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LEADERSHIP THEORIES

PRESENTED BY

RAJNEESH RANJAN
AFTER THIS PRESENTATION WE WILL ABLE TO
KNOW SOMETHING ABOUT:

LEADERSHIP
TRAIT THEORIES
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
LEADER -MEMBER EXCHANGE
THEORIES
SITUATIONAL THEORIES
DECISION THEORIES
LEADERSHIP
The ability to influence a group or individual
toward the achievement of a vision or set of goal.
TRAIT THEORIES
It basically differentiate leaders from non-leaders
by focusing on their personal qualities and
characteristics.
Some common traits are:-
Ambition and energy

The desire to lead

Honesty and integrity

Self-confidence

Intelligence

High self-monitoring and

Job-relevant knowledge
SUMMARY

It basically helps in the emergence of a leader.


But it was very difficult to say that he/she works
effectively.
Leaders born with the qualities by which people
use to predict them, it cant be taught.
They were fail to lead in different situations.

So, in the search of effective leaders behavioral


studies of people started and it changes the
beliefs and reached us to the conclusion that we
can make effective leaders for us.
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leader from nonleaders.
Trait theory:
Leaders are born, not made.
Behavioral theory:
Leadership traits can be taught.
OHIO STATE STUDIES
Initiating structure consideration

The extent to which a The extent to which a


leader is likely to define leader is likely to have
and structure his or her job relationships
role and those of sub- characterized by
ordinates in the search mutual trust, respect
for goal attainment. for subordinates ideas,
and regard for their
feelings.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES

Employee-Oriented Leader Production-Oriented Leader

Emphasizing One who emphasizes


interpersonal relations; technical or task aspects
taking a personal interest of the job.
in the needs of
employees and accepting
individual differences
among members.
MANAGERIAL GRID

The Managerial
Grid
(Blake and Mouton)
SUMMARY OF TRAIT THEORIES AND
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

Leaders who have certain traits and who


display consideration and structuring
behaviors, do appear to be more effective.

Trait
theories and behavioral theories
should be integrated.

Some leaders may have the right traits or


display right behaviors and still fail
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
Fiedlers Contingency Model
The theory that effective groups depend on a proper
match between a leaders style of interacting with
subordinates and the degree to which the situation
gives control and influence to the leader.

Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)


Questionnaire
An instrument that purports to
measure whether a person is task-
or relationship-oriented.
FIEDLERS MODEL: DEFINING THE SITUATION

Leader-Member Relations d
Theegree of confidence, trust, and respect
subordinates have in their leader.

Task Structure
The degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized.

Position Power
Influence derived from ones formal structural
position in the organization; includes power to hire,
fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
FINDINGS FROM FIEDLER MODEL
COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY

A theory of leadership that states that stress can


unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence
and experience can lessen the influence of stress on
the leader.

Research Support:
Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership
roles under high stress than do more intelligent
individuals.
Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles
under low stress than do more experienced people.
PATH-GOAL THEORY

The theory that it is the leaders


job to assist followers in attaining
their goals and to provide them the
necessary direction and/or support
to ensure that their goals are
compatible with the overall
objectives of the group or
organization.
THE PATH-GOAL THEORY
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY
(LMX)

The leader-member exchange theory of


leadership focuses on the two-way relationship
between supervisors and subordinates

leader-member exchange focuses on increasing


organizational success by creating positive
relations between the leader and subordinate.
The leader-member exchange theory argue
that, because of time pressures, leaders
establish a special relationship with small
group of there followers. These individuals
make up in-group and other follower fall in
the out-group.
The in group member are trusted, get more
leader attention, and are more likely to
receive special privilege.
On the other hand out group member get
less of the leader time, get fewer of the
preferred rewards.
The quality of the LMX relationship varies.
It is better when the challenge of the job is
extremely high or extremely low.

Thetheory can also work upwards as well.


The leader can gain power by being a
member of his or her manager's inner circle,
which the leader can then share with
subordinates.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
BY-PAUL HERSEY AND KENNTH BLANCHARD

Situational leadership requires

Leaders
focus on task behavior (i.e. giving
guidance & direction) to subordinates.

Their
focus on relationship behavior and
maturity in performing their tasks.
ACCORDING TO THE AUTHORS
The relationship between leaders and subordinates
moves to four steps which are as follows.
Directing or telling phase

managers directing the goals to employees and


make familiar them with the culture and rules of
the organization where they suppose to work.
Selling or coaching phase
After coming into the organization its managers
responsibility to coach the subordinates
wherever need arise.
Participating or supporting phase
Gradually the subordinates becomes mature and
start taking the responsibility, the manager will
no longer need to directive to them because they
themselves will be on the verge of becoming
manager.
Delegating phase
In this stage manager can reduce the amount of
support and encouragement as subordinate
gradually become more confident , self directing
and experienced.
THE SITUATIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP

High relationship and High relationship

HIGH
low task and high task
RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR

S3 S2

Low relationship low relationship and


and low task high task
LOW

S4 S1
M4 M3 M2 M1
(HIGH) (MODARATE) (LOW)
(MATURE) (MUTURITY OF FOLLOWERS) (IMMATURE)
DECISION -MAKING THEORIES
Proposed by vroom- yetton.
A leader examines certain factors in the
situation to determine which decision making
style is most effective.
The vroom yatton identifies five decision-making
styles, each reflecting a different degree of
participation by group member.
Autocratic l(Al)

Autocratic ll(All)

Consultative l(l)

Consultative ll(ll)

Group ll(ll)
CONCLUSION.
THEY FOLLOW THEIR OWN RULES
MAKE THEIR OWN NORMS
FEROCIOUS THEY ARE
LETHAL IN ANY FORM
TAMERS OF TIDES
THEY PLAY WITH THE STROMS
YES.YOU GUESSED IT RIGHT
THEY ARE THE MEN WITHOUT UNIFORM.
CONCLUSION..
Some rules which most leaders follows.

The saftey,honour & welfare of their organization


come first, always and every time
The safety & welfare of the people they command
or live with, come next
Their own ease, comfort & welfare come last,
Always and every time.
THANK YOU