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An Introduction to E1

2Mbit/s PCM Systems

Small confidentiality text on every page, Arial 10pt, white Change on MASTER PAGE ONLY Page 1
The Telephone System

LE LE

Page 2
Power in the Human Voice

Air at equilibrium

relative sound wave


power density
transverse
representation

Typical power density


spectra for speech

0 1 2 3 frequency/kHz

Page 3
Local Exchange

Line
card
Line
Termination

Codecs

Line
Termination
Line
card

Page 4
The CoDec Line
Termination

Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Analogue
Signal

Sampling PAM
Signal

Quantization and Encoding

PCM
Signal
Page 5
Sampling Line
Termination

Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

T1 T2 T3
time
T4 T5 T6 T7 Audio Signal

Sampler Output
Pulse Amplitude T1 T2 T3
time
Modulated (PAM) T4 T5 T6 T7
signal

Page 6
Linear Quantization Line
Termination

Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

+5

+4

+3

+2

+1

time
-1

-2
PAM Signal
-3

-4 Quantized Signal
-5
Page 7
Non-Linear Quantization & Encoding
Quantization
Level digital codes
112 1 1 1 1 X X X X
96 1 1 1 0 X X X X 1/2V
1/4V
80 1 1 0 1 X X X X
1/8V
64 1 1 0 0 X X X X
1/16V
48 1 0 1 1 X X X X 1/32V
32 1 0 1 0 X X X X
1/64
1 0 0 1 X X X X
V
1 0 0 0 X X X X
-V 0 0 0 0 X X X X +V
In accordance with 0 0 0 1 X X X X
CCITTs A-law 0 0 1 0 X X X X

Page 8
PCM Signal Data Rate

8000 8 Line
Termination

samples bits per


per sec x sample
Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

64kbit/s

Page 9
The Processes of PCM ?

Page 10
The Processes of PCM ?

Page 11
Digital Multiplexing

Time Division Multiplexing


2Mbit/s PCM Frame
Digital Hierarchy
Line
Termination

Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Page 12
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

Page 13
Line
Termination

The 2Mbit/s PCM Frame Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

32 timeslots
0 Time slots 1 to 15 16 Time slots 17 to 31

Speech Channels 1 to 15 Speech Channels 16 to 30

Frame Signalling
Synchronisation

Page 14
Line
Termination

Frame Synchronisation Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

0 Time slots 1 to 15 16 Time slots 17 to 31

8 bits
Frame Alignment Signal
(FAS)
X 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
FAS in even frames

Not Frame Alignment


Signal (NFAS)
X 1 A Sa4 Sa5 Sa6 Sa7 Sa8
NFAS in odd frames

Page 15
Line
Termination

Signalling Multiframe Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Frame 0

0 16 31

0 0 0 0 X Y X X

Multiframe Alignment Not Multiframe Alignment


Signal MFAS Signal NMFAS

Page 16
Line
Termination

Signalling Multiframe Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Frame 0 Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3


0 16 31 0 16 31 0 16 31 0 16 31

0 0 0 0 X Y X X
Frame 4

Multiframe Not Multiframe 0 4 16 20 31


Alignment Alignment Signal
Signal MFAS NMFAS

a b c d a b c d
Time slot 4 Time slot 20
Telephone channel 4 Telephone channel 19
Page 17
Signalling Multiframe
Line
Termination

Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Frame 0 Frame 4 Frame 13 Frame 14


0 16 31 0 4 16 20 31 0 16 310 16 31

0 0 0 0 X Y X X Frame 15
a b c d a b c d
MFAS NMFAS
Time slot 4 Time slot 20
0 15 16 31
Telephone Telephone
channel 4 channel 19

a b c d a b c d
Time slot 15 Time slot 31
Telephone Telephone
channel 15 channel 30

Page 18
Line
Termination

Cyclic Redundancy Check Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

CRC - 4 example
Data block X 24 Generator polynomial
x4 + x + 1
10 10 000 0 10 011
10 01 1
11 100
10 01
11 11
1 0 00 1
1 11 0 1 Remainder or
Signature
Page 21
Line
Termination

CRC-4 bits Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

0 Time slots 1 to 15 16 Time slots 17 to 31

CRC check bits (remainder)

8 bits
Frame Alignment
Signal (FAS)
Xx 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
C
CRC Multiframe
Alignment Signal
001011
Not Frame Alignment
Signal (NFAS)
X 1 A Sa4 Sa5 Sa6 Sa7 Sa8

Page 22
Line
Termination

CRC Multiframe Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Termination

Sub-multiframe Frame Bits 1 to 8 of the frame


(SMF) number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 C1 FAS
1 0 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
2 C2 FAS
I 3 0 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
4 C3 FAS
5 1 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
6 C4 FAS
7 0 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
8 C1 FAS
9 1 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
10 C2 FAS
II 11 1 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
12 C3 FAS
13 E 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn
14 C4 FAS
15 E 1 A Sn Sn Sn Sn Sn

Page 23
PDH Systems Worldwide
Japan USA Europe

5. 397200 kbit/s 564992 kbit/s

x4 x4

4. 97728 kbit/s 274176 kbit/s 139264 kbit/s


x3
x3 x6 x4

3. 32064 kbit/s 44736 kbit/s 34368 kbit/s


x4
x5 x7
6312 kbit/s 8448 kbit/s
2. order
x4 x3 x4

1544 kbit/s 2048 kbit/s


primary rate

x 24 x 30/31

64 kbit/s

Page 25
Primary Framing Structures

PCM30
30 channels - CAS in TS16

PCM31
31 channels - common channel signalling(CCS)

PCM30C
30 channels - CAS in TS16 - CRC-4 error checking

PCM31C
31 channels - CCS - CRC-4 error checking
Page 26
Line Termination

Line
Termination
Impedances
Codecs Multiplexer
Pulse shape
Line Coding
Line
Termination

Physical/Electrical Characteristics - G.703


Page 27
Line Codes
Line
Terminatio
n

Multiplexer
Codecs

Line
Terminatio
n

voltage

time

Prevent droop

Ensure sufficient timing information is included in


the data

Page 28
Line
Terminatio
n

AMI
Multiplexer
Codecs

Line
Terminatio
n

Page 29
Line
Terminatio
n

HDB3 coding Codecs Multiplexer

Line
Terminatio
n

binary
signal

AMI coded
signal

HDB3
coded
signal

pulse violating the AMI sequence


- dc balancing pulse

Page 30
The Telephone System

LE LE

Page 31