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A sculpture can be divided into two kinds.

If the design
can be seen in different angles and can stand on a base,
meaning from the top view, sides or bottom, it is said to
be a Free Style. If the designed is projected in a
background such that part of the top portion and two
sides can be seen with no rear side exposed, it is called a
Relief Style. When the figure is slightly raised, the
sculpture is called Bas Relief. Example of which are
medals, coins and pendants. When the figure is
projected one half or more of its thickness, they are
called High Relief. An example of this kind is the wall
display of animal head dcor or a flower vase attached
to a wall.



[example of bas
relief sculptures]
Wall display of
animal head

[example of high
relief sculpture]
The techniques that are usually followed in
sculpture are additive and subtractive. The
additives are:
Pottery- process of making jar, ceramics and
Papier Mache- soaked and torn paper with paste
added little by little to form something like Sta.
Claus, toy horse, giants, and others.
Mobile- a kind of kinetic sculpture, made of strips
of metal, glass plastic or wood arranged with wires
and hung where they can move and produce sound
once hit by air or wind. An example is chimes.
Molding- using cement, lime, or any, powdered
substance added with water and forming a design
slowly. It is done in many architectural finishing
touches like decorative doors ad window panes,
cornice, jambs and others.
Casting- is a complex process in sculpture. There are
two molds to do. The negative which consists of two or
more tightly fitting parts where a material is to be
formed and the positive mold which is the product of
the negative mold that needs to be fired as the next
process. An example of casting products is a figurine
found in the sidewalk.
Construction- the process of assembling different
materials by gluing, pasting or tying. The materials
might be discarded and light materials.
Welding- assembling pieces of metal with the use of
Eduardo Castrillos Pieta
welding machine or by oxyacetylene torch. An
example of this is Castrillos Pieta in Loyola
Memorial Park in Paranaque City.

oxyacetylene torch
Hammered sculpture-are performed by artists who use metal
sheets like lead or copper. The hammering is done by pushing
in some portion of the sheet and pushing out in the other side
until a desired design is formed. Abdul Marie Imao had used
this in his Sarimanok work.

Fabrication-is process of fastening, nailing, joining,
stapling, soldering and welding piece materials
together. Wood metals, plastic and other materials
that can be put together are the media.
Modeling- is building the form using highly plastic
material such as wax or clay. An armature is used as
skeleton for the form. A metal wire is placed at the
middle to hold the clay together and refrain from
collapsing. When the form is finished, it is fired or cast.
The subtracting technique is done only by
carving. A big timber or wood, stone,
ivory is subtracted little by little until a
desired design is reached. This
technique is considered to be the
hardest and time consuming process so
it is called the painstaking process of
Carved Sculptures
Sculpture during the ancient time was an
ordinary activity as an answer for survival. Our
ancestors learned to carve, weave, engage in
metal and jewelry craft and many more. The
unearthed manunggul jar in Palawan cave
2700 years ago was a proof. They patiently
designed from the smallest jar to the biggest
storage for the dead.
Manunggul Jar