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Job Analysis

And
Job Design
Job Analysis

A systematic way of gathering and analyzing


information about the content, context, and the
human requirements of jobs.
Work activities
Performance standards
Financial and budgeting impact
Machines and equipment used
Working conditions
Supervision given and received
Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed
Information collected as a
result of Job Analysis
Overall Purpose why the job exists and expectations
from job holder

Organization where it fits and reporting structure

Job Content Tasks, duties, responsibilities,


resources required including knowledge, skills &
competencies to be successful on the job

Dimensions - Quantitative indicators of the size of


the job like sales target, output volume, geography,
reporting people
Stages In Job Analysis Process
Product Of Job Analysis
Job evaluation is a technique which aims at establishing a fair and

equitable pay structures in an organization by

Bringing out relative worth of jobs in terms of their

complexity,

Skill requirement

Working environments
Job analysis information
hierarchy
1. Job family HR Professional
1.1Occupation HR Generalist
1.2 Occupation Comp & B Specialist
1.2.1 Job Comp Design Manager
1.2.2 Job Pay Roll Manager
1.2.2.1 Position - Comp Policy
Administrator
1.2.2.1.1 Duty Pay Roll Processing
1.2.2.1.1.1 Task Preparing Forms
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Element Sign
Paychecks
Methods of Job Analysis
Observation
Sampling
Employee daily log / diary
Critical incident technique
Interviewing
Questionnaire
PAQ
MPDQ
Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory
Close-ended
--
O*Net US dept of labor
Job Analysis Questionnaire
Job Description Job Specification

Define Purpose, scope, Statement about qualities


duties, task and characteristics
responsibilities required for an employee
to be successful on the job
Analysis of task , activities Analysis of abilities
accordance with work characteristics and
conditions and qualification of an
accountability of the employee
particular job
Job description is focused Focused on Qualities of
on task the employee
Terms used in Job analysis and related stages in job evaluation

Element The smallest unit into which the work is divided

Task A distinct identifiable work activity which comprises


a necessary step in the performance of the job

Duty A significant segment of the work performed in the


job, usually comprising of several tasks

Post (position One or more duties which require the services of


activities of one worker for their performance

Job A group of posts that are identical or involve


substantially similar tasks

Occupation A group of jobs similar in terms of knowledge,


skills, abilities, training and works experiences
required for successful performance
Two Types Of Job Analysis
TASK BASED
Task
A distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions
Duty
A larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an
individual
Responsibilities
Obligations to perform certain tasks and duties

COMPETENCY BASED
Competencies
Individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by
individuals or teams.
Technical competencies
Behavioral competencies
Behavioral Aspects Of Job Analysis

Inflation of Jobs and Titles

Behavioral Managerial Anxieties (Straitjacket)


Aspects of
Job
Analysis Current Incumbent Emphasis

Employee Fears and Anxieties


Application of job analysis
Planning
Org design
HRP
Job design
Career planning
operations
Recruitment
Selection
Socialization
Developing processes
Learning and development
Control
Performance standard
Legal requirement
Employee relations
Benefits Of Job Analysis
Organization audit

Training & development programs

Performance appraisal

Promotion and transfer

Preventing dissatisfaction & settling complaints

Wage & salary administration

Induction
Criticism Against Job Analysis

Restrictive in nature.

Impose undue limitations on the development of the


individual in his job.

Has very limited applicability in high-technology-


oriented business organizations.

Just a basic guideline for HRM


Job Design

Process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of


duties and responsibilities of the jobholders; on the
methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of
techniques, systems and procedures and on the
relationship that should exist between the job holder
and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
Job Description
Title Reports To
Dept Location
Band Supervises:

Primary Responsibilities

*
*
*
*
*
*
Secondary Responsibilities
*
*
*
*
* KPIs
*
*
Role :
Purpose of the Role:
Reporting to
Supervises
Location:
Major Responsibilities in different areas under your role
jurisdiction to meet Current Business Goals
Prime Responsibilities in a Task force or Team constituted for
specific purpose
Major Responsibilities Future Business Goals
Empowerment
Authorized for approving of expenses upto Rs._________/- for -
--- Purposes
Measureable Outcomes
Nature Of Job Design
Job Enlargement
Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the
number of different tasks to be performed.
Job Enrichment
Increasing the depth of a job by adding the
responsibility for planning, organizing , controlling,
and evaluating the job.
Job Rotation
The process of shifting a person from job to job.
Factors Affecting Job Design

Feedback

Environmental
Factors

Organizational
Productivity
Organizational Job
Factors Design Employee
Satisfaction

Behavioral
Factors
Strength & Weaknesses

Job Design Positive outcome Negative outcome


approach
Work simplification Job is highly Results in boredom
specialized. So many due to over
people can do the job. simplification
Job Rotation Interdepartmental Workers feel alienated
cooperation increases
Job Enlargement Employee motivation Adding one zero to
other zero
Job enrichment Employee Employees resist new
empowerment responsibilities
JD Sample
Job evaluation methods
Job ranking
Job classification
Point ranking
Factor comparison method
Decision banding
The Hay method
Job ranking

Committee of executives rates based on their experience and


knowledge ranks several jobs

Advantages
Easily understood and administered
Sets a better rate than the arbitrary rate purely based on judgment and
experience

Disadvantages
Only overall assessment possible as classification is in general terms
The grading is influenced by the existing wage rate
In complex organization rates may not be aware of all jobs
It does not indicate the degree of difference between jobs but only relative
importance
Job classification

Classify jobs in these grades by


Job analysis

Grouping jobs by content

Establish the number and structure of grades and preparing

grade definitions

Evaluating and classifying jobs


Job classification
Advantages
Comparatively simple and easy to administer
Since written job descriptions are used, evaluation of jobs
tends to be more accurate than ranking system

Disadvantages
Classification is in general terms and only overall
assessment is available
Specification of job will overlap making it difficult to decide
where it belongs
Placing of jobs may be influenced by existing wage
Point ranking

Selecting and defining factors


Dividing the factors into degrees
Weighting the factors
Allocating points to each degree
Validating the factor plan
Point ranking
Example
Degrees

Progression Sub Factors 1 2 3 4 5


Arithmetical Education 15 30 45 60 75
Experience 20 40 60 80 100

Geometrical Education 15 30 60 120 240


Experience 25 50 100 200 400

Variable Education 15 20 30 45 75
Experience 20 30 45 65 100
Point ranking
Advantages
Graphic and descriptive scales have become accepted as reliable and valid
agreement amongst raters high
Job classes are easily setup and determined by agreed point range

Disadvantages
Difficult to develop, needs lot of skill
Assigning weightage without being unfair requires detailed study
Difficult to explain to layperson, can cause disturbance amongst lower
levels
Time consuming process
Factor comparison method

Select bench marks jobs


Ranking bench mark jobs by factors
Allocating money values to factor
Ranking other jobs, wage fixing
Factor comparison method

Select bench marks jobs


Clear description and analysis in terms of factors
used
Representative of hierarchy
Rates to applied must be seen as appropriate by
all
Factor comparison method
Ranking bench mark jobs by factors
Job Skill Mental Physical Responsibility Working
Reqt Reqt Reqt condition
Tool maker 1 1 2 1 4

Machinist 2 2 3 2 3
Grade I

Electrician 3 3 4 3 2
Grade II

Assembler 4 4 5 5 5
Grade I

Janitor 5 5 1 4 1
Factor comparison method
Advantages
More systematic comparison than non-analytical methods
Evaluation is easier
Analysis of bench mark jobs is very comprehensive
Determining wages is automatic
Reliance on method of bench mark jobs ensures customization

Disadvantages
Complicated method
Wage rate of bench mark job is presumed to be correct
Decision banding
The method assumes that the only factor
common on all jobs is Decision making
Band E Policy decision made by top team that direct and guide enterprise

Band D Involve preparation of plan for carrying out policy but not execution of
the plan

Band C Interpretative decisions, the kind of machines or people required

Band B Concerned with routine decisions about carrying out band c decisions

Band A Automatic decisions made by workers on machine,e tc

Band O Defined decisions usually unskilled workers