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CHAPTER 4

CURRENT AND RESISTANCE


Consider a simple closed circuit consists of wires,
a battery and a light bulb as shown below.

Fe

Area, A

Current flow
-OPPOSITE DIRECTION with the direction of electrons
-Direction of electron flows: -ve to +ve,
- current flows from high potential to low potential
(positive to negative)
ELECTRIC CURRENT

amount of
charge that

Q passes through

I
the conductor,
Coulomb (C)
t
current, Ampere (A) time interval, t (s)
EXERCISES
1. A device that produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into
electrical energy is called a
A generator.
B transformer.
C battery.
D none of the given answers

2. Car batteries are rated in "amp-hours." This is a measure of their


A charge.
B current.
C emf.
D power.

3. Find the current in the wire if 3.0 x 1015 electrons flow through the wire for 4.0 s
A. 0.12 mA
B. 0.24 mA
C. 7.5 x 10-14 A
D. 7.5 x 1014 A

4
Resistance, R
is defined as a ratio of the potential
difference across an electrical component
to the current passing through it.
Mathematically,

Magnitude of
V potential difference
where
R Volt (V)
I
current,
Resistance, ohm Ampere (A)
()
Resistivity, ( m)
1. A measure of a materials ability to oppose the
flow of an electric current
2. Depends on TYPE of material & TEMPERATURE
3. GOOD conductor LOW resistivity

Resistance, ohm ()
RA
Area,(m2)
l

Resistivity, ohm meter ( m) Length of material,


meter (m)
Material Resistivity, ( m)

Silver 1.59 108

Copper 1.68 108

Aluminum 2.82 108

Gold 2.44 108

Glass 10101014
EXERCISES
1. The resistivity of a silver wire is 1.59 x 10-8 m. The
resistivity of a copper wire is 1.68 x 10-8 .m If both wires
have the same length and radius, what is the ratio of
resistance of a silver wire compared to resistance of a
copper wire ?
A. 0.95
B. 1.06
C. 1.68
D. 1.59

2. A nichrome wire is 100 cm in length and 0.6 mm in radius.


When connected to a potential of 2 V, a current of 4 A exists
in the wire. Find the resistivity of this nichrome wire.

8
Electric Power, P
is defined as the energy liberated per unit time in the
electrical device.

2
P IV V E
PI R 2
P P
R t
P = power (Watt, W)
V = potential difference / voltage (Volt, V)
I = current (Ampere, A)
R = resistance (ohm, )
E = energy (Joule, J)
t = time (second, s)
EXERCISES
1. A resistor dissipates 1.5 W when it is connected to a battery
with a potential difference of 12 V. What is the resistance of the
resistor?
A 8.0
B 18
C 96
D 220
2. A hair dryer has a heating element of 16
i). What is the current in the element if it is connected to 120 V
power supply?
ii) Calculate the amount of charge passes in 1 hour
iii) Calculate the power it generates in 1 hour

10
Resistors in series and parallel
Resistors in series

R R
OR

Consider three resistors are connected in series to the


battery.
R1 R2 R3

V1 V2 V3
I I
V
Resistors in parallel

I3 R3 I I3

I1 I2
V3
I2 R2 R2
V1 R V V3 R3
V2 V 1 2

I1 R1

V1 I
I I
V
EMF AND TERMINAL VOLTAGE
Two point a and b - two terminals of the battery.
What we measure is a terminal voltage VT.

r

VT

VT = ( If no current drawn from a battery)


VT = Ir ( when a current I flows from a
battery)
r = internal resistance (resistance in battery)
Example 3.4 (pg 76)
Five resistors are connected as shown in
Figure. Each has a resistance of 4.
What is the equivalent resistance between
points A and B? R2

R1 R3 R5

B
A
R4
Example
20
A

10
10 5.0

5.0
B
Calculate the equivalent resistance between the
points A and B.
R eq 7.14
Example
4.0 12

2.0

8.0 V

For the circuit, calculate


a. the equivalent resistance of the circuit, R eff 1.78
b. the current passes through the 12 resistor, I2 0.50 A
c. the potential difference across 4.0 resistor, V1 2.0 V
d. the power delivered by the battery. P 36.0 W
The internal resistance of the battery may be ignored.
A B
=9V r=0.5
R5 = 6
R4 = 10

C R2 = 8 D
R1=5
R3 = 4

Figure 3.8

A 9.0V battery whose internal resistance r is 0.5


is connected in the circuit.
(a) Find the equivalent resistance for external loaded
(b) How much current is drawn from the battery?
(c) What is the terminal voltage of a battery?
(d) What is the current in the 10 and 5 resistor?
Exercise 4.8 (pg 80)
From the Figure , find
a) the equivalent resistance between point
A and D
b) the current drawn from battery, I
c) the terminal voltage
d) current I2 and I3
e) potential difference at point BE and CF
10. From the Figure 4.13 , the e.m.f value is
8.0 V and internal resistance r= 0.5
a) Find the equivalent resistance for external
load
b) Find the current i
c) Find the terminal voltage
d) Find the current through the resistor R5
(Answer : 9.46, 0.8A, 7.57V , 0.584A)
THE END