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Turbo machines

Hydraulic
Turbines

Prepared By:
Adnan Husnain 2012-MS-MET-12 Steam Turbines
Farhan Hanif 2012-MS-MET-28
Ahmad Fareed Abbas 2012-MS-MET-32
Waqar Ahmed 2011-MS-MET-
Atiq Arshad 2013-MS-MET
Gas Turbines

Compressors
Turbo Machine
Turbo machines describes machines that transfer energy between a
rotor and a fluid, including both turbines and compressors.

transfers energy from a fluid to a rotor

transfers energy from a rotor to a fluid.


Turbo Machines under Consideration
Hydraulic Turbines
Steam Turbines
Gas Turbines
Compressors
Hydraulic Turbines
Pelton Turbines
It is a water impulse turbine

It extracts energy from the impulse of moving


water
These are preferred for hydro-power, when the
available water source has relatively high hydraulic
head at low flow rates.
Hydraulic Turbines
Pelton Turbines
Cascade View Meridional View
Hydraulic Turbines
Pelton Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Hydraulic Turbines
Francis Turbines
It is a water reaction turbine
It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that
combines radial and axial flow concepts
These operate in a water head from 10
to 650 meters (33 to 2,133 feet) and are
primarily used for electrical power
production.
Hydraulic Turbines
Francis Turbines
Meridional View
Hydraulic Turbines
Francis Turbines
Cascade View
Hydraulic Turbines
Francis Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Hydraulic Turbines
Kaplan Turbines
It is a water reaction turbine
It propeller-type water turbine which
has adjustable blades
Efficient power production in low-
head applications
The head ranges from 1070 meters
and the output from 5 to 200 MW.
Hydraulic Turbines
Kaplan Turbines
Meridional View Cascade View
Hydraulic Turbines
Kaplan Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Steam Turbines
These are classified as;
Steam Turbines
Impulse Turbines
It is a steam impulse turbine

It extracts energy from the impulse of moving


Steam
An impulse steam turbine has fixed nozzles that
orient the steam flow into high speed jets. These
jets contain significant kinetic energy, which is
converted into shaft rotation by the bucket-like
shaped rotor blades, as the steam jet changes
direction.
Steam Turbines
Impulse Turbines
Meridional View
Cascade View
Steam Turbines
Impulse Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Steam Turbines
Reaction Turbines
The reaction turbine is turned by reactive force
rather than by a direct push or impulse.
No Nozzles as such in reaction turbines, instead
the stator blades play role of nozzles
This type of turbine makes use of the reaction
force produced as the steam accelerates
through the nozzles formed by the rotor.
These are used for large capacity power
production as compared to impulse turbine.
Steam Turbines
Reaction Turbines
Meridional View Cascade View
Steam Turbines
Reaction Turbines
Velocity Triangles
Gas Turbines
A gas turbine, also called a
combustion turbine, is a type
of internal combustion engine.
It has an upstream rotating
compressor coupled to a
downstream turbine, and a
combustion chamber in-
between.
Gas Turbines
These are classified as;
Gas Turbines

A radial turbine is a turbine in which the


flow of the working fluid is radial to the
shaft.
The more robust and more efficient as
compared to Axial Gas Turbines
Gas Turbines

Meridional View
Gas Turbines

Velocity Triangles
Cascade View
Gas Turbines

A radial turbine is a turbine


in which the flow of the
working fluid is parallel to
the shaft.
The most commonly used
type of gas turbines
Have large Power capacity
range
Gas Turbines

Meridional View
Gas Turbines

Velocity Triangles
Cascade View
Gas Compressors
In Turbo machinery these are classified as;
Gas Compressors

Also referred as Radial Compressors


The most commonly used type in
industry for Independent Gas
compression Unit
Gas Compressors

Meridional View
Gas Compressors

Cascade View
Velocity Triangles
Gas Compressors
Gas Compressors

It is a rotating, airfoil-based
compressor in which the
working fluid principally
flows parallel to the axis of
rotation.
The most commonly used
as coupled with gas
turbines
Gas Compressors

Meridional View
Gas Compressors

Cascade View
Gas Compressors

Velocity Triangle