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PLASTICS

PRODUCT DESIGN
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
PART DESIGN

MAIN FACTORS

1. END USE

2. MATERIAL PROPERY

3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
PRIME CONSIDERATION OF A PART DESIGN

BASED ON END USE

i. SHAPE SIMPLE/COMPLEX, HOLLOW/


SOLID,FLAT/ROUND

ii. SIZE LARGE / SMALL , THICK / THIN &

iii. PART FEATURES


PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
PART FEATURES
DETAILS TO BE CONSIDERED IN A PART

1. WALL THICKNESS
2. CORNERS
3. RIBS
4. BOSSES
5. WELD LINES
6. DRAFT
7. PARTING PLANE
8. UNDERCUT
9. INSERTS
10.TOLERANCES
11.LOAD & STRENGTH
12.HINGES & SNAP FIT
13.THREAD
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
WALL THICKNESS

PLASTIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES GOVERNING


WALL THICKNESS OF PLASTICS PART

1. MATERIAL STRUCTURE PARTLY AMOURPHOS,


PARTLY CRYSTALLINE & VISCOSITY.
2. PROCESS THE NATURE OF PLASTIC PRODUCT
MANUFACTURING IS MATERIAL ADDITION.
3. THERMAL CONDUCTION PLASTICS IS BAD
CONDUCTOR OF HEAT , HENCE SOLIDIFICATION
PROCESS VARIES WITH THICKNESS.
4. THERMAL EXPANSION / SHRINKAGE

ABOVE FACTORS INDICATE , WALL THICKNESS SHOULD


BE UNIFORM AND THIN.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
WALL THICKNESS

WALL THICKNESS SHOULD BE AS UNIFORM AS POSSIBLE


TO ELIMINATE INTERNAL STRESSES, PART DISTORTION,
AND CRACKING.
WALL THICKNESS
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
WALL THICKNESS

If two different wall


thickness is join , blending
should be Gradual
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

WALL THICKNESS
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
WALL THICKNESS
GOOD DESIGN BAD DESIGN

UNIFORM WALL
THICKNESS IS DESIRABLE
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

CORNERS

GOOD DESIGN BAD DESIGN

SHARP CORNERS
SHOULD BE AVOIDED
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

RIBS

PURPOSE IT HAS TWO PURPOSE

A) TO IMPROVE MELT FLOW IN THE SECTION

B) TO INCREASE FLEXURAL STIFFNESS


If a part has wall thickness W, and thickness W is added as
follows

Case (a) Parallel Along thickness &


Case (b) perpendicular to wall , then

Comparing Case (a) and Case (b)

Section Modulus - is proportional to Square of thickness.


Weight - is proportional to thickness
Cooling Time - is proportional to Square of thickness

Increasing Stiffness Reduce


Deflection
Reduce Creep Strain
Natural Frequency
Impact Resistance
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
RIBS -

The Rib design and


proportions used in most
thermoplastic materials

Note : If thickness C is
more than 0.8A, Sink mark
will appear.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

RIBS -

A uniform wall thickness


can be maintained in a
rib if it is hollowed or
cored out from the back
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
RIBS -

A Rib should be located in


the corner or side of a
moled part. This will
lower the mold cost and
allow easier filling of the
plastic part
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
RIBS -

IF THE RIB IS TO BE EXTREMELY


THIN AND AWAY FROM SIDES OF
PART, FILLING MAY BE HELPED BY
ADDING INTERMITTENT HEAVY
SECTION ON WHICH VENT PIN CAN
BE PLACED.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

BOSSES

It is protruding studs on a part that assist in


assembly of the plastic parts and also bear
stress and strain therein.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
BOSSES

Design and
proportions of boss
at a wall, it is used
in most
thermoplastic
materials
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
BOSSES

Design and
proportions of boss
away from a wall, it
is used in most
thermoplastic
materials

Note : If thickness C
is more than 0.8
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

BOSSES

Ribs on the side of long


bosses will aid in filling
them
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

BOSSES

Recommended proportions
for Boss on the outside of a
moulded part

B = A or 2A max.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

Gusset Design
RIM DESIGN
It is an undercut in the
part and is used to give
added strength and
support.

GUSSETS
These are supporting
arrangements for an edge.
For additional support, two
or more gussets do the job
better than increasing
height or width .
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
DRAFT
TAPER IS PROVIDED IN A MOLD WALL TO
FACILITATE EASY EJECTION. Also HELPS IN
STACKING
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
MOULDED HOLE -

i) Holes should be Parallel to Draw of mold


as it opens. Oblique angle hole are
expensive to manufacture.

ii) Strength of PIN forming the moulded hole


is influenced by ratio of Diameter to
Length called Slenderness Ratio.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

MOULDED HOLE -
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
MOULDED HOLE
HOLES OF VERY SMALL DIAMETER IN CASE OF COMPRESSION
MOLDING
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
UNDERCUTS
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
THREADS -
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
Metal INSERTS -
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WITH MOLDED IN INSERTS

I) It should provide required mechanical strength.


Sufficient anchorage must be provided to prevent
insert from pulling out of the plastic.

II) Some plastic material will crack around the insert as it


ages.

III) Flow of plastic material should not dislodge the insert.

IV) Plastics has higher co efficient of thermal expansion


and contraction than metal.

V) Insert may be pre heated prior to molding to avoid


cracks around insert.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
INSERT -

A ROUND SHOULDER ON
THE TOP PART OF A
HEXAGONAL INSERT
ELIMINATETHE NECESSITY
TO MACHINE A HEXAGONAL
HOLE IN THE METAL MOLD.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

NOT PREFERRED

PREFERRED

WHEN STRESSES ARE ENCOUNTERED , INSERT AND NOT


PLASTIC SHOULD BEAR THE LOAD
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
INSERT -

INCORRECT
CORRECT

METAL INSERT IN BOSSES SHOULD EXTEND TO


WITHIN ONE MATERIAL THICKNESS OF OPPOSITE
WALL AND RIBS CAN BE ADDED FOR ADDITIONAL
SUPPORT
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
INSERT
MALE INSERT SHOULD HAVE SHOULDER IN ORDER TO SEAL
OUT PLASTIC MATERIAL THAT MIGHT BE FORCED AROUND
THE INSERT

BETTER DESIGN BEST DESIGN


POOR DESIGN GOOD DESIGN HORIZONTAL & HORIZONTAL &
NO SHOULDER OR SEAL HORIZONTAL SEAL VERTICAL SEAL VERTICAL SEAL
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
HINGES IN PLASTICS PRODUCT -
TYPES OF HINGE

A) RATHBUN HINGE IT USES ELLIPTICAL SHAPED STEEL SPRING


CLIPS TO HOLD A BOX LID TIGHTLY CLOSED OR WIDE OPEN. CLIP
ARE PLACED IN SMALL UNDERCUTS OR SLOT . PROVIDES STURDY
SPRING ACTION AND HOLDS COVER TIGHTLY
B) PIANO HINGE MADE OF METAL , SAME AS USED FOR HINGE COVER
OF PIANO. HINGE RIVETTED OR FIX BY SELF TAPPING SCREW.
C) LUG & PIN HINGE LEAST EXPESIVE . RECESS DRILLED IN SIDE OF
BOX & COVER IS PROVIDE. METAL PIN IS DRIVEN THRO HOLE
D) STANDARD PIN HINGE Molded HOLES ARE EXPENSIVE FOR CAM
OPERATION IN MOLD.
E) INEXPENSIVE PIN HINGE ELIMINATES DRILLING OR CAM
OPERATION
F) HEAT SEALED HINGE VERY STRONG AND DURABLE. AFTER
ASSEMBLY, TWO TABS ARE HEATED AND BENT PERMANENTLY
AROUND TWO PINS.
G) BALL GRIP HINGE USED IN SMALL BOXES. BALL SNAPS INTO
TWO DEPRESSION .
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

HINGES IN PLASTICS PRODUCT

STANDARD PIN HINGE INEXPENSIVE PIN


HINGE
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

HINGES IN PLASTICS PRODUCT -

RATHBUN HINGE PIANO HINGE LUG & PIN HINGE


PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
HINGES IN PLASTICS PRODUCT -

HEAT SEALED HINGE


VERY STRONG AND
DURABLE. AFTER
ASSEMBLY, TWO TABS
ARE HEATED AND BENT
PERMANENTLY AROUND
TWO PINS.
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

CLASPS

MOSTLY WORKS ON FRICTION HOOK PRINCIPLE


PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

SNAP ON FIT SNAP IN FIT


PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN
SNAP FITS
PLASTICS PRODUCT DESIGN

SNAP ON FIT & SNAP IN FIT