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Biomechanical Characteristics of Bone - Bone Tissue

Inorganic Components Organic Components


(e.g., calcium and phosphate) (e.g. collagen)

65-70% 25-30%
(dry wt) H2O (dry wt)
(25-30%)

one of the ductile


bodys hardest
structures brittle
viscoelastic 1
Mechanical Loading of Bone

Compression Tension Shear Torsion Bending


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Compressive Loading

Vertebral fractures
cervical fractures
spine loaded through head
e.g., football, diving, gymnastics
once spearing was outlawed
in football the number of cervical
injuries declined dramatically
lumbar fractures
weight lifters, linemen, or gymnasts
spine is loaded in hyperlordotic
(aka swayback) position

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Tensile Loading

Main source of tensile load is muscle

tension can stimulate tissue growth

fracture due to tensile loading is usually an avulsion


other injuries include sprains, strains, inflammation, bony deposits

when the tibial tuberosity experiences excessive loads from quadriceps


muscle group develop condition known as Osgood-Schlatters disease
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Shear Forces

created by the application


of compressive, tensile or a
combination of these loads

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Bone Compressive Strength
Material Compressive
Strength (MPa)
Femur (cortical) 131-224

Tibia (cortical) 106-200

Wood (oak) 40-80

Steel 370

From: Biomechanics of the Musculo-skeletal System, Nigg and Herzog 6


Relative Strength of Bone

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Bending Forces

Usually a 3- or 4-point
force application

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Torsional Forces Caused by a twisting force
produces shear, tensile, and
compressive loads

tensile and compressive loads are


at an angle

often see a spiral fracture develop


from this load

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Strength and Stiffness of Bone Tissue
evaluated using relationship between
applied load and amount of deformation
LOAD - DEFORMATION CURVE

Bone Tissue Characteristics

Anisotropic Viscoelastic Elastic Plastic

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Stress = Force/Area Strain = Change in Length/Angle

Note: Stress-Strain curve is a normalized Load-Deformation Curve 11


Elastic & Plastic responses
plastic region
fracture/failure

elastic
region elastic thru 3%deformation
Stress (Load)

plastic response leads to fracturing

Dstress Strength defined by failure point


Dstrain
Stiffness defined as the slope of the
elastic portion of the curve

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Strain (Deformation)
Elastic Biomaterials (Bone)

Elastic/Plastic characteristics Load/deformation curves


Brittle material fails before
permanent deformation elastic
limit
Ductile material deforms
greatly before failure ductile material
brittle material
Bone exhibits both properties
bone

deformation (length)

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Anisotropic response
behavior of bone is dependent
on direction of applied load

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Bone Anisotropy
trabecular
tension
compression

cortical

shear
tension
compression
0 50 100 150 200
Maximum Stress (MPa)
From: Biomechanics of the Musculo-skeletal System, Nigg and Herzog 15
Viscoelastic Response
behavior of bone is dependent
on rate load is applied

Bone will fracture sooner


when load applied slowly
fracture
Load

fracture

deformation 16
SKELETON

axial skeleton
skull, thorax, pelvis, &
vertebral column
appendicular skeleton
upper and lower
extremities
should be familiar with
all major bones

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Purposes of Skeleton
protect vital organs

factory for production of red blood cells

reservoir for minerals

attachments for skeletal muscles

system of machines to produce movement in


response to torques

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Bone Vernacular
condyle
a rounded process of a bone that
articulates with another bone
e.g. femoral condyle
epicondyle
a small condyle
e.g. humeral epicondyle

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Bone Vernacular
facet
a small, fairly flat, smooth surface of a
bone, generally an articular surface
e.g. vertebral facets
foramen
a hole in a bone through which nerves or
vessels pass
e.g. vertebral foramen

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Bone Vernacular
fossa
a shallow dish-shaped section of a bone
that provides space for an articulation with
another bone or serves as a muscle
attachment
glenoid fossa
process
a bony prominence
olecranon process

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Bone Vernacular
tuberosity
a raised section of bone to which a
ligament, tendon, or muscle attaches;
usually created or enlarged by the stress of
the muscles pull on that bone during
growth
radial tuberosity

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Long Bones
e.g. femur, tibia

1 long dimension

used for leverage

larger and stronger


in lower extremity
than upper extremity
have more weight to
support

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Short Bones
e.g. carpals and
tarsals

designed for
strength not mobility

not important for us


in this class

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Flat Bones
e.g. skull, ribs,
scapula

usually provide
protection

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Irregular Bones
e.g. vertebrae

provide protection,
support and
leverage

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Sesamoid Bones

e.g. patella (knee cap)

a short bone embedded


within a tendon or joint
capsule

alters the angle of


insertion of the muscle
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Long Bone Structure

cortical or compact bone


(porosity ~ 15%)
periosteum
outer cortical membrane
endosteum
inner cortical membrane

trabecular, cancellous,
or spongy, bone
(porosity ~70%)
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Long Bone Structure
epiphyseal plate
metaphysis cartilage separating
either end of diaphysis metaphysis from epiphysis
filled with trabecular bone

diaphysis
shaft of bone

epiphysis
proximal and distal
ends of a long bone

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Biomechanical Characteristics of Bone

Physical Activity Lack of Activity

Gravity Bone Tissue Hormones


Remodeling/Growth

Bone Deposits Age &


(myositis ossificans) Osteoporosis
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Longitudinal
Bone Growth
occurs at the
epiphyseal or
growth plate
bone cells are produced on the
diaphyseal side of the plate
plate ossifies around age 18-25 and
longitudinal growth stops

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Epiphyseal Closures
Vertebrae
Ribs
Humerus, prox.
Humerus, dist.
Ulna, prox.
Ulna, dist.
Tibia, prox.
Tibia, dist.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
From: Biomechanics of Human Movement, Adrian and Cooper 32
Circumferential
Bone Growth

growth throughout the


lifespan
bone cells are produced on the
internal layer of the periosteum by
osteoblasts
concurrently bone is resorbed around
the circumference of the medullary
cavity by osteoclasts 33
Biomechanical Characteristics of Bone

Wolffs Law
bone is laid down where needed and
resorbed where not needed
shape of bone reflects its function
tennis arm of pro tennis players have
cortical thicknesses 35% greater than
contralateral arm (Keller & Spengler, 1989)
osteoclasts resorb or take-up bone
osteoblasts lay down new bone
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Bone Deposits
A response to regular activity
regular exercise provides stimulation to maintain
bone throughout the body
tennis players and baseball pitchers
develop larger and more dense bones in
dominant arm
male and female runners have higher than
average bone density in both upper and
lower extremities
non-weightbearing exercise (swimming,
cycling) can have positive effects on
BMD
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Bone Resorption
lack of mechanical stress
Calcium (Ca) levels decrease
Ca removed through blood via kidneys
increases the chance of kidney stones
weightless effects (hypogravity)
astronauts use exercise routines to provide
stimulus from muscle tension
these are only tensile forces - gravity is compressive

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Typical Vertical GRF during running

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Tip-Toe running pattern


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Heel-toe running pattern

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Fz (N/kg)

15

10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
time (ms)

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TVIS
Treadmill Vibration Isolation and
Stabilization System

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Changes in bone over time
Early Years
Osgood-Schlatters disease
development of inflammation, bony deposits, or
an avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity
muscle-bone strength imbalance
growth factor between bone length and
muscle tendon unit (e.g., rapid growth of femur
and tibia places large strain on patellar tendon
and tibial tuberosity)
during puberty muscle development
(testosterone) may outpace bone development
allowing muscle to pull away from bone
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Changes in bone over time
Early Years
overuse injuries
repeated stresses mold skeletal structures
specifically for that activity
Little Leaguers Elbow
premature closure of epiphyseal disc
Gymnasts
4X greater occurrence of low back pathology in
young female gymnasts than in general
population (Jackson, 1976)
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Changes in bone over time
Adult Years
little change in length
most change in density
lack of use decreases density
DECREASE STRENGTH OF BONE
activity
increased activity leads to increased
diameter, density, cortical width and Ca

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Changes in bone over time
Adult Years
hormonal influence
estrogen to maintain bone minerals
previously only consider after menopause
now see link between amenorrhea and
decreased estrogen - Female Athlete Triad
disordered amenorrhea osteoporosis
eating
low body fat low estrogen
excessive training levels

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Changes in Bone Over Time
Older Adults
30 yrs males and 40 yrs females
BMD peaks (Frost, 1985; Oyster et al., 1984)
decrease BMD, diameter and
mineralization after this
activity slows aging process

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Bone Mass (g of Ca) Age, Bone Mass and Gender

1000

500

0 25 50 75 100
Age (yr)
From: Biomechanics of Musculoskeletal Injury, Whiting and Zernicke 45
Reduced BMD
Osteopenia slightly elevated risk
of fracture

Severe BMD reduction


Osteoporosis very high risk of
fracture
(hip, wrist, spine, ribs)

Hormonal Nutritional Physical


Factors Factors Activity

28 million Americans affected 80% of these are women


10 million suffer from osteoporosis
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18 million have low bone mass
Osteoporosis

age
women lose 0.5-1% of their bone mass
each year until age 50 or menopause
after menopause rate of bone loss
increases (as high as 6.5%)

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Do you get shorter with age?
Osteoporosis compromises structural
integrity of vertebrae
weakened trabecular bone
vertebrae are crushed
actually lose height
more weight anterior to spine so the
compressive load on spine creates wedge-
shaped vertebrae
create a kyphotic curve known as Dowagers Hump
for some reason mens vertebrae increase in
diameter so these effects are minimized
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Preventing Osteoporosis
$13.8 billion in 1995 (~$38 million/day)
Lifestyle Choices
proper diet
sufficient calcium, vitamin D,
dietary protein and phosphorous (too much?)
tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine
EXERCISE, EXERCISE, EXERCISE
47% incidence of osteoporosis in sedentary population
compared to 23% in hard physical labor occupations
(Brewer et al., 1983)

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Osteoporosis, Activity and the Elderly
Rate of bone loss (50-72 yr olds, Lane et al., 1990)
4% over 2 years for runners
6-7% over 2 years for controls

However - rate of loss jumped to 10-13%


after stopped running

suggest substitute activities should provide


high intensity loads, low repetitions
(e.g. weight lifting)
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