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Physics 211: Lecture 22

Today’s Agenda
● Angular Momentum:
➨ Definitions & Derivations
➨ What does it mean?
● Rotation about a fixed axis
➨ L = Iω
➨ Example: Two disks
➨ Student on rotating stool
● Angular momentum of a freely moving particle
➨ Bullet hitting stick
➨ Student throwing ball

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 1


Lecture 22, Act 1
Rotations
A girl is riding on the outside edge of a merry-go-round turning with constant ω . She holds a ball at rest in her hand and releases it. Viewed from above, which of the paths shown below will the ball follow after she lets it go?

(a) (b)
(c)

(d)

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 2


Lecture 22, Act 1
Solution
● Just before release, the velocity of the ball is tangent to the
circle it is moving in.

Here force must be


radial, a normal force
from the person’s hand
and equal to mω R
2
ω

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 3


Lecture 22, Act 1
Solution

After release it keeps going in the same direction since there are no forces acting on it to change this direction.

this is correct answer

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 4


p = mv
Angular Momentum:
Definitions & Derivations
● We have shown that for a system of particles

Momentum is conserved if
dp
FEXT = CM
dt FEXT = 0

● What is the rotational version of this??

● The rotational analogue of force F is torque τ = r × F

● Define the rotational analogue of momentum p to be

angular momentum L = r × p for a SINGLE


PARTICLE
● r is vector from some origin to the particle with
momentum p. Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 5
Definitions & Derivations...
Why is this the right definition…..

First consider the rate of dL d


= ( r × p)

change of L: dt dt
d  dr × p  +  r × dp 
( r × p ) 
=  
 

dt dt dt 

= v × ( mv ) = 0
So although r keeps changing, that doesn’t change L.
r r
dL r d p r r r
So = r× = r× F = τ
dt dt
L changes only because of the torque τ on the particle.

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 6


Conservation of Angular Momentum
● What happens in a system with more than one particle?
(say two) Do internal forces create a net torque?
B
FAB
So long as
A the direction of the forces FAB = - FBA are along
the line connecting the particles,
the torque A exerts on B is exactly opposite to
the torque B exerts on A. (they add nothing to
the sum of all torques acting on all parts of
system (try the calculation!) use dist of closest approach
to calc τ

So the TOTAL L of A and B doesn’t change.


This NEW PRINCIPLE says that
in closed systems L is conserved.
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 7
Conservation of total angular momentum
in a many particle system (solar system, spinning top…)
● Define the total angular momentum to r r r r r
be the sum of the angular momenta of li = ri × pi = ri × mi vi
each part of a many body system
➨ Must be careful about math (same
origin) r r r r
LTOTAL = ∑ li = ∑ ri × pi
i i
● Total angular momentum of a system
is changed by the total torque acting
on the system
d r d r r
LTOTAL = ∑ li = ∑τ i ≡ τ TOTAL
● New conservation law we obtain from dt i dt i
Newton’s laws: = τ EXT
➨ If there are no torques, then LTOTAL is r r r
conserved LTOTAL ≠ RCM × PCM
➨ LTOTAL is changed by torques
What total
angular momentum is NOT!
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 8
Angular momentum of a rigid body
about a fixed axis: Rolling chain
Consider a rigid distribution of point particles rotating in the x-y plane around the z axis, as shown below. The total angular momentum around the origin is the sum of the angular momenta of each particle:

L = ∑ ri × pi = ∑ mi ri × v i = ∑ mi ri v i k̂ (since ri and vi are


i i i
perpendicular)
v1
We see that L is in the z direction. m2
j
Using vi = ω ri , we get r2
v2 i r1 m1
ω
L = ∑ mi ri ω kˆ
2

i r3
m3 v3
=
LIω Analogue of p = mv!!

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 9


Angular momentum of a rigid body
about a fixed axis:
● In general, for an object rotating about a fixed (z) axis we can write LZ = I
ω (where we usually choose the z-axis to be the rotation axis)

● The direction of LZ is given by the


right hand rule (same as ω ).
z
● We will omit the Z subscript for simplicity,
and write L = I ω LZ = I ω

ω
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 10
Example: Two Disks

● A disk of mass M and radius R rotates around the z axis


with angular velocity ω i. A second identical disk, initially
not rotating, is dropped on top of the first. There is friction
between the disks, and eventually they rotate together with
angular velocity ω f.
This is just like the
inelastic collisions we
z z studied earlier!

Energy not conserved


Ang mom conserved

ω i ω f

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 11


Example: Two Disks

● First realize that there are no external torques acting on the two-
disk system.
➨ Angular momentum will be conserved!

● Initially, the total angular momentum


is due only to the disk on the bottom:
z

2
1
Li = I1 ω1 = MR ωi
2

2 1
ω 0

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 12


Example: Two Disks
● First realize that there are no external torques acting on the two-disk system.
➨ Angular momentum will be conserved!

● Finally, the total angular momentum is due


to both disks spinning:

Lf = I1 ω1 + I2 ω2 = MR 2ωf
2
1
ω f

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 13


Example: Two Disks
Wheel rim
1 drop
● Since Li = Lf MR 2ωi = MR 2ωf
2
An inelastic collision, Initially:
1
ωf =
2
ωi since E is not (
KE = 12 12 MR 2 ωinitial
2
)
conserved (friction)!
finally:
z z (
KE = 12 12 2MR 2 ω 2final )
KE = 1
4 ( 1
2 MR 2 ) ωinitial
2

Li Lf ½ KE lost
But L is
unchanged
What about
ω f ω f other cases?

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 14


General inelastic joining of I1 rotating and
I2 which is initially at rest
● Angular momentum is conserved
initial Linitial = I1ωinitial I1
L final = Linitial ω final = ωinitial
final L final = ( I1 + I 2 )ω final I1 + I 2

● How much KE is lost?


KEinitial = 12 I1ωinitial
2

KE final = 12 ( I1 + I 2 )ω 2final
2
I
KE final = 12 ( I1 + I 2 ) 1
ω 2
initial
( I1 + I 2 ) 2
I1 1 I1
= 2 I1ω initial =
2
KE final KE initial
I1 + I 2 I1 + I 2
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 15
Example: Rotating Table

● A student sits on a rotating stool with his arms extended and a


weight in each hand. The total moment of inertia is Ii, and he is
rotating with angular speed ω i. He then pulls his hands in
toward his body so that the moment of inertia reduces to If.
What is his final angular speed ω f?

ω i
ω f

Ii If

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 16


Student on stool
Example: Rotating Table...
Drop mass from stool
● Again, there are no external torques acting on the student-
stool system, so angular momentum will be conserved.
➨ Initially: Li = Iiω i ω f Ii
=
➨ Finally: Lf = If ω f ω i If

ω i
ω f

Ii If

Li Lf

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 17


Lecture 22, Act 2
Angular Momentum
A student sits on a freely turning stool and rotates with constant angular velocity ω 1. She pulls her arms in, and due to angular momentum conservation her angular velocity increases to ω 2. In doing this her kinetic energy:

(a) increases (b) decreases (c) stays the same

ω 1
ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 18


Lecture 22, Act 2 Dig deeper:
Solution Can you identify the
force she applies to
1 2 L2
● K = Iω = (using L = Iω ) do this work?
2 2I
How about
● L is conserved (it doesn’t change):
calculating the work?
I2 < I1 K2 > K1 K increases!

ω 1
ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 19


Lecture 22, Act 2
Solution
● Since the student has to force her arms to move toward her
body, against the normal force necessary for uniform circular
motion, she must be doing positive work!
● The work/kinetic energy theorem states that this will increase
the kinetic energy of the system!

ω 1
ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 20


Angular Momentum of a
Freely Moving Particle
● We have defined the angular momentum of a particle about
the origin as L = r × p

● This does not demand that the particle is moving in a circle!


➨ We will show that this particle has a constant angular
momentum!
y

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 21


Angular Momentum of a
Freely Moving Particle...
● Consider a particle of mass m moving with speed v along
the line y = -d. What is its angular momentum as
measured from the origin (0,0)?

x
d m

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 22


Angular Momentum of a
Freely Moving Particle...
● We need to figure out L = r × p
● The magnitude of the angular momentum is:
L = r × p = rp sin θ = p[ r sin θ] = pd =

p x ( distan ce of closest approach )

● Since r and p are both in the x-y plane, L will be in the z


direction (right hand rule): LZ = pd
y

x
d r
θ p=mv
θ

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 23


Angular Momentum of a
Freely Moving Particle...

So we see that the direction of L is along the z axis, and its magnitude is given by LZ = pd = mvd.


L is clearly conserved since d is constant (the distance of closest approach of the particle to the origin) and p is constant (momentum conservation).

x
d

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 24


Example: Bullet hitting stick

● A uniform stick of mass M and length D is pivoted at the


center. A bullet of mass m is shot through the stick at a
point halfway between the pivot and the end. The initial
speed of the bullet is v1, and the final speed is v2.
➨ What is the angular speed ω F of the stick after the
collision? (Ignore gravity)

M
ω F
D
m D/4

v1 v2

initial final
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 25
Example: Bullet hitting stick...

● Conserve angular momentum around the pivot (z) axis!


● The total angular momentum before the collision is due
only to the bullet (since the stick is not rotating yet).

D
Li = p x (dis tance of closest approach ) = mv1
4

D
m D/4

v1

initial
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 26
Example: Bullet hitting stick...

● Conserve angular momentum around the pivot (z) axis!


● The total angular momentum after the collision has
contributions from both the bullet and the stick.

D
+ IωF where I is the moment of inertia

Lf = mv 2
4 of the stick about the pivot.

ω F

D/4

v2

final
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 27
Example: Bullet hitting stick...
1
● Set Li = Lf using I= MD 2
12

D D 1 3m
mv1 = mv 2 + MD 2 ω F ωF = ( v1 − v 2 )
4 4 12 MD

M
ω F
D
m D/4

v1 v2

initial final
Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 28
Example: Throwing ball from stool

● A student sits on a stool which is free to rotate. The


moment of inertia of the student plus the stool is I. She
throws a heavy ball of mass M with speed v such that its
velocity vector passes a distance d from the axis of
rotation.
➨ What is the angular speed ω F of the student-stool
system after she throws the ball?

M
v
ω F d
I I

top view: initial final


Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 29
Example: Throwing ball from stool...

● Conserve angular momentum (since there are no external


torques acting on the student-stool system):
➨ Li = 0
Mvd
➨ Lf = 0 = Iω F - Mvd ω F =
I

Do you understand
the minus sign?
M
v
ω F d
I I

top view: initial final


Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 30
Lecture 22, Act 3
Angular Momentum
A student is riding on the outside edge of a merry-go-round rotating about a frictionless pivot. She holds a heavy ball at rest in her hand. If she releases the ball, the angular velocity of the merry-go-round will:

(a) increase (b) decrease (c) stay the same

2
ω
ω 1

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 31


Lecture 22, Act 3
Solution
The angular momentum is due to the girl, the merry-go-round and the ball. LNET = LMGR + LGIRL + LBALL

Initial:
v
LBALL = I ω = mR 2   = mvR
 R ( )
Final: LBALL = mvR same

v v
m m
R
ω ω

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 32


Lecture 22, Act 3
Solution
Since LBALL is the same before & after, ω must stay the same to keep “the rest” of LNET unchanged.

ω ω

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 33


Lecture 22, Act 3
Conceptual answer
Since dropping the ball does not cause any forces to act on the merry-go-round, there is no way that this can change the angular velocity.

Just like dropping a weight from a level coasting car does not affect the speed of the car.

2
ω
ω

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 34


Recap of today’s lecture
● Angular Momentum: (Text: 10-2)
➨ Definitions & Derivations
➨ What does it mean?
● Rotation about a fixed axis (Text: 10-2)
➨ L = Iω
➨ Example: Two disks
➨ Student on rotating stool
● Angular momentum of a freely moving particle
(Text: 10-2)
➨ Bullet hitting stick
➨ Student throwing ball

● Look at textbook problems Chapter 10: # 49, 9, 19, 47, 66

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 35