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Dilute Particulate Systems

Chapter 5 in Fundamentals
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for further resources.

Professor Richard Holdich


R.G.Holdich@Lboro.ac.uk
Dilute Particulate Systems

field force(s) and drag


Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
(Heywood tables)
industrial clarification
Forces

Newton:

F ma
Weight Force

Tedious to weigh small particles, hence


we use the particle diameter and convert
to mass, then weight.


m x s
3

6
Archimedes Principle

When a body is wholly, or partially,


immersed in a fluid it experiences an
upthrust equal to the weight of fluid
displaced.
Discovered in his bath?
Buoyancy - hence buoyed weight is:

FW x3 ( s ) g
6
Stokess Drag Expression

Solution to Navier-Stokes equation


valid for no inertia

FD 3xUt
Inertia

Rate of change of momentum

d(mU ) dU 3 dU
FI m x s
dt dt 6 dt
Centrifugal Force

Note the weight is:



FW x3 ( s ) g
6

The centrifugal force is:



FC x 3 ( s )r 2
6
where r is radial position and omega is the angular speed (s-1).
Electro- and Thermo-
phoretic

Due to electric field or temperature


gradients
Mainly applicable to small particles (less
than 10 microns) is gases
See gas cleaning notes
Gases

Small particles can slip between the


molecules of gases - hence there is a
slip correction due to Cunningham
applicable to particles less than 2
microns and based on the mean free
path of the gas.
The settling velocity will be?
Liquids

Small particles are subject to


bombardment by liquid molecules
giving rise to Brownian motion. Hence
they might not settle at all!
Significant with particles 1 micron in
diameter and less.
N.B. they will still settle in a centrifuge.
Stokess settling equation

Single particle settling


FW x3 ( s ) g
6

FD 3xUt

Ut is terminal
settling
velocity.
Stokess settling equation

The Stokes settling equation:

x2 ( s ) g
Ut
18

Stokes law valid for no inertia present


AND a low concentration/single particle.
Note that bigger particles settle faster -
Galileo and that tower in Pisa?
Stokess settling equation

Free settling
Stokess settling equation

Stokess settling equation:

x2 ( s ) g
Ut
18

Note that bigger particles settle faster.


Industrially we often enhance settling
rates by causing the particles to
coagulate or flocculate together.
Stokess settling equation

Colloid stability
important in filtration
and sedimentation.
Often assessed by the
Zeta potential
Surface forces can
predominate at iso-
electric point.
Particle Reynolds number

Particle Reynolds number:


still a ratio of inertial to viscous forces -
note it is based on the FLUID properties of
density and viscosity.

xUt
Re

Must be less than 0.2 for Stokess law


AND a low concentration/single particle
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction
factor plot
What to do when Re'>0.2

Drag force = RAp

R Cd U 2 cf Friction factor: shear stress


over density and velocity2

Ap x 2

4

Drag force = Cd U Ap2
Weight = x3 ( s ) g
6
What to do when Re'>0.2

Drag force = RAp

R Cd U 2

Ap x 2

4

Drag force = Cd U Ap2
Weight = x3 ( s ) g
6
2 ( s ) g x check that this reduces to
U
3 Cd Stokes law in laminar region.
What to do when Re'>0.2

Numerous correlations between friction


factor and Reynolds number @ Re>0.2
Above can be used to give settling
velocity =f(diameter) or vice-versa.
Recommend a simple Tabular scheme
developed by Heywood - now fully
automated on the www (freely available):
http://www.filtration-and-separation.com
Industrial Clarification

field force(s) and drag


Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
(Heywood tables)
industrial clarification
Industrial Clarification
Simple Camp-Hazen clarification model

H
Q
AH U t
t t

Q
A
AH H Ut
t or
Q Ut
Industrial Clarification -
long tube test
Summary

field force(s) and drag


Stokess settling equation
Particle Reynolds number
Drag coefficient/Friction factor plot
what to do when Re'>0.2
industrial clarification
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