESIGN FMEA
7 TIMING : The FMEA is completed during the “ Window of opportunity “
where it could most efficiently impact the product design

8 TEAM : The right people participate as part of the FMEA team through
out the analysis and are adequately trained in FMEA methods

9 DOCUMENTATION : the FMEA is completely filled out “ by the book ”


including “ action plan ” and new RPN values .

10 TIME USAGE : Time spent by FMEA team as early as possible is an


effective & efficient use of time , with a value –added result . this
assumes recommended actions are identified as required and the
actions are implemented .

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DESIGN FMEA

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