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# Maxwells equations

## Dr. Alexandre Kolomenski

Maxwell
(13 June 1831 5 November 1879) was a
Scottish physicist.

## Famous equations published in 1861

Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's
law

## Gauss's law for magnetism:

no magnetic monopole!

Ampre's law

Relation of the speed of light and electric
and magnetic vacuum constants

## permittivity of free space, also As/Vm or F/m (farad per

0 called the electric constant meter)

## permeability of free space, also Vs/Am or H/m (henry

0 called the magnetic constant per meter)
Differential operators

r
Ax Ay Az
A=
divergence operator + +
the
div
x
y z
x y z

Other notation used
the curl operator A=
x y z
curl, rot x =
Ax Ay Az
x
the partial derivative with respect to time

t
Transition from integral to
differential form
Gauss theorem for a vector field F(r)
Volume V, surrounded by surface S

## Stokes' theorem for a vector field

F(r) Surface , surrounded by contour
Maxwells equations: integral form
Gauss's law

## Gauss's law for magnetism:

no magnetic monopoles!

Ampre's law

Maxwells equations (SI units)
differential form
density of charges

j density of current
Electric and magnetic fields and units

## the magnetic field

B tesla, T
or magnetic induction

D
field C/m^2

## H magnetic field ampere per meter, A/m

Constitutive relations
These equations specify the response of bound charge and current to the
applied fields and are called constitutive relations.

## where is the permittivity and the permeability of the material .

Wave equation

0

2 2
(=
B ) -( =-
B) B B 2
2 1 B

B- 2 2
=0
1 1 2
B c t
( E ) = ( E ) = ( - 2 B) = - 2

t t t c t c t2

2
Double vector product rule is used 1 E
a x b x c = (ac) b - (ab) c 2 E - 2 2
=0
c t
) ,

## 2 more differential operators

r 2 2 2
2 or Laplace operator or Laplacian2 Ax
Ay Az
A= 2 + 2 + 2
x y z

## d'Alembert operator or d'Alembertian

=
Plane waves

Thus, we seek the B = B 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]
solutions of the form:
E = E 0 Exp[i ( k r - wt )]

B E
From Maxwells equations
one can see that k

=
B ik B is parallel to E
r
=
E ik E is parallel to B
Energy transfer and Pointing vector
Differential form of Pointing theorem

## || S is directed along the propagation

direction H E
Integral form of Pointing theorem k
Energy quantities continued

B = B max exp[i ( k r - wt )]
Bmax = Emax / c
E = E max exp[i ( k r - wt )]

## Observable are real values:

B = B max cos[i ( k r - wt + j )]

E = E max cos[i ( k r - wt )]