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BY J.

BALAMURALI
COMMUNICATION TRAINER
WHAT IS READING?
Languages are generally taught and assessed in terms
of the 'four skills': listening, speaking, reading, and
writing. Listening and reading are known as 'receptive'
skills while speaking and writing are known as
'productive' skills

Writing is usually the fourth language skill that we


learn. To write clearly it is essential to understand and
apply grammar, punctuation, vocabulary and sentence
structure.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Jayalalithaa's health: Tamil Nadu CM's condition


greatly improves in last 48 hours, AIADMK relieved.
Multiple sources have
__________ that the condition of
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J
Jayalalithaa has ___ significantly
in the past 48 hours and she has
been ______ the ventilator during
the day. She is on respiratory
support only for some time in the
night as a precautionary _______.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

The CM however, still ________ to be __ the Critical Care unit


__ Apollo Hospital. Apart from __________, her treatment
includes medication to help her in _________ and also
nebulisation. "We are not so worried any more. We are a lot
more relieved," said a source who is aware of Jayalalithaa's
treatment.
AIADMK leaders who have ________ to information from
inside the Critical Care unit at Apollo Hospitals also confirm
that Jayalalithaa is ________. "She is also aware of what is
_________ around her," says CR Saraswathi, spokesperson of
the AIADMK.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

The next step would be to ______ move her away from the
bed, where she has been for more than three weeks now, and
make her sit on a ________. Passive physiotherapy that
Apollo's medical _________ say the CM is undergoing, is
part of the treatment to help her do this.
But ________ the improvement, Apollo Hospital and the
Tamil Nadu government are fighting shy of announcing it to
the world. That is because experience shows that an ARDS
(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) patient even when he
or she shows _________ improvement is ______ vulnerable.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

ARDS is a ___________ medical condition, characterised


by inflammation in the lungs. ARDS is triggered by
pneumonia and sepsis, one of the reasons why intensivist Dr
Richard Beale, an experienced investigator in the field of
sepsis, ARDS and clinical nutrition, was flown in from
London to treat the CM. An intensivist by definition is a
doctor who specialises in treating critically-ill patients.
Experts point out that ARDS is known to have a high
mortality of up to 50 percent. When it is accompanied with
other ailments, it only complicates the issue and the
treatment.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

In Jayalalithaa's case, her diabetes, hypertension and cellulitis


ailments mentioned in her 2014 bail plea at the Karnataka High
court were factors the team of doctors took into account.

"If it was a 30-year-old patient, the body recovers that much


faster. Since the CM is 68, she needs that much more care," said
a source. Given her medical history, doctors are of the opinion
that her recovery is remarkable. But they would want to monitor
her for some more time as with her diabetes, the risk of
secondary infections always exists.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Hospitals, especially Intensive Care Units, are a more risky


place for critical patients. That is because hospitals are
teeming with virulent bacteria. If an infection is contracted
from the community, it requires a basic antibiotic for
treatment.

But if a patient contracts an infection from the ICU, bacteria


is likely to be resistant to basic antibiotics and doctors have to
prescribe high-end antibiotics. Such potent antibiotics in high
dosage can lead to side effects like diarrhea, renal failure,
myopathy and neuropathy.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

In order to ensure against any such complication, Jayalalithaa


has been kept in a part of the Critical Care unit where no other
patient is admitted. This means getting a secondary infection is
out of the question.
It is expected that if the CM continues the same pace of
progress, she could be out of hospital soon. However, she would
still need significant rest, care and physiotherapy for at least two
months.
It is not clear whether Apollo doctors would prefer Jayalalithaa
to rest under their supervision at the hospital or send her home
by the end of October.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Doctors, who are visibly relieved now, were not in the same state
of mind earlier this week. In fact, the hospital in consultation
with Dr. Richard Beale and the team of specialists from AIIMS
had reportedly decided that if there is a further deterioration in
Jayalalithaa's health, she will be shifted to either AIIMS in New
Delhi or to a hospital abroad.

That possibility has now been firmly ruled out. "She will come
out like a tigress," said a source.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Jayalalithaa's health: Tamil Nadu CM's condition


greatly improves in last 48 hours, AIADMK relieved.
Multiple sources have confirmed
that the condition of Tamil Nadu
Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa has
improved significantly in the past
48 hours and she has been off the
ventilator during the day. She is
on respiratory support only for
some time in the night as a
precautionary measure.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

The CM however, still continues to be in the Critical Care unit


at Apollo Hospital. Apart from antibiotics, her treatment
includes medication to help her in breathing and also
nebulisation. "We are not so worried any more. We are a lot
more relieved," said a source who is aware of Jayalalithaa's
treatment.
AIADMK leaders who have access to information from inside
the Critical Care unit at Apollo Hospitals also confirm that
Jayalalithaa is conscious. "She is also aware of what is
happening around her," says CR Saraswathi, spokesperson of
the AIADMK.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

The next step would be to slowly move her away from the
bed, where she has been for more than three weeks now, and
make her sit on a chair. Passive physiotherapy that Apollo's
medical bulletins say the CM is undergoing, is part of the
treatment to help her do this.
But despite the improvement, Apollo Hospital and the Tamil
Nadu government are fighting shy of announcing it to the
world. That is because experience shows that an ARDS
(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) patient even when he
or she shows dramatic improvement is deemed vulnerable.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

ARDS is a life-threatening medical condition, characterised


by inflammation in the lungs. ARDS is triggered by
pneumonia and sepsis, one of the reasons why intensivist Dr
Richard Beale, an experienced investigator in the field of
sepsis, ARDS and clinical nutrition, was flown in from
London to treat the CM. An intensivist by definition is a
doctor who specialises in treating critically-ill patients.
Experts point out that ARDS is known to have a high
mortality of up to 50 percent. When it is accompanied with
other ailments, it only complicates the issue and the
treatment.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

In Jayalalithaa's case, her diabetes, hypertension and cellulitis


ailments mentioned in her 2014 bail plea at the Karnataka High
court were factors the team of doctors took into account.

"If it was a 30-year-old patient, the body recovers that much


faster. Since the CM is 68, she needs that much more care," said
a source. Given her medical history, doctors are of the opinion
that her recovery is remarkable. But they would want to monitor
her for some more time as with her diabetes, the risk of
secondary infections always exists.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Hospitals, especially Intensive Care Units, are a more risky


place for critical patients. That is because hospitals are
teeming with virulent bacteria. If an infection is contracted
from the community, it requires a basic antibiotic for
treatment.

But if a patient contracts an infection from the ICU, bacteria


is likely to be resistant to basic antibiotics and doctors have to
prescribe high-end antibiotics. Such potent antibiotics in high
dosage can lead to side effects like diarrhea, renal failure,
myopathy and neuropathy.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

In order to ensure against any such complication, Jayalalithaa


has been kept in a part of the Critical Care unit where no other
patient is admitted. This means getting a secondary infection is
out of the question.
It is expected that if the CM continues the same pace of
progress, she could be out of hospital soon. However, she would
still need significant rest, care and physiotherapy for at least two
months.
It is not clear whether Apollo doctors would prefer Jayalalithaa
to rest under their supervision at the hospital or send her home
by the end of October.
THE DAILY NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Doctors, who are visibly relieved now, were not in the same state
of mind earlier this week. In fact, the hospital in consultation
with Dr. Richard Beale and the team of specialists from AIIMS
had reportedly decided that if there is a further deterioration in
Jayalalithaa's health, she will be shifted to either AIIMS in New
Delhi or to a hospital abroad.

That possibility has now been firmly ruled out. "She will come
out like a tigress," said a source.
A SAMPLE ACTIVITY
TO DEVELOP
YOUR READING SKILLS
Multiple sources have confirmed that the condition of
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa has improved
significantly (notably, considerably) in the past 48 hours
and she has been off the ventilator (repsirator,
breathing apparatus) during the day. She is on
respiratory support only for some time in the night as a
precautionary (preventive, protective) measure (step,
procedure, means).
The CM however (but, yet, though), still continues to be
in the Critical Care Unit (CCU) at Apollo Hospital. Apart
from antibiotics (a medicine that inhibits the growth of
or destroys microorganisms), her treatment includes
medication (medicine, tablets, drugs) to help her in
breathing and also nebulisation (administering
medication into the lungs). "We are not so worried any
more. We are a lot more relieved since this Monday,"
AIADMK leaders who have access (right of entry,
approach) to information from inside the Critical Care
Unit at Apollo Hospitals also confirm that Jayalalithaa is
conscious (aware of and responding to one's
surroundings) . "She is also aware of what is happening
around her," says CR Saraswathi, spokesperson
(representative, speaker) of the AIADMK.

The next step would be to slowly move her away from


the bed, where she has been for more than three weeks
now, and make her sit on a chair. Passive physiotherapy
that Apollo's medical bulletins (official statement,
notice, announcement) say the CM is undergoing
(suffering, feeling, experiencing, go through), is part of
the treatment to help her do this.
But despite (in spite of, even though) the improvement,
Apollo Hospital and the Tamil Nadu government are
fighting shy (introvert, reserved, timid) of announcing it to
the world. That is because experience shows that an ARDS
(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) patient even when
he or she shows dramatic improvement, is deemed (think,
consider, judged) vulnerable (weak, at risk, helpless).
ARDS is a life-threatening (serious, grave, critical) medical
condition, characterized (indicate, specify, describe the
features of) by inflammation (irritation, swelling, soreness)
in the lungs. Pneumonia is the trigger (a small device that
releases a spring or catch and so sets off a mechanism,
especially in order to fire a gun ) / (activate, cause, start)
for ARDS and that is one of the reasons why intensivist
(critical care physician) Dr. Richard Beale, an experienced
investigator (examiner, researcher) in the field of sepsis
(infection), ARDS and clinical nutrition, was flown (take
flight, travel in an airplane , run away) in from London to
Experts (specialists, professionals) point out that ARDS is
known to have a high mortality (death, humanity) of up to
50 percent. When it is accompanied (go together with),
with other ailments, it only complicates (make difficult,
make matters worse) the issue and the treatment. In
Jayalalithaa's case, her diabetes (describes a group of
metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood
glucose levels), hypertension (high blood pressure) and
cellulitis (bacterial infection involving the inner layers of
the skin) ailments (illness, sickness, disease) mentioned
in her 2014 bail (the temporary release of an accused
person awaiting trial ) plea (appeal, request, excuse) at the
Karnataka High court were factors the team of doctors
took into account (a report or description of an event or
experience, a record or statement of financial expenditure
and receipts).
"If it was a 30-year-old patient, the body recovers (get
well, improve, make progress) that much faster. Since the
Given her medical history, doctors are of the opinion
(view, belief, estimation) that her recovery (healing,
revival, improvement) is remarkable (notable, significant,
noteworthy). But they would want to monitor her for
some more time as with her diabetes, the risk of
secondary infections always exists.
Hospitals, especially Intensive Care Units, are a more
risky place for critical patients. That is because hospitals
are teeming (packed, crowded, loaded) with virulent
(strong, dangerous, active) bacteria. If an infection is
contracted from the community, it requires a basic
antibiotic for treatment. But if a patient contracts an
infection from the ICU, bacteria is likely to be resistant
(unwilling, opposed to, opposing) to basic antibiotics and
doctors have to prescribe high-end antibiotics. Such
potent (strong, powerful, effective) antibiotics in high
dosage (measured quantity, prescribed amount) can lead
to side effects like diarrhea, renal failure (kidney
In order to ensure against any such complication
(difficulty, problem, barrier), Jayalalithaa has been
kept in a part of the Critical Care Unit where no other
patient is admitted. This means getting a secondary
infection is out of the question.

It is expected that if the CM continues the same pace


(speed, rate, time) of progress (development,
improvement, advancement), she could be out of
hospital soon. However, she would still need significant
rest, care and physiotherapy for at least two months.
It is not clear whether Apollo doctors would prefer
Jayalalithaa to rest under their supervision at the
hospital or send her home by the end of October.
Doctors, who are visibly relieved now, were not in
the same state of mind earlier this week. In fact,
the hospital in consultation (discussion, meeting,
talk) with Dr. Richard Beale and the team of
specialists from AIIMS had reportedly decided that
if there is a further deterioration (worsening,
weakening, decline) in Jayalalithaa's health, she will
be shifted to either AIIMS in New Delhi or to a
hospital abroad (overseas).

That possibility has now been firmly (confidently,


strongly, powerfully) ruled out (eliminate, exclude,
cancel). "She will come out like a tigress," said a
source.
Some common errors
Incorrect: Have you received any informations?
Correct: Have you received any information?
The word information is uncountable in English. It does not have
a plural form.
Incorrect: We have bought new furnitures.
Correct: We have bought new furniture.
The word furniture does not have a plural form in English. To
denote the singular aspect of the noun, you can use an article of
furniture or a piece of furniture.
Incorrect: The machineries were expensive.
Correct: The machinery was expensive.
The word machinery does not have a plural form. It is
uncountable and takes a singular verb.
Incorrect: The sceneries here are beautiful.
Correct: The scenery here is beautiful.
Incorrect: Do not carry heavy luggages during travel.
Correct: Do not carry heavy luggage during travel.
Some common errors

Incorrect: He conveyed these news to his relatives.


Correct: He conveyed this news to his relatives.
The words scenery, luggage and news are uncountable in
English. They do not have a plural form.

Incorrect: There is no place in this compartment.


Correct: There is no room in this compartment.

Incorrect: Have you read this poetry?


Correct: Have you read this poem?

Incorrect: He has gone to foreign.


Correct: He has gone abroad.
Correct: He has gone to foreign countries.
ONE WORD / TWO WORDS LEARNING
TIPS
In order to: Always used with space.
Example: In order to ensure against any such complication,
Jayalalithaa has been kept in a part of the Critical Care Unit.
In to: Used as two words when comes before a verb.
Example: The nurse came in to take off her bandages.
She was rushed in to be treated.
Into: Used as one word when comes before a non.
Example: She was rushed into the emergency room.
The trainer got into the class.

Some time: Used as two words when it refers to a duration of


time.
Example: The visitors wanted to talk to her for some time.
I want to listen to the music for some time.
Sometime: Used as one word when it refers to some point in
time.
ONE WORD / TWO WORDS LEARNING TIPS

Up to: This word is always used as two words.


Example: Her progress in health was not up to the doctors
expectation.
The discount is up to 50%.

At least: Always used as two words.


Example: You should score at least 50% to pass the exam.

In fact: Always used as two words.


Example: In fact, her condition is worsening than what it was
earlier.

Side effects: Always used as two words.


Example: Antibiotics in high dosage can lead to side effects .

Everyday / Every day: Used as one word when it plays the role of an
adjective, in all other instances, it is written as two words.
Example: Please bring your notebooks to class every day.
LETS APPLY!!

Over time/overtime
_________________, weve seen
dramatic changes.
Ive worked over time/overtime
_________________, several days this
week.
Ill get around to it ______________
some time/sometime.
He is _____________________ all
ways/always correct.
We have to acknowledge that all
Abbreviations Vs Acronyms

Abbreviations: An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a


shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken
from the word or phrase. Eg: USA, ICU, CCU, ARDS.

Acronyms: An abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and
pronounced as a word. Eg: LASER, AIIMS, AIDS, NASA.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT OPTION

CM - Abbreviations/Acronyms
Dr. - Abbreviations/Acronyms
ICU - Abbreviations/Acronyms
CCU - Abbreviations/Acronyms
NATO - Abbreviations/Acronyms
MNC - Abbreviations/Acronyms
AIADMK - Abbreviations/Acronyms
BASIC - Abbreviations/Acronyms
Application of contextual thinking using
homonyms, homophones, homographs)

Mean (nasty, narrow, cheap) / mean (middle, average) / mean


(indicate/denote, imply, intend,

Contacted (communicated, called, written, phoned, emailed) / contracted


(thin, slim, slender)

Team (group, crew, panel) / teem (crowd, swarm, abound)

Weather (climate, meteorological conditions / whether (expressing a doubt or


choice between alternatives)

bullet in / bulletin: Bring the bullet in / bulletin.


Homonyms/homographs:
Patient (enduring, tolerant, persevering)/ patient (person receiving
medical treatment)

Contacted / contracted

AIIMS / aims

Whether / weather

State / state

Mind (pay attention, beware, watch / mind (brain, intellect)

Week (a period of seven days) / weak (feeble, delicate)

Shows (displays, expresses) / shows (plays, movies, films)


Capitalization: Capitalization is the writing of a word with its
first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase.

Capitalize the first word of a document and the first word after
a period.
Eg: Multiple sources have confirmed that the health condition of
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J. Jayalalithaa has improved
significantly.

Capitalize proper nounsand adjectives derived from proper


nouns.
Eg: Chairman of the Board William Bly will preside at the
conference.

Capitalize specific geographical regions. Do not capitalize points


of the compass.
Eg: We had three relatives visit from the West.
Go west three blocks and then turn left.
Brand names: Hyundai, LG, Crocin, Lenovo.

Companies, Institutions: RVS Educational Trust, Infosys.

Days of the week and months of the year: Sunday,


Monday, January, October.

Governmental matters
Congress, the U.S. Constitution

Holidays: Christmas, Diwali, Pongal, Independence day.

Natural and manmade landmarks


Mount Everest, the Hoover Dam, the Ganges, Taj Mahal

Manmade structures:
the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, the Titanic
Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter.

Races, nationalities, and tribes: Eskimo, Badaga, Jew, East


Indian, Caucasian.

Religions and names of deities: Bible, Christ, Islam,


Hindu.

Special occasions: the Olympic Games, Jallikattu Festival

Streets, roads, towns, cities, states, districts, countries


: Nehru Nagar, Sulur, Kamarajar Street, Cochin, Idukki,
India, Asia.
Masculine Vs Feminine
Grammatical gender is a system of noun classification. A common gender
classification includes masculine and feminine categories. Masculine nouns are
words for men, boys and male animals. Feminine nouns are words for women, girls
and female animals.

Actor actress Husband wife


Author authoress King queen
Bachelor spinster Man woman
Bridegroom bride Master mistress
Brother sister Murderer murderess
Daddy mummy Nephew niece
Duke duchess Poet poetess
Man woman Policeman policewoman
Emperor empress Prince princess
Father mother Sir madam
Grandfather grandmother Son daughter
Heir heiress Uncle aunt
Hero heroine Waiter waitress
Host hostess Tiger tigress
LETS APPLY!!

MASCULINE OR FEMINIE?

Host -
Lioness -
Prophetess -
Lord -
Maid -
Princess -
Niece -
Emperor -
Waiter -
Tigress -
Heir -
Gentlemen -
Male -
Cow -
Hen -
Words with re- / re
There is really only one rule that you need to learn to determine when to
hyphenate with re.

Rule: Use hyphen with the prefix re- only when re- means again.

Re-cover/recover
Eg: Will she recover from her illness?
I have re-covered the sofa twice.

Re-create : to create again

Recreate to refresh by means of relaxation and enjoyment, as restore


physically or mentally

Represent: signify, denote, stand for

Re-present: to present again


Recollect: remember, recall, think of
Re-collect: to collect again

Re-serve: to serve again


Reserve: standby, store, book, set aside, keep

Re-sign: to sign again


Resign: leave, quit, give up job

Restore: bring back, return, reestablish, to return


Re-store: to store again
LETS APPLY!!
Select the correct answer
Please call the restaurant to reserve a table.
Please call the restaurant to re-serve a table.

I resent the file to you last night.


I re-sent the file to you last night.

Ill print out the letters again, and you can resign them.
Ill print out the letters again, and you can re-sign them.

The tennis player will re-serve.


The tennis player will reserve.

Dont repress your emotions.


Dont re-press your emotions.

The contractor will re-lay the carpet.


The contractor will relay the carpet.