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Maxwells equations

Dr. Alexandre Kolomenski

Maxwell
(13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a
Scottish physicist.

Famous equations published in 1861

Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's
law

Gauss's law for magnetism:

no magnetic monopole!

Ampre's law

Relation of the speed of light and electric
and magnetic vacuum constants

permittivity of free space, also As/Vm or F/m (farad per

0 called the electric constant meter)

permeability of free space, also Vs/Am or H/m (henry

0 called the magnetic constant per meter)
Differential operators

r
Ax Ay Az
A=
divergence operator + +
the
div
x
y z
x y z

Other notation used
the curl operator A=
x y z
curl, rot x =
Ax Ay Az
x
the partial derivative with respect to time

t
Transition from integral to
differential form
Gauss theorem for a vector field F(r)
Volume V, surrounded by surface S

Stokes' theorem for a vector field

F(r) Surface , surrounded by contour
Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's law

Gauss's law for magnetism:

no magnetic monopoles!

Ampre's law

Maxwells equations (SI units)
differential form
density of charges

j density of current
Electric and magnetic fields and units

the magnetic field

B tesla, T
or magnetic induction

D
field C/m^2

H magnetic field ampere per meter, A/m

Constitutive relations
These equations specify the response of bound charge and current to the
applied fields and are called constitutive relations.

where is the permittivity and the permeability of the material .

Wave equation

0

2 2
(=
B ) -( =-
B) B B 2
2 1 B

B- 2 2
=0
1 1 2
B c t
( E ) = ( E ) = ( - 2 B) = - 2

t t t c t c t2

2
Double vector product rule is used 1 E
a x b x c = (ac) b - (ab) c 2 E - 2 2
=0
c t
) ,

2 more differential operators

r 2 2 2
2 or Laplace operator or Laplacian2 Ax
Ay Az
A= 2 + 2 + 2
x y z

d'Alembert operator or d'Alembertian

=
Plane waves

Thus, we seek the B = B 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]
solutions of the form:
E = E 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]

B E
From Maxwells equations
one can see that k

=
B ik B is parallel to E
r
=
E ik E is parallel to B
Energy transfer and Pointing vector
Differential form of Pointing theorem

|| S is directed along the propagation

direction H E
Integral form of Pointing theorem k
Energy quantities continued

B = B max exp[i ( k r - wt )]
Bmax = Emax / c
E = E max exp[i ( k r - wt )]

Observable are real values:

B = B max cos[i ( k r - wt + j )]

E = E max cos[i ( k r - wt )]