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Maxwell

(13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a

Scottish physicist.

Maxwells equations: integral form

Gauss's

law

no magnetic monopole!

Ampre's law

(with Maxwell's addition)

(MaxwellFaraday equation)

Relation of the speed of light and electric

and magnetic vacuum constants

0 called the electric constant meter)

0 called the magnetic constant per meter)

Differential operators

r

Ax Ay Az

A=

divergence operator + +

the

div

x

y z

x y z

Other notation used

the curl operator A=

x y z

curl, rot x =

Ax Ay Az

x

the partial derivative with respect to time

t

Transition from integral to

differential form

Gauss theorem for a vector field F(r)

Volume V, surrounded by surface S

F(r) Surface , surrounded by contour

Maxwells equations: integral form

Gauss's law

no magnetic monopoles!

Ampre's law

(with Maxwell's addition)

MaxwellFaraday equation

(Faraday's law of induction)

Maxwells equations (SI units)

differential form

density of charges

j density of current

Electric and magnetic fields and units

B tesla, T

or magnetic induction

D

field C/m^2

Constitutive relations

These equations specify the response of bound charge and current to the

applied fields and are called constitutive relations.

Wave equation

0

2 2

(=

B ) -( =-

B) B B 2

2 1 B

B- 2 2

=0

1 1 2

B c t

( E ) = ( E ) = ( - 2 B) = - 2

t t t c t c t2

2

Double vector product rule is used 1 E

a x b x c = (ac) b - (ab) c 2 E - 2 2

=0

c t

) ,

r 2 2 2

2 or Laplace operator or Laplacian2 Ax

Ay Az

A= 2 + 2 + 2

x y z

=

Plane waves

Thus, we seek the B = B 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]

solutions of the form:

E = E 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]

B E

From Maxwells equations

one can see that k

=

B ik B is parallel to E

r

=

E ik E is parallel to B

Energy transfer and Pointing vector

Differential form of Pointing theorem

direction H E

Integral form of Pointing theorem k

Energy quantities continued

B = B max exp[i ( k r - wt )]

Bmax = Emax / c

E = E max exp[i ( k r - wt )]

B = B max cos[i ( k r - wt + j )]

E = E max cos[i ( k r - wt )]

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