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Maxwells equations

Dr. Alexandre Kolomenski


Maxwell
(13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a
Scottish physicist.

Famous equations published in 1861


Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's
law

Gauss's law for magnetism:


no magnetic monopole!

Ampre's law
(with Maxwell's addition)

Faraday's law of induction


(MaxwellFaraday equation)
Relation of the speed of light and electric
and magnetic vacuum constants

permittivity of free space, also As/Vm or F/m (farad per


0 called the electric constant meter)

permeability of free space, also Vs/Am or H/m (henry


0 called the magnetic constant per meter)
Differential operators

r
Ax Ay Az
A=
divergence operator + +
the
div
x
y z
x y z

Other notation used
the curl operator A=
x y z
curl, rot x =
Ax Ay Az
x
the partial derivative with respect to time

t
Transition from integral to
differential form
Gauss theorem for a vector field F(r)
Volume V, surrounded by surface S

Stokes' theorem for a vector field


F(r) Surface , surrounded by contour
Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's law

Gauss's law for magnetism:


no magnetic monopoles!

Ampre's law
(with Maxwell's addition)

MaxwellFaraday equation
(Faraday's law of induction)
Maxwells equations (SI units)
differential form
density of charges

j density of current
Electric and magnetic fields and units

E electric field, volt per meter, V/m

the magnetic field


B tesla, T
or magnetic induction

electric displacement coulombs per square meter,


D
field C/m^2

H magnetic field ampere per meter, A/m


Constitutive relations
These equations specify the response of bound charge and current to the
applied fields and are called constitutive relations.

P is the polarization field,

M is the magnetization field, then

where is the permittivity and the permeability of the material .


Wave equation

0


2 2
(=
B ) -( =-
B) B B 2
2 1 B

B- 2 2
=0
1 1 2
B c t
( E ) = ( E ) = ( - 2 B) = - 2

t t t c t c t2

2
Double vector product rule is used 1 E
a x b x c = (ac) b - (ab) c 2 E - 2 2
=0
c t
) ,

2 more differential operators

r 2 2 2
2 or Laplace operator or Laplacian2 Ax
Ay Az
A= 2 + 2 + 2
x y z

d'Alembert operator or d'Alembertian

=
Plane waves

Thus, we seek the B = B 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]
solutions of the form:
E = E 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]


B E
From Maxwells equations
one can see that k

=
B ik B is parallel to E
r
=
E ik E is parallel to B
Energy transfer and Pointing vector
Differential form of Pointing theorem

u is the density of electromagnetic energy of the field

|| S is directed along the propagation




direction H E
Integral form of Pointing theorem k
Energy quantities continued

B = B max exp[i ( k r - wt )]
Bmax = Emax / c
E = E max exp[i ( k r - wt )]

Observable are real values:



B = B max cos[i ( k r - wt + j )]

E = E max cos[i ( k r - wt )]

I = Sav = Emax 2 / 2cm0 = cBmax 2 / 2 m0 = cuav

uav = Emax 2 / (4c 2 m0 ) + Bmax 2 / 4 m0