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# Dilute Particulate Systems

Chapter 5 in Fundamentals
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http://www.vimeo.com/10200970
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for further resources.

## Professor Richard Holdich

R.G.Holdich@Lboro.ac.uk
Dilute Particulate Systems

## field force(s) and drag

Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
(Heywood tables)
industrial clarification
Forces

Newton:

F ma
Weight Force

## Tedious to weigh small particles, hence

we use the particle diameter and convert
to mass, then weight.

m x s
3

6
Archimedes Principle

## When a body is wholly, or partially,

immersed in a fluid it experiences an
upthrust equal to the weight of fluid
displaced.
Discovered in his bath?
Buoyancy - hence buoyed weight is:

FW x3 ( s ) g
6
Stokess Drag Expression

## Solution to Navier-Stokes equation

valid for no inertia

FD 3xUt
Inertia

## Rate of change of momentum

d(mU ) dU 3 dU
FI m x s
dt dt 6 dt
Centrifugal Force

FW x3 ( s ) g
6

## The centrifugal force is:

FC x 3 ( s )r 2
6
where r is radial position and omega is the angular speed (s-1).
Electro- and Thermo-
phoretic

## Due to electric field or temperature

Mainly applicable to small particles (less
than 10 microns) is gases
See gas cleaning notes
Gases

## Small particles can slip between the

molecules of gases - hence there is a
slip correction due to Cunningham
applicable to particles less than 2
microns and based on the mean free
path of the gas.
The settling velocity will be?
Liquids

## Small particles are subject to

bombardment by liquid molecules
giving rise to Brownian motion. Hence
they might not settle at all!
Significant with particles 1 micron in
diameter and less.
N.B. they will still settle in a centrifuge.
Stokess settling equation

## Single particle settling

FW x3 ( s ) g
6

FD 3xUt

Ut is terminal
settling
velocity.
Stokess settling equation

x2 ( s ) g
Ut
18

## Stokes law valid for no inertia present

AND a low concentration/single particle.
Note that bigger particles settle faster -
Galileo and that tower in Pisa?
Stokess settling equation

Free settling
Stokess settling equation

x2 ( s ) g
Ut
18

## Note that bigger particles settle faster.

Industrially we often enhance settling
rates by causing the particles to
coagulate or flocculate together.
Stokess settling equation

Colloid stability
important in filtration
and sedimentation.
Often assessed by the
Zeta potential
Surface forces can
predominate at iso-
electric point.
Particle Reynolds number

## Particle Reynolds number:

still a ratio of inertial to viscous forces -
note it is based on the FLUID properties of
density and viscosity.

xUt
Re

## Must be less than 0.2 for Stokess law

AND a low concentration/single particle
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction
factor plot
What to do when Re'>0.2

## R Cd U 2 cf Friction factor: shear stress

over density and velocity2

Ap x 2

4

Drag force = Cd U Ap2
Weight = x3 ( s ) g
6
What to do when Re'>0.2

## Drag force = RAp

R Cd U 2

Ap x 2

4

Drag force = Cd U Ap2
Weight = x3 ( s ) g
6
2 ( s ) g x check that this reduces to
U
3 Cd Stokes law in laminar region.
What to do when Re'>0.2

## Numerous correlations between friction

factor and Reynolds number @ Re>0.2
Above can be used to give settling
velocity =f(diameter) or vice-versa.
Recommend a simple Tabular scheme
developed by Heywood - now fully
automated on the www (freely available):
http://www.filtration-and-separation.com
Industrial Clarification

## field force(s) and drag

Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
(Heywood tables)
industrial clarification
Industrial Clarification
Simple Camp-Hazen clarification model

H
Q
AH U t
t t

Q
A
AH H Ut
t or
Q Ut
Industrial Clarification -
long tube test
Summary

## field force(s) and drag

Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
industrial clarification
This resource was created by Loughborough University and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering
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and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme.