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Convection includes energy transfer by both the bulk fluid motion
(advection) and the random motion of fluid molecules (conduction
or diffusion). An essential step in the treatment of any convection
problem is to determine whether the boundary layer is laminar or
turbulent. Surface friction and the convection transfer rate depend
strongly on which of these conditions exists.

3 convection cases discussed:

1. Convection on isothermal plate
2. Convection inside tube
3. Convection arround sphere
Kinematic and dynamic viscosity
A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal fluid or inviscid
fluid. Otherwise, all fluids have positive viscosity, and are technically said to be viscous
or viscid. In common parlance, however, a liquid is said to be viscous if its viscosity is
substantially greater than water's, and may be described as mobile if the viscosity is
noticeably less than water's.
Dynamic viscosity - is a measure of internal resistance. Dynamic (absolute) viscosity is
the tangential force per unit area required to move one horizontal plane with respect
to an other plane - at an unit velocity - when maintaining an unit distance apart in the

The kinematic viscosity (also called "momentum diffusivity") is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity to
the density of the fluid .


Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers

Dynamic viscosity (measured at room temperature)

In general, include for liquid

metal, viscosity decreases with
higher temperature

Dynamic (Absolute) and Kinematic Viscosity of Water

on isothermal plate
Velocity boundary layer on plate
Characteristics of velocity boundary layer:
1. When fluid particles make contact with the surface, their velocity is reduced significantly relative to the
fluid velocity upstream of the plate, and for most situations it is valid to assume that the particle velocity
is zero at the wall.
2. With increasing distance y from the surface, the x velocity component of the fluid, u, must then increase
until it approaches the free stream value u.
3. The quantity is termed the boundary layer thickness, and it is typically defined as the value of y for
which u = 0.99u.
4. Accordingly, the fluid flow is characterized by two distinct regions:
a.a thin fluid layer (the boundary layer) in which velocity gradients and shear stresses are large and
b.a region outside the boundary layer in which velocity gradients and shear stresses are negligible.

Velocity boundary layer development on a flat plate.

Velocity boundary layer on plate
Thermal Boundary Layer on plate

A thermal boundary layer must develop if the fluid free stream and surface temperatures differ.

Characteristics of thermal boundary layer:

1. At the leading edge the temperature profile is uniform, with T(y) = T . However, fluid particles that come
into contact with the plate achieve thermal equilibrium at the plates surface temperature. In turn, these
particles exchange energy with those in the adjoining fluid layer, and temperature gradients develop in the
2. The region of the fluid in which these temperature gradients exist is the thermal boundary layer, and its
thickness t is typically defined as the value of y for which the ratio [(Ts - T )/(Ts - T)] = 0.99.
3. With increasing distance from the leading edge, the effects of heat transfer penetrate farther into the free
stream and the thermal boundary layer grows.

Thermal boundary layer development on an isothermal flat plate.

Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers

In many cases, laminar and turbulent flow conditions both occur, with the laminar section preceding the
turbulent section.

In the laminar boundary layer, the fluid flow is highly ordered and it is possible to identify streamlines along
which fluid particles move. The highly ordered behavior continues until a transition zone is reached.

Flow in the fully turbulent boundary layer is, in general, highly irregular and is characterized by random, three-
dimensional motion of relatively large parcels of fluid.
Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers
Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers

The onset of turbulence depends on whether the triggering mechanisms are amplified or
attenuated in the direction of fluid flow, which in turn depends on a dimensionless grouping of
parameters called the Reynolds number

Characteristics of Reynolds Number:

1. Reynolds Number represents the ratio of the inertia to viscous forces.
2. If the Reynolds number is small, inertia forces are insignificant relative to viscous forces.
3. For a large Reynolds number, however, the inertia forces can be sufficient to amplify the triggering
mechanisms, and a transition to turbulence occurs.
4. The transition between laminer and turbulent flow occurs at a critical distance from the edge, XC which can
be determined by setting the Reynolds number at 5 x 105
Laminar and Turbulent Thermal Boundary Layers

Similar to the laminar velocity boundary layer, the thermal boundary layer grows in the streamwise (increasing
x) direction, temperature gradients in the fluid at y = 0 decrease in the streamwise direction and the heat
transfer coefficient also decreases with increasing x.

Influence of turbulent flow on convective heat transfer

1. Turbulent mixing promotes large temperature gradients adjacent to the solid surface as well as a
corresponding increase in the heat transfer coefficient across the transition region.
2. Turbulence induces mixing, which in turn reduces the importance of conduction in determining the
thermal boundary layer thickness
3. In general, the convective heat transfer for turbulent flow is higher than that of laminer flow

For laminer flow

For turbulent flow

Coefficient of convection heat transfer

Now, we must calculate the coefficient of convection heat transfer ( )

Note that for the special case of flow over a flat plate, h varies only with
the distance x from the leading edge. Then the above equation reduces to

And if both laminer and turbulent flow exists, the above equation
inside tube
Internal Flow
When the fluid makes contact with the surface, viscous effects become important, and a boundary layer
develops with increasing x. This development occurs at the expense of a shrinking inviscid flow region and
concludes with boundary layer merger at the centerline. Following this merger, viscous effects extend over the
entire cross section and the velocity profile no longer changes with increasing x. The flow is then said to be fully
developed, and the distance from the entrance at which this condition is achieved is termed the hydrodynamic
entry length, xfd,h.
The fully developed velocity profile is parabolic for laminar flow in a circular tube. For turbulent flow, the profile
is flatter due to turbulent mixing in the radial direction.

The Reynolds
number for flow in a circular

where um is the mean fluid velocity over

the tube cross section and D is the tube
The critical Reynolds number corresponding to the onset of diameter.
turbulence is 2300
Internal Flow

The hydrodynamic entry

1.For laminar flow (Re 2300),
2.For turbulent flow, (x/D) 11.

Prandtl Number (abbreviation Pr), defined as the ratio of momentum

diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) to thermal diffusivity.

Calculate the Reynolds Number for following cases:

1. Um = 20 cm/s; D = 15 cm, dynamic viscosity = 27 x 107 N s/m2
2. Um = 10 cm/s; D = 20 cm, kinematic viscosity of oil = 0.84 x 10-3 m2/s while oil
density is 900 kg/m3
Internal Flow
Thermal boundary layer development in a heated circular tube.

Prandtl Number (Pr)

For laminar flow, the thermal entry length

Characteristics of thermal entry length

1. For laminer flow:
a. Pr 1, the hydrodynamic boundary layer develops more rapidly than the thermal
boundary layer
b. For Pr 1, the inverse is true
2. For turbulent flow:
(xfd,t/D) = 10
Internal Flow

Two cases in Heat Transfer inside a tube:

1. Uniform surface heat flux (qx is constant) or
2. Uniform surface temperature (Ts is constant). It is impossible to simultaneously impose
the conditions of constant surface heat flux and constant surface temperature. If qx is
constant, Ts must vary with x; conversely, if Ts is constant, qx must vary with x.

Two cases in Heat Transfer inside a tube:

1. Uniform surface heat flux

2. Uniform surface temperature

where Ts is the tube surface temperature, T is the local fluid temperature,

and Tm is the mean temperature of the fluid over the cross section of the
Internal Flow
Two cases in Heat Transfer inside a tube:

where Ts is the tube surface temperature, T is the local fluid temperature, and Tm is the
mean temperature of the fluid over the cross section of the tube.
Internal Flow - The Energy Balance

Because the flow in a tube is completely enclosed, an energy balance may be applied to
determine how the mean temperature Tm(x) varies with position along the tube and how the
total convection heat transfer qconv is related to the difference in temperatures at the tube
inlet and outlet.
for a tube of finite length

the axial variation of Tm may be determined

Where P is the surface perimeter (= D)

If Ts Tm, heat is transferred to the fluid and Tm increases with x;

if Ts Tm, the opposite is true.

Note: In the fully developed region, the convection coefficient h is also

constant, although it decreases with x in the entrance region
Internal Flow - Constant Surface Heat Flux

For constant surface heat flux

Accordingly, the mean temperature varies linearly with x along the tube
Internal Flow - Constant Surface Temperature

For Constant Surface Temperature

For x distance from the entry point:

Thus, heat transfer via convection for Constant Surface Temperature:

Internal Flow

In the thermally fully developed flow of a fluid with constant properties, the local
convection coefficient is a constant, independent of x.

Because the thermal boundary layer thickness is zero at the tube entrance, the
convection coefficient is extremely large at x = 0. However, h decays rapidly as the
thermal boundary layer develops, until the constant value associated with fully
developed conditions is reached.
1. Heat Transfer Coefficient for Laminar flow (Re < 2300) inside a Pipe
1. Heat Transfer Coefficient for Laminar flow (Re < 2300) inside a Pipe
2. Heat Transfer Coefficient for Turbulent flow (Re > 2300) inside a Pipe
Internal Flow - Liquid Metal
Arround Sphere
Flow Past a Single Sphere

The free stream fluid is brought to rest at the forward stagnation point, with an accompanying rise in pressure. From this
point, the pressure decreases with increasing x, the streamline coordinate, and the boundary layer develops under the
influence of a favorable pressure gradient (dp/dx < 0). However, the pressure must eventually reach a minimum, and
toward the rear of the cylinder further boundary layer development occurs in the presence of an adverse pressure
gradient (dp/dx > 0).
Unlike conditions for the flat plate in parallel flow, these velocities differ, with u now depending on the distance x from
the stagnation point.
Flow Past a Single Sphere