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You are on page 1of 35

Today’s Agenda

● Angular Momentum:

➨ Definitions & Derivations

➨ What does it mean?

● Rotation about a fixed axis

➨ L = Iω

➨ Example: Two disks

➨ Student on rotating stool

● Angular momentum of a freely moving particle

➨ Bullet hitting stick

➨ Student throwing ball

Lecture 22, Act 1

Rotations

A girl is riding on the outside edge of a merry-go-round turning with constant ω . She holds a ball at rest in her hand and releases it. Viewed from above, which of the paths shown below will the ball follow after she lets it go?

●

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

Lecture 22, Act 1

Solution

● Just before release, the velocity of the ball is tangent to the

circle it is moving in.

radial, a normal force

from the person’s hand

and equal to mω R

2

ω

Lecture 22, Act 1

Solution

●

After release it keeps going in the same direction since there are no forces acting on it to change this direction.

p = mv

Angular Momentum:

Definitions & Derivations

● We have shown that for a system of particles

Momentum is conserved if

dp

FEXT = CM

dt FEXT = 0

PARTICLE

● r is vector from some origin to the particle with

momentum p. Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 5

Definitions & Derivations...

Why is this the right definition…..

= ( r × p)

●

change of L: dt dt

d dr × p + r × dp

( r × p )

=

dt dt dt

= v × ( mv ) = 0

So although r keeps changing, that doesn’t change L.

r r

dL r d p r r r

So = r× = r× F = τ

dt dt

L changes only because of the torque τ on the particle.

Conservation of Angular Momentum

● What happens in a system with more than one particle?

(say two) Do internal forces create a net torque?

B

FAB

So long as

A the direction of the forces FAB = - FBA are along

the line connecting the particles,

the torque A exerts on B is exactly opposite to

the torque B exerts on A. (they add nothing to

the sum of all torques acting on all parts of

system (try the calculation!) use dist of closest approach

to calc τ

This NEW PRINCIPLE says that

in closed systems L is conserved.

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 7

Conservation of total angular momentum

in a many particle system (solar system, spinning top…)

● Define the total angular momentum to r r r r r

be the sum of the angular momenta of li = ri × pi = ri × mi vi

each part of a many body system

➨ Must be careful about math (same

origin) r r r r

LTOTAL = ∑ li = ∑ ri × pi

i i

● Total angular momentum of a system

is changed by the total torque acting

on the system

d r d r r

LTOTAL = ∑ li = ∑τ i ≡ τ TOTAL

● New conservation law we obtain from dt i dt i

Newton’s laws: = τ EXT

➨ If there are no torques, then LTOTAL is r r r

conserved LTOTAL ≠ RCM × PCM

➨ LTOTAL is changed by torques

What total

angular momentum is NOT!

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 8

Angular momentum of a rigid body

about a fixed axis: Rolling chain

Consider a rigid distribution of point particles rotating in the x-y plane around the z axis, as shown below. The total angular momentum around the origin is the sum of the angular momenta of each particle:

●

i i i

perpendicular)

v1

We see that L is in the z direction. m2

j

Using vi = ω ri , we get r2

v2 i r1 m1

ω

L = ∑ mi ri ω kˆ

2

i r3

m3 v3

=

LIω Analogue of p = mv!!

Angular momentum of a rigid body

about a fixed axis:

● In general, for an object rotating about a fixed (z) axis we can write LZ = I

ω (where we usually choose the z-axis to be the rotation axis)

right hand rule (same as ω ).

z

● We will omit the Z subscript for simplicity,

and write L = I ω LZ = I ω

ω

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 10

Example: Two Disks

with angular velocity ω i. A second identical disk, initially

not rotating, is dropped on top of the first. There is friction

between the disks, and eventually they rotate together with

angular velocity ω f.

This is just like the

inelastic collisions we

z z studied earlier!

Ang mom conserved

ω i ω f

Example: Two Disks

● First realize that there are no external torques acting on the two-

disk system.

➨ Angular momentum will be conserved!

is due only to the disk on the bottom:

z

2

1

Li = I1 ω1 = MR ωi

2

2 1

ω 0

Example: Two Disks

● First realize that there are no external torques acting on the two-disk system.

➨ Angular momentum will be conserved!

to both disks spinning:

Lf = I1 ω1 + I2 ω2 = MR 2ωf

2

1

ω f

Example: Two Disks

Wheel rim

1 drop

● Since Li = Lf MR 2ωi = MR 2ωf

2

An inelastic collision, Initially:

1

ωf =

2

ωi since E is not (

KE = 12 12 MR 2 ωinitial

2

)

conserved (friction)!

finally:

z z (

KE = 12 12 2MR 2 ω 2final )

KE = 1

4 ( 1

2 MR 2 ) ωinitial

2

Li Lf ½ KE lost

But L is

unchanged

What about

ω f ω f other cases?

General inelastic joining of I1 rotating and

I2 which is initially at rest

● Angular momentum is conserved

initial Linitial = I1ωinitial I1

L final = Linitial ω final = ωinitial

final L final = ( I1 + I 2 )ω final I1 + I 2

KEinitial = 12 I1ωinitial

2

KE final = 12 ( I1 + I 2 )ω 2final

2

I

KE final = 12 ( I1 + I 2 ) 1

ω 2

initial

( I1 + I 2 ) 2

I1 1 I1

= 2 I1ω initial =

2

KE final KE initial

I1 + I 2 I1 + I 2

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 15

Example: Rotating Table

weight in each hand. The total moment of inertia is Ii, and he is

rotating with angular speed ω i. He then pulls his hands in

toward his body so that the moment of inertia reduces to If.

What is his final angular speed ω f?

ω i

ω f

Ii If

Student on stool

Example: Rotating Table...

Drop mass from stool

● Again, there are no external torques acting on the student-

stool system, so angular momentum will be conserved.

➨ Initially: Li = Iiω i ω f Ii

=

➨ Finally: Lf = If ω f ω i If

ω i

ω f

Ii If

Li Lf

Lecture 22, Act 2

Angular Momentum

A student sits on a freely turning stool and rotates with constant angular velocity ω 1. She pulls her arms in, and due to angular momentum conservation her angular velocity increases to ω 2. In doing this her kinetic energy:

●

ω 1

ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Lecture 22, Act 2 Dig deeper:

Solution Can you identify the

force she applies to

1 2 L2

● K = Iω = (using L = Iω ) do this work?

2 2I

How about

● L is conserved (it doesn’t change):

calculating the work?

I2 < I1 K2 > K1 K increases!

ω 1

ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Lecture 22, Act 2

Solution

● Since the student has to force her arms to move toward her

body, against the normal force necessary for uniform circular

motion, she must be doing positive work!

● The work/kinetic energy theorem states that this will increase

the kinetic energy of the system!

ω 1

ω 2

I1 I2

L L

Angular Momentum of a

Freely Moving Particle

● We have defined the angular momentum of a particle about

the origin as L = r × p

➨ We will show that this particle has a constant angular

momentum!

y

Angular Momentum of a

Freely Moving Particle...

● Consider a particle of mass m moving with speed v along

the line y = -d. What is its angular momentum as

measured from the origin (0,0)?

x

d m

Angular Momentum of a

Freely Moving Particle...

● We need to figure out L = r × p

● The magnitude of the angular momentum is:

L = r × p = rp sin θ = p[ r sin θ] = pd =

direction (right hand rule): LZ = pd

y

x

d r

θ p=mv

θ

Angular Momentum of a

Freely Moving Particle...

●

So we see that the direction of L is along the z axis, and its magnitude is given by LZ = pd = mvd.

●

L is clearly conserved since d is constant (the distance of closest approach of the particle to the origin) and p is constant (momentum conservation).

x

d

Example: Bullet hitting stick

center. A bullet of mass m is shot through the stick at a

point halfway between the pivot and the end. The initial

speed of the bullet is v1, and the final speed is v2.

➨ What is the angular speed ω F of the stick after the

collision? (Ignore gravity)

M

ω F

D

m D/4

v1 v2

initial final

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 25

Example: Bullet hitting stick...

● The total angular momentum before the collision is due

only to the bullet (since the stick is not rotating yet).

D

Li = p x (dis tance of closest approach ) = mv1

4

D

m D/4

v1

initial

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 26

Example: Bullet hitting stick...

● The total angular momentum after the collision has

contributions from both the bullet and the stick.

D

+ IωF where I is the moment of inertia

➨

Lf = mv 2

4 of the stick about the pivot.

ω F

D/4

v2

final

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 27

Example: Bullet hitting stick...

1

● Set Li = Lf using I= MD 2

12

D D 1 3m

mv1 = mv 2 + MD 2 ω F ωF = ( v1 − v 2 )

4 4 12 MD

M

ω F

D

m D/4

v1 v2

initial final

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 28

Example: Throwing ball from stool

moment of inertia of the student plus the stool is I. She

throws a heavy ball of mass M with speed v such that its

velocity vector passes a distance d from the axis of

rotation.

➨ What is the angular speed ω F of the student-stool

system after she throws the ball?

M

v

ω F d

I I

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 29

Example: Throwing ball from stool...

torques acting on the student-stool system):

➨ Li = 0

Mvd

➨ Lf = 0 = Iω F - Mvd ω F =

I

Do you understand

the minus sign?

M

v

ω F d

I I

Physics 211: Lecture 22, Pg 30

Lecture 22, Act 3

Angular Momentum

A student is riding on the outside edge of a merry-go-round rotating about a frictionless pivot. She holds a heavy ball at rest in her hand. If she releases the ball, the angular velocity of the merry-go-round will:

●

2

ω

ω 1

Lecture 22, Act 3

Solution

The angular momentum is due to the girl, the merry-go-round and the ball. LNET = LMGR + LGIRL + LBALL

●

Initial:

v

LBALL = I ω = mR 2 = mvR

R ( )

Final: LBALL = mvR same

v v

m m

R

ω ω

Lecture 22, Act 3

Solution

Since LBALL is the same before & after, ω must stay the same to keep “the rest” of LNET unchanged.

●

ω ω

Lecture 22, Act 3

Conceptual answer

Since dropping the ball does not cause any forces to act on the merry-go-round, there is no way that this can change the angular velocity.

●

Just like dropping a weight from a level coasting car does not affect the speed of the car.

●

2

ω

ω

Recap of today’s lecture

● Angular Momentum: (Text: 10-2)

➨ Definitions & Derivations

➨ What does it mean?

● Rotation about a fixed axis (Text: 10-2)

➨ L = Iω

➨ Example: Two disks

➨ Student on rotating stool

● Angular momentum of a freely moving particle

(Text: 10-2)

➨ Bullet hitting stick

➨ Student throwing ball

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