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‡ In a water molecule two hydrogen atoms form
single polar covalent bonds with an oxygen
atom. Gives water more structure than other
liquids
± Because oxygen is more electronegative, the region
around oxygen has a partial negative charge.
± The region near the two hydrogen atoms has a
partial positive charge.
‡ A water molecule is a polar molecule with
opposite ends of the molecule with opposite
charges.
‡ Water has a variety of unusual properties
because of attractions between these polar
molecules.
± The slightly negative regions of one molecule are
attracted to the slightly positive regions of nearby
molecules, forming a hydrogen bond.
± Each water molecule
can form hydrogen
bonds with up to
four neighbors.
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* a measure of the force
necessary to stretch or break the surface of a
liquid, is related to cohesion.
± Water has a greater surface tension than most other
liquids because hydrogen bonds among surface
water molecules resist stretching or breaking the
surface.
± Water behaves as if
covered by an invisible
film.
± Some animals can stand,
walk, or run on water
without breaking the
4/5/5
Copyright ©surface.
2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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‡ The cooling of a
surface occurs when
the liquid evaporates
‡ This is responsible for:
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± When water reaches 0oC, water becomes locked into
a crystalline lattice with each molecule bonded to to
the maximum of four partners.
± As ice starts to melt, some of the hydrogen bonds
break and some water molecules can slip closer
together than they can while in the ice state.
± Ice is about 10% less dense than water at 4oC.
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‡ Solution
± Solute
± solvent
‡ Aqueous solution
‡ Hydrophilic
± Ionic compounds
dissolve in water
± Polar molecules
(generally) are water
soluble
‡ Hydrophobic
± Nonpolar compounds
 
 


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‡ Occasionally, a hydrogen atom shared by two
water molecules shifts from one molecule to the
other.
± The hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind and is
transferred as a single proton - a   (H+).
± The water molecule that lost a proton is now a
 &  (OH-).
± The water
molecule with
the extra proton
is a hydronium
ion (H3O+).
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‡ An
 is a substance that
increases the hydrogen ion
concentration in a solution.
‡ Any substance that reduces the
hydrogen ion concentration in a
solution is a
.
± Some bases reduce H+ directly by
accepting hydrogen ions.

‡ Strong acids and bases complete


dissociate in water.
‡ Weak acids and bases dissociate
only partially and reversibly.
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‡ The pH scale in any aqueous solution :
± HH+ ] [OH-] = 10-14
‡ Measures the degree of acidity (0 ± 14)
‡ Most biologic fluids are in the pH range
from 6 ± 8
‡ Each pH unit represents a tenfold
difference (scale is logarithmic)
± A small change in pH actually indicates a
substantial change in H+ and OH-
concentrations.
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‡ Rain, snow or fog with more strongly acidic than
pH of 5.6
‡ West Virginia has recorded 1.5
‡ East Tennessee reported 4.2 in 2000
‡ Occurs when sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
react with water in the atmosphere
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