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CIVIL ENGINEERING

Chapter 4: Flow in Pipelines

SEQUENCE OF CHAPTER 4

Introduction

Objectives

4.1 Pipe Flow System

4.2 Types of Flow

4.2.1 Laminar Flow

4.2.2 Turbulent Flow

4.3 Energy Losses due to Friction

4.3.1 Friction Losses in Laminar Flow

4.3.2 Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow

4.4 Minor Losses

4.4.1 Losses due to Pipe Fittings

4.4.2 Sudden Enlargement

4.4.3 Sudden Contraction

4.5 Energy Added and Extracted

4.6 Pipe Flow Analysis

4.6.1 Simple Pipeline

4.6.2 Pipes in Series

4.6.3 Pipes in Parallel

4.6.4 Pipe Network

Summary

Introduction

In considering the convenience and necessities in every day

life, it is truly amazing to note the role played by conduits in

transporting fluid.

For example, the water in our homes is normally conveyed

through pressure pipelines, from the distribution system, so

that it will be available when and where we want it.

Moreover, virtually all of this water leaves our homes as

dilute wastes through sewers, another type of conduits. Oil

is often transferred from their source by pressure pipelines

to refineries while gas is conveyed by pipelines into a

distribution network for supply.

Thus, it can be seen that the fluid flow in conduits is of

immense practical significance in civil engineering.

Objectives

1. Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flows in

pipelines.

2. Describe the velocity profile for laminar and turbulent

flows.

3. Compute Reynolds number for flow in pipes.

4. Define the friction factor, and compute the friction losses in

pipelines.

5. Recognize the source of minor losses, and compute minor

losses in pipelines.

6. Analyze simple pipelines, pipelines in series, parallel, and

simple pipe networks.

4.1 Pipe Flow System

This chapter introduces the fundamental theories of flow in

pipelines as well as basic design procedures.

In this chapter, the pipeline system is defined as a closed conduit

with a circular cross-section with water flows (flowing full) inside

it.

It is a closed system, the water is not in contact with air (i.e. no

free surface). Flow in a closed pipe results from a pressure

difference between inlet and outlet. The pressure is affected by

fluid properties and flow rate.

The following diagram gives the geometrical properties for circular

pipe. In the diagram, D represents the diameter of pipe, R is the

pipe radius and L is the pipe length. The cross-sectional area of

the pipe can be calculated using A = R2.

Pipe

Centerline

D=2R

RR

units of energy per unit weight of fluid, resulting in units of length.

When using these length equivalents, the energy of the system is

expressed in terms of head. The usual unit used is meter. The

energy at any point within a hydraulic system is often expressed in

three parts, i.e. the pressure head (P/g), elevation head (z), and

velocity head (V2/2g) The sum of all these components is known as

the total head (H).

P V2

H z (4.1)

g 2g

Figure 4.3:

Flow in a uniform

pipeline

A line plotted of total head versus distance through a system is called the

total energy line (TEL).

The TEL is also known as energy grade line (EGL).

The sum of the elevation head and pressure head yields the hydraulic

grade line (HGL).

In a uniform pipeline, the total shear stress (resistance to flow) is constant

along the pipe resulting in a uniform degradation of the total energy or

head along the pipeline.

The total head loss along a specified length of pipeline is referred to head

loss due to friction and denoted as hf.

Referring to the above figure, the Bernoulli equation

can be written from section 1 to section 2 as;

P1 V12 P2 V2 2

z1 z2 hf (4.2)

g 2g g 2g

4.2 Types of Flow

The physical nature of fluid flow can be categorized into three types, i.e.

laminar, transition and turbulent flow. It has been mentioned earlier that

Reynolds Number (Re) can be used to characterize these flow.

VD VD

Re (4.3)

where = density

= dynamic viscosity

= kinematic viscosity ( = /)

V = mean velocity

D = pipe diameter

following condition:

Laminar Flow: Re <2000

Transitional Flow : 2000 < Re <4000

Turbulent Flow : Re >4000

4.2.1 Laminar flow

Viscous shears dominate in this type of flow and the

fluid appears to be moving in discreet layers. The

shear stress is governed by Newtons law of viscosity

(equation 1.1):

du

(1.1)

dy

In general the shear stress is almost impossible to

measure. But for laminar flow it is possible to

calculate the theoretical value for a given velocity,

fluid and the appropriate geometrical shape.

Pressure loss during a laminar flow in a pipe

Up to this point we only considered ideal fluid

where there is no losses due to friction or any

other factors.

In reality, because fluids are viscous, energy is

lost by flowing fluids due to friction which must

be taken into account.

The effect of friction shows itself as a pressure (or

head) loss. In a pipe with a real fluid flowing, the

shear stress at the wall retard the flow.

The shear stress will vary with velocity of flow and

hence with Re. Many experiments have been done Figure 4.4:

with various fluids measuring the pressure loss at A typical velocity

various Reynolds numbers. distribution in a

Figure below shows a typical velocity distribution pipe flow

in a pipe flow. It can be seen the velocity

increases from zero at the wall to a maximum in

the mainstream of the flow.

In laminar flow the paths of individual particles of fluid do

not cross, so the flow may be considered as a series of

concentric cylinders sliding over each other rather like the

cylinders of a collapsible pocket telescope.

Lets consider a cylinder of fluid with a length L, radius r,

flowing steadily in the center of pipe.

The fluid is in equilibrium, shearing forces equal the pressure forces.

Shearing force = Pressure force

2rL PA Pr 2

(4.5)

P r

L 2

Taking the direction of measurement r (measured from the center of

pipe), rather than the use of y (measured from the pipe wall), the

above equation can be written as;

du r (4.6)

dr

Equating (4.5) with (6.6) will give:

P r du

L 2 dr

du P r

dr L 2

In an integral form this gives an expression for velocity, with the

values of r = 0 (at the pipe center) to r = R (at the pipe wall)

P 1 r R

u rdr

L 2 r 0

ur

R 2 r 2 P

(4.7)

4 L

L = length of pipe

R = pipe radius

r = distance measured from the center of pipe

R 2 P

u max

4 L

It can be shown that the mean velocity is half the maximum velocity, i.e. V=umax/2

Figure 6.6: Shear stress and velocity distribution in pipe for laminar flow

which is given by the following;

P D 4

Q (4.8)

L 128

The Hagen-Poiseuille expresses the discharge Q in terms of the

pressure gradient dP P , diameter of pipe, and viscosity of the

fluid. dx L

by 8LQ

P

(4.9)

R 4

4.2.2 Turbulent flow

This is the most commonly occurring flow in engineering

practice in which fluid particles move erratically causing

instantaneous fluctuations in the velocity components.

These fluctuations cause additional shear stresses. In this

type of flow both viscous and turbulent shear stresses exists.

Thus, the shear stress in turbulent flow is a combination of

laminar and turbulent shear stresses, and can be written as:

la min ar turbulent

dU

dy

= eddy viscosity which is not a fluid property but

depends upon turbulence condition of flow.

The velocity at any point in the cross-section will be proportional

to the one-seventh power of the distance from the wall, which can

be expressed as: 1/ 7

Uy y

(4.10)

U CL R

where Uy is the velocity at a distance y from the wall, UCL is the velocity

at the centerline of pipe, and R is the radius of pipe. This equation is

known as the Prandtl one-seventh law.

Figure 6.7 below shows the velocity profile for turbulent flow in a pipe.

The shape of the profile is said to be logarithmic.

For smooth pipe:

U yU (4.11a)

5.75 log 10 * 5.5

U*

U y

5.75 log 10 8.5 (4.11b)

U* k

from the pipe wall, U* is the shear velocity =

y is the distance form the pipe wall, k is the surface roughness and

is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

Example 4.1

Glycerin ( = 1258 kg/m3, =9.60 x10-1 N.s/m2) flows with a

velocity of 3.6 m/s in a 150-mm diameter pipe. Determine

whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.

Solution:

VD

Re

1258x3.6x 0.15

Re 708

1

9.60x10

4.3 Energy Losses due to friction

develop between the liquid and the pipe wall.

This shear stress is a result of friction, and its magnitude is

dependent upon the properties of the fluid, the speed at

which it is moving, the internal roughness of the pipe, the

length and diameter of pipe.

Friction loss, also known as major loss, is a primary cause

of energy loss in a pipeline system.

4.3.1 Friction Losses in Laminar flow

In laminar flow, the fluid seems to flow as several layers, one on another.

Because of the viscosity of the fluid, a shear stress is created between

the layers of fluid.

Energy is lost from the fluid to overcome the frictional forces produced by

the shear stress.

Energy loss is usually represented by the drop of pressure in the direction

of flow.

Therefore, the frictional head loss, hf, can be written in terms of pressure

drop along the pipeline, as follows:

P

hf (4.12)

g

Substituting the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and applying the continuity

equation, Q = VA, to the above resulted into the following expression:

32LV 64 L V 2 (4.13)

hf

2

gD Re D 2g

4.3.2 Friction Losses in Turbulent flow

In turbulent flow, the friction head loss can be calculated by considering

the pressure losses along the pipelines.

In a horizontal pipe of diameter D carrying a steady flow there will be a

pressure drop in a length L of the pipe.

Equating the frictional resistance to the difference in pressure forces, and

manipulating resulted into the following expression:

L V2

hf (4.14)

D 2g

the friction factor. It should be noted that is dimensionless, and the

value is not constant

Blasius (1913) was the first to propose an accurate empirical

relation for the friction factor in turbulent flow in smooth

pipes, namely

= 0.316/Re0.25 (4.15)

dependent on the use of empirical results and the most

common reference source is the Moody diagram. A Moody

diagram is a logarithmic plot of vs. Re for a range of k/D.

A typical Moody diagram is shown in Figure 4.9.

Figure 4.8: Moody Diagram

Table 4.1: Typical pipe roughness

(Reference: White, 1999)

Material Roughness, k (mm)

Glass smooth

Brass, new 0.002

Concrete 0.04

Smoothed 2.0

Rough

Iron 0.26

Cast, new 0.15

Galvanised, new 0.046

Wrought, new

Steel 0.046

Commercial, new 3

Riveted

4.4 Minor Losses

In addition to head loss due to friction, there are always

other head losses due to pipe expansions and contractions,

bends, valves, and other pipe fittings. These losses are

usually known as minor losses (hLm).

compared to the friction losses, however, in the case of

short pipelines, their contribution may be significant.

6.4.1 Losses due to pipe fittings

V2

h Lm K (6.16)

2g

where hLm= minor loss

K = minor loss coefficient

V = mean flow velocity

Type K

Exit (pipe to tank) 1.0

Entrance (tank to pipe) 0.5

90 elbow 0.9

45 elbow 0.4

T-junction 1.8

Gate valve 0.25 - 25

4.4.2 Sudden Enlargement

As fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe through

sudden enlargement, its velocity abruptly decreases; causing

turbulence that generates an energy loss.

The amount of turbulence, and therefore the amount of energy, is

dependent on the ratio of the sizes of the two pipes.

The minor loss (hLm)is calculated from;

Va 2

h Lm K E (4.16a)

2g

where is KE is the coefficient of expansion, and the values depends on the

ratio of the pipe diameters (Da/Db) as shown below.

K 1.00 0.87 0.70 0.41 0.15

Table 4.3: Values of KE vs. Da/Db

Figure 4.9: Flow at Sudden Enlargement

4.4.3 Sudden Contraction

The energy loss due to a sudden contraction can be calculated using

the following;

Vb 2

h Lm K C (4.16b)

2g

The KC is the coefficient of contraction and the values depends on

the ratio of the pipe diameter (Db/Da) as shown below.

K 0.5 0.49 0.42 0.27 0.20 0.0

Example 4.2

Water at 10C is flowing at a rate of 0.03 m3/s through a pipe. The pipe

has 150-mm diameter, 500 m long, and the surface roughness is estimated

at 0.06 mm. Find the head loss and the pressure drop throughout the

length of the pipe.

Solution:

From Table 1.3 (for water): = 1000 kg/m3 and =1.30x10-3 N.s/m2

V = Q/A and A=R2

A = (0.15/2)2 = 0.01767 m2

V = Q/A =0.03/.0.01767 =1.7 m/s

Re = (1000x1.7x0.15)/(1.30x10-3) = 1.96x105 > 2000 turbulent flow

To find , use Moody Diagram with Re and relative roughness (k/D).

k/D = 0.06x10-3/0.15 = 4x10-4

From Moody diagram, 0.018

The head loss may be computed using the Darcy-Weisbach equation.

L V2 500 x 1.7 2

hf 0.018 x 8.84m.

D 2g 0.15 x 2 x 9.81

The pressure drop along the pipe can be calculated using the relationship:

P=ghf = 1000 x 9.81 x 8.84

P = 8.67 x 104 Pa

Example 4.3

Determine the energy loss that will occur as 0.06 m3/s water flows

from a 40-mm pipe diameter into a 100-mm pipe diameter through

a sudden expansion.

Solution:

The head loss through a sudden enlargement is given by;

2

V

hm K a

2g

Q 0.0045

Va 3.58 m / s

A a (0.04 / 2) 2

From Table 6.3: K = 0.70

Thus, the head loss is

3.582

h Lm 0.70 x 0.47m

2 x 9.81

4.5 Energy added and extracted

There are many occasions when energy needs to be added to

a hydraulic system to overcome elevation differences,

friction losses and minor losses.

A pump is a common device to which mechanical energy is

applied and transferred to the water as total head of the

pump.

The head added is called pump head (Hp), and is a function

of flow rate through the pump.

On the other hand, fluid motor or turbines are common

examples of devices that extract energy from a fluid, and

the head extracted is called head of turbine (Ht), deliver it

in a form of work.

Denoting the head loss due to friction and minor losses as HL, and

the external energy added/extracted by HE, then the Bernoulli

equation may be rewritten as

P1 V12 P2 V2 2 (4.17)

z1 HE z2 H L12

g 2g g 2g

HE = Ht (negative for turbine) when the head is extracted from the

fluid. Note the similarity of this equation with equation (3.12). It

is often necessary to convert the total power (P) of a pump or

turbine to HE or vice versa. Recall from Chapter 3, the

relationship between P and HE is given by the following

P = gQHE (3.8)

the fluid. In a turbine, HE = Ht is negative and power is extracted

from the flow.

The term efficiency is used to denote the ratio of the power delivered by

the pump to the fluid to the power supplied to the pump.

Because of energy loses due to mechanical friction in pump components,

fluid friction in the pump, and excessive fluid turbulence in the pump,

not all of the input power is delivered to the fluid. Therefore, the

efficiency of a pump can be written as;

Power delivered to fluid P gQH p

p

Power sup plied to pump Pin Pin

Similarly, energy losses in a turbine are produced by mechanical and

fluid friction. Therefore, not all the power delivered to the motor is

ultimately converted to power output from the device. The efficiency of

a turbine is defined as;

Power output from motor Po Po

t

Power supplied by fluid Pt gQH t

Example 4.4

Calculate the head added by the pump when the water system

shown below carries a discharge of 0.27 m3/s. If the efficiency

of the pump is 80%, calculate the power input required by the

pump to maintain the flow.

Solution:

Applying Bernoulli equation between section 1 and 2

P1 V12 P2 V2 2

z1 Hp z2 H L12 (1)

g 2g g 2g

Thus equation (1) reduces to:

H p z 2 z1 H L12 (2)

V2 1000

H L1 2 0.015x 0.5 0.4 1

2g 0.4

V2

39.4

2g

From (2): V2

H p 230 200 39.4

2x9.81

The velocity can be calculated using the continuity

equation:

Q 0.27

V 2.15 m / s

A 0.4 / 22

gQH p

p

Pin

Pin

p 0.8

4.6 Pipe Flow Analysis

Pipeline system used in water distribution, industrial

application and in many engineering systems may

range from simple arrangement to extremely complex

one.

Problems regarding pipelines are usually tackled by

the use of continuity and energy equations.

The head loss due to friction is usually calculated using

the D-W equation while the minor losses are computed

using equations 4.16, 4.16(a) and 4.16(b) depending on

the appropriate conditions.

4.6.2 Pipes in Series

When two or more pipes of

different diameters or

roughness are connected in

such a way that the fluid

follows a single flow path

throughout the system, the

system represents a series

pipeline.

In a series pipeline the total

energy loss is the sum of the Figure 6.11: Pipelines in series

individual minor losses and

all pipe friction losses.

Referring to Figure 4.11, the Bernoulli equation can be written

between points 1 and 2 as follows;

P1 V12 P2 V2 2

z1 z2 H L12

g g

2g 2g

(4.18)

where P/g = pressure head

z = elevation head

V2/2g = velocity head

HL1-2 = total energy lost between point 1 and 2

Realizing that P1=P2=Patm, and V1=V2, then equation (4.14) reduces to

z1-z2 = HL1-2

Or we can say that the different of reservoir water level is equivalent to the

total head losses in the system.

The total head losses are a combination of the all the friction losses and the

sum of the individual minor losses.

HL1-2 = hfa + hfb + hentrance + hvalve + hexpansion + hexit.

Since the same discharge passes through all the pipes, the continuity

equation can be written as;

Q1 = Q2

4.6.3 Pipes in Parallel

A combination of two or

more pipes connected

between two points so

that the discharge

divides at the first

junction and rejoins at

the next is known as

pipes in parallel. Here

Figure 4.12:

the head loss between Pipelines in parallel

the two junctions is the

same for all pipes.

Applying the continuity equation to the system;

Q1 = Qa + Qb = Q2 (4.19)

as; 2 2

P1 V P V

z1 1 2 z 2 2 H L

g 2g g 2g

HL1-2=hLa = hLb (4.20)

for parallel pipe line systems. The system automatically

adjusts the flow in each branch until the total system flow

satisfies these equations.

4.6.4 Pipe Network

A water distribution system consists of complex interconnected pipes, service

reservoirs and/or pumps, which deliver water from the treatment plant to the

consumer.

Water demand is highly variable, whereas supply is normally constant. Thus,

the distribution system must include storage elements, and must be capable

of flexible operation.

Pipe network analysis involves the determination of the pipe flow rates and

pressure heads at the outflows points of the network. The flow rate and

pressure heads must satisfy the continuity and energy equations.

The earliest systematic method of network analysis (Hardy-Cross Method) is

known as the head balance or closed loop method. This method is applicable

to system in which pipes form closed loops. The outflows from the system are

generally assumed to occur at the nodes junction.

For a given pipe system with known outflows, the Hardy-Cross method is an

iterative procedure based on initially iterated flows in the pipes. At each

junction these flows must satisfy the continuity criterion, i.e. the algebraic

sum of the flow rates in the pipe meeting at a junction, together with any

external flows is zero.

Assigning clockwise flows and their associated head losses are

positive, the procedure is as follows:

Assume values of Q to satisfy Q = 0.

Calculate HL from Q using HL = K1Q2 .

If HL = 0, then the solution is correct.

If HL 0, then apply a correction factor, Q, to all Q and repeat

from step (2).

For practical purposes, the calculation is usually terminated when HL

< 0.01 m or Q < 1 L/s.

A reasonably efficient value of Q for rapid convergence is given by;

Q

H L

(4.21)

2 H

L

Q

Example 4.5

A pipe 6-cm in diameter, 1000m long and with = 0.018 is

connected in parallel between two points M and N with

another pipe 8-cm in diameter, 800-m long and having =

0.020. A total discharge of 20 L/s enters the parallel pipe

through division at A and rejoins at B. Estimate the

discharge in each of the pipe.

Solution:

Continuity: Q = Q1 + Q2

0.02 (0.06) 2 V12 (0.08) 2 V22 (1)

4 4

V1 1.778V2 7.074

L V2 L V2

1 1 1 2 2 2

2gD 1 2gD 2

0.018x1000 2 0.020x800 2

V1 V2

0.06 0.08

V1 0.8165V2 (2)

0.8165V2 + 1.778 V2 = 7.074

V2 = 2.73 m/s

Q 2 A 2 V2 (0.08) 2 x 2.73

4

Q2 = 0.0137 m3/s

From (2):

V1 = 0.8165 V2 = 0.8165x2.73 = 2.23 m/s

Q1 = 0.0063 m3/s

Recheck the answer:

Q1+ Q2 = Q

0.0063 + 0.0137 = 0.020

(same as given Q OK!)

Example 4.6

For the square loop shown, find the discharge in all the

pipes. All pipes are 1 km long and 300 mm in diameter,

with a friction factor of 0.0163. Assume that minor losses

can be neglected.

Solution:

Assume values of Q to satisfy continuity equations all at nodes.

The head loss is calculated using; HL = K1Q2

HL = hf + hLm

But minor losses can be neglected: hLm = 0

Thus HL = hf

Head loss can be calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation

L V2

hf

D 2g

L V2

H L hf

D 2g

1000 V2

H L 0.0163 x x

0.3 2 x 9.81

Q2 Q2

H L 2.77 2 2.77 x

2

2

A

x 0. 3

4

H L 554Q 2

H L K 'Q2

K ' 554

First trial

AB 60 2.0 0.033

BC 40 0.886 0.0222

CD 0 0 0

AD -40 -0.886 0.0222

2.00 0.0774

HL 2

Q 12.92 L / s

2 H L 2 x 0.0774

Q

Second trial

AB 47.08 1.23 0.0261

BC 27.08 0.407 0.015

CD -12.92 -0.092 0.007

AD -52.92 -1.555 0.0294

-0.0107 0.07775

Thus, the discharge in each pipe is as follows (to the nearest integer).

Pipe Discharge (L/s)

AB 47

BC 27

CD -13

AD -53

Summary

Overall, chapter 4 has introduced basic design

procedures of a flow in pipelines and more elaboration

on the type of flows.

A detail calculation of pipe flow analysis which

consists of simple pipeline, pipe in series, pipe in

parallel and pipe network were discussed.

The pipe network used the Hardy Cross method and at

the end, the discharge of water of each pipe can be

known.

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