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EE331

Electromechanical Energy
Conversion II

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly


DC Motors

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8.1 DC Motor
The direct current (dc) machine can be used as
a motor or as a generator.
DC Machine is most often used for a motor.
The major advantages of dc machines are the
easy speed and torque regulation.
However, their application is limited to mills,
mines and trains. As examples, trolleys and
underground subway cars may use dc motors.
In the past, automobiles were equipped with dc
dynamos to charge their batteries.

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8.1 DC Motor
Even today the starter is a series dc motor
However, the recent development of power
electronics has reduced the use of dc motors
and generators.
The electronically controlled ac drives are
gradually replacing the dc motor drives in
factories.
Nevertheless, a large number of dc motors are
still used by industry and several thousand are
sold annually.

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8.1 Construction

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DC Machine Construction

Figure 8.1 General arrangement of a dc machine

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DC Machines
The stator of the dc motor has
poles, which are excited by dc
current to produce magnetic
fields.
In the neutral zone, in the middle
between the poles, commutating
poles are placed to reduce
sparking of the commutator. The
commutating poles are supplied
by dc current.
Compensating windings are
mounted on the main poles.
These short-circuited windings
damp rotor oscillations. .

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DC Machines
The poles are mounted on an
iron core that provides a
closed magnetic circuit.
The motor housing supports
the iron core, the brushes and
the bearings.
The rotor has a ring-shaped
laminated iron core with slots.
Coils with several turns are
placed in the slots. The
distance between the two legs
of the coil is about 180 electric
degrees.

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DC Machines
The coils are connected in series
through the commutator
segments.
The ends of each coil are
connected to a commutator
segment.
The commutator consists of
insulated copper segments
mounted on an insulated tube.
Two brushes are pressed to the
commutator to permit current
flow.
The brushes are placed in the
neutral zone, where the magnetic
field is close to zero, to reduce
arcing.

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DC Machines
The rotor has a ring-shaped
laminated iron core with slots.
The commutator consists of
insulated copper segments
mounted on an insulated tube.
Two brushes are pressed to
the commutator to permit
current flow.
The brushes are placed in the
neutral zone, where the
magnetic field is close to zero,
to reduce arcing.

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DC Machines
The commutator switches the
current from one rotor coil to
the adjacent coil,
The switching requires the
interruption of the coil
current.
The sudden interruption of an
inductive current generates
high voltages .
The high voltage produces
flashover and arcing between
the commutator segment and
the brush.

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DC Machine Construction
Rotation
Ir_dc/2 Ir_dc Ir_dc/2
Brush Pole
winding
Shaft

|
1
2
8

3
N 7
S
6 4
5

Insulation Copper
Rotor Ir_dc segment
Winding

Figure 8.2 Commutator with the rotor coils connections.


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DC Machine Construction

Figure 8.3 Details of the commutator of a dc motor.


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DC Machine Construction

Figure 8.4 DC motor stator with poles visible.


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DC Machine Construction

Figure 8.5 Rotor of a dc motor.


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DC Machine Construction

Figure 8.6 Cutaway view of a dc motor.


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8.2.1 DC Motor
Operation

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DC Motor Operation
In a dc motor, the stator
poles are supplied by dc Rotation
Ir_dc/2
Ir_dc/2
excitation current, which Brush
Ir_dc Pole
winding
produces a dc magnetic Shaft

field. |

The rotor is supplied by


1
2
8

dc current through the N 7

6
3
S
brushes, commutator 5
4

and coils.
The interaction of the Insulation
Rotor Ir_dc
Copper
segment
magnetic field and rotor Winding

current generates a force


that drives the motor

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8.2.1 DC Motor Operation
The magnetic field lines v
a
B

enter into the rotor from the 1


S N
north pole (N) and exit 30
2
Vdc
toward the south pole (S).
b
The poles generate a v
magnetic field that is Ir_dc
perpendicular to the current (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
carrying conductors.
The interaction between the B

field and the current a

produces a Lorentz force, S N

2
v 30 v Vdc
The force is perpendicular to

1
b
both the magnetic field and
conductor Ir_dc

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.1 DC Motor Operation
v B
The generated force turns the rotor a

until the coil reaches the neutral 1


S N
point between the poles. 30
2
Vdc
At this point, the magnetic field b
becomes practically zero together v
with the force. Ir_dc
However, inertia drives the motor
(a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
beyond the neutral zone where the
direction of the magnetic field B
reverses. a

To avoid the reversal of the force


S N

2
direction, the commutator changes v 30 v Vdc

1
the current direction, which b

maintains the counterclockwise


rotation. . Ir_dc

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.1 DC Motor Operation
Before reaching the neutral zone, v
a
B
the current enters in segment 1 and
exits from segment 2, S 1
30
N Vdc

2
Therefore, current enters the coil
end at slot a and exits from slot b b

during this stage. v


Ir_dc
After passing the neutral zone, the
current enters segment 2 and exits (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)

from segment 1, B
This reverses the current direction a

through the rotor coil, when the coil S N

2
passes the neutral zone. v 30 v Vdc

1
The result of this current reversal is b

the maintenance of the rotation.


Ir_dc

(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.2 DC Generator
Operation

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8.2.2 DC Generator Operation
The N-S poles produce a v
a
B

dc magnetic field and the S 1


N
rotor coil turns in this 30 Vdc
2

field. b

A turbine or other v
Ir_dc
machine drives the rotor.
(a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
The conductors in the
slots cut the magnetic flux B
lines, which induce a

voltage in the rotor coils. S N

2
v 30
v Vdc
The coil has two sides:

1
b
one is placed in slot a, the
other in slot b. Ir_dc
(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.2 DC Generator Operation
In Figure 8.11A, the v
a
B

conductors in slot a are 1


cutting the field lines S 30
N Vdc
2
entering into the rotor
from the north pole, b

v
The conductors in slot b Ir_dc
are cutting the field lines (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
exiting from the rotor to
the south pole. B
The cutting of the field a

lines generates voltage in S N

2
v 30 Vdc
the conductors. v

1
The voltages generated in b

the two sides of the coil


are added. Ir_dc
(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.2 DC Generator Operation
The induced voltage is v
a
B

connected to the generator 1


terminals through the S 30
N Vdc
2
commutator and brushes.
In Figure 8.11A, the induced
b

v
voltage in b is positive, and in Ir_dc
a is negative. (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
The positive terminal is
connected to commutator B
segment 2 and to the a

conductors in slot b. S N

2
v 30
v Vdc
The negative terminal is

1
connected to segment 1 and b

to the conductors in slot a.


Ir_dc
(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.2 DC Generator Operation
When the coil passes the v
a
B

neutral zone: 1
Conductors in slot a are S 30
N Vdc
2
then moving toward the
south pole and cut flux lines b

exiting from the rotor v


Conductors in slot b cut the Ir_dc
flux lines entering the in (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)
slot b.
This changes the polarity B
of the induced voltage in a

the coil. S N

2
v 30
v Vdc
The voltage induced in a

1
is now positive, and in b is b

negative.
Ir_dc
(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.2 DC Generator Operation
The simultaneously the v
a
B

commutator reverses its S 1


N
terminals, which assures 30 Vdc
2

that the output voltage b

(Vdc) polarity is v
unchanged. Ir_dc

In Figure 8.11B (a) Rotor current flow from segment 1 to 2 (slot a to b)

the positive terminal is B


connected to commutator a

segment 1 and to the


S N

2
conductors in slot a. v 30
v Vdc

1
The negative terminal is
b
connected to segment 2 and
to the conductors in slot b. Ir_dc
(b) Rotor current flow from segment 2 to 1 (slot b to a)

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8.2.3 DC Machine
Equivalent Circuit

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Generator

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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
The magnetic field produced by the stator poles induces a
voltage in the rotor (or armature) coils when the
generator is rotated.
This induced voltage is represented by a voltage source.
The stator coil has resistance, which is connected in
series.
The pole flux is produced by the DC excitation/field
current, which is magnetically coupled to the rotor
The field circuit has resistance and a source
The voltage drop on the brushes represented by a battery
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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
Vbrush
Rf Ra Load
max
Iag
Vf If Eag Vdc

Mechanical Electrical
power in power out

Figure 8.12Equivalent circuit of a separately excited dc


generator.

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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
The magnetic field produced by the stator poles
induces a voltage in the rotor (or armature) coils
when the generator is rotated.
The dc field current of the poles generates a
magnetic flux
The flux is proportional with the field current if
the iron core is not saturated:
ag K 1 I f

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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
The rotor conductors cut the field lines that
generate voltage in the coils.
E ag 2 N r B g v
The motor speed and flux equations are :

Dg
v ag B g D g
2

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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
The combination of the three equation
results the induced voltage equation:

Dg
Eag 2 N r B g v 2 N r B g N r B g Dg N r ag
2

The equation is simplified.

E ag N r ag N r K1 I f K m I f

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8.2.3 DC Generator Equivalent
circuit
When the generator is loaded, the load current produces
a voltage drop on the rotor winding resistance.
In addition, there is a more or less constant 13 V voltage
drop on the brushes.
These two voltage drops reduce the terminal voltage of
the generator. The terminal voltage is;

E ag Vdc I ag Ra Vbrush

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Motor

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
Vbrush Electrical
Rf Ra power in
max
DC Power
Vf If Iam Vdc
Eam supply

Mechanical
power out

Figure 8.13 Equivalent circuit of a separately excited dc motor


Equivalent circuit is similar to the generator only the current
directions are different

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
The operation equations are:
Armature voltage equation

Vdc Eam I am Ra Vbrush

The induced voltage and motor speed vs angular


frequency

E am K m I f 2 nm

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
The operation equations are:
The combination of the equations results in

K m I f E am Vdc I am Rm
The current is calculated from this equation. The output
power and torque are:

Pout
Pout Eam I am T K m I am I f

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8.2.4 DC Machine
Excitation Methods

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DC Motor Operation

There are four different methods for


supplying the dc current to the motor or
generator poles:
Separate excitation;
Shunt connection
Series connection
Compound

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
Vbrush
Ra

Iam Im DC Power
supply
Eam max Rf
Vdc

If
Pout

Figure 8.14 Equivalent circuit of a shunt dc motor

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
Vbrush Ra

Im DC Power
Rf supply
Eam
Vdc
max

Pout

Figure 8.15 Equivalent circuit of a series dc motor

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8.2.3 DC Motor Equivalent circuit
Vbrush
Ra

Iam Im DC Power
Rfs supply
Eam
max Vdc
Rfp Ifp
Pout

Figure 8.16 Equivalent circuit of a compound dc motor

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