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application, such as in conveyer, lift, mixer, escalator etc.

Lightweight (20% to 40% lighter than equivalent DC motor)

Inexpensive

Low maintenance

* The power control relatively complex and more expensive

1. Induction Motor Drives

2. Synchronous Motor Drives

INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

drives (ASD).

Three-phase

windings Rotor windings

Stator

Three-

phase

supply

Rotor

Air gap

Stator Air gap Rotor

m T

s

Three-phase

windings Rotor windings

Three-

phase

supply

Stator Air gap Rotor

m T

s

which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to

arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of

multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or

field around the air gap.

The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed s , which

is defined by :

s is syncronous speed [rad/sec]

2

s or

Ns is syncronous speed [rpm]

p is numbers of poles

p

is the supply frequency [rad/sec]

f is the supply frequency [Hz]

120 f

Ns Nm is motor speed

p

The motor speed

m NS Nm

S S S

Where S is slip, as defined as : Or

S NS

Three-phase

windings Rotor windings

Three-

phase

supply

Stator Air gap Rotor

m T

s

Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor

Three-phase

windings Rotor windings Where :

Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding

Three-

phase Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding

supply

Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the

winding stator

Stator Air gap Rotor

m T Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the

s winding rotor

Is Xs Rs Xr Xm is magnetizing reactance

Im Ir

Rm is Core losses as a reactance

Rr/s

Vs

Xm Rm

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Is Xs Rs Xr

Im Ir

Rr/s

Vs

Xm Rm

Ps cu 3 I s Rs

2

Stator copper loss :

Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 Rr

' '

Rotor copper loss :

2 2

V V

Core losses : Pc 3 m 3 s

Rm Rm

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

rotor through air gap) : ' 2 Rr

'

Pg 3 ( I r )

S '

R

- Power developed by motor : Pd Pg Pr cu 3 ( I r ) r (1 S )

' 2

S

or Pd Pg (1 S )

Pd Pd 60

- Torque of motor : Td or Td

m 2 N m

Pg (1 S ) Pg

or

S (1 S ) s

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Pc Ps cu Pg

Po Pd Pnoload

Efficiency :

Pi Pc Ps cu Pg

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

If Pg ( Pc Ps cu )

and Pd Pnoload

Pd Pg (1 S )

1 S

Pg Pg

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

losses) and also X m 2 ( Rs 2 X s 2 )

Is Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir

Xs Rs Xr

Im Ir

Im Ir

Rr/s Rr/s

Vs Xm

Vs

Xm Rm Po

Pi

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir

'

R

X m ( X s X r ) jX m ( Rs r )

Im Ir '

Rr/s Zi S

Vs Xm '

Rr

Rs j( X m X s X r )

'

Po

Pi

S

Vs

Ir

'

The rotor current is : 1

2

Rr'

2

2

Rs X s X r

'

S

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir

3 Rr' Vs2

Im Ir Td

' 2

Rr

Rr/s

S s Rs X s X r'

2

Vs

Po

Pi

S

Stator Air gap rotor

Tmax Td

Tst TL

Tm=TL

Operating point

S=1 m s

Nm =0 Nm Ns

Three region operation :

1. Motoring : 0 S 1

2. Regenerating : S 0

3. Plugging : 1 S 2

Torque

Forward Forward Reverse

regeneration motoring plugging

Tmax

m s m s

m s

Tst

S=Sm

-Smax

s s Smax s =0 s

S=-1 S=0 S=1 S=2

Ns Nm =0

-Tmax

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

3 Rr' Vs2

Starting torque of motor is : Tst

' 2

Rr

s Rs X s X r'

2

S

d Td

Slip for the maximum torque Smax can be found by setting : 0

dS

R X X

1

2 ' 2 2

s s r

Performance Characteristic of

Induction Motor

3 Vs2

Tmax

Torque maximum is :

2s Rs Rs X s X r'

2 2

3 Vs2

Tmax

2

2s Rs Rs X s X r' 2

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

Speed-Torque Characteristic : Rr'

2

S s Rs X s X r'

2

S

2

R

X

'

' 2

For the high Slip S. (starting) s X r Rs r

3 Rr' Vs2

So, the torque of motor is :

Td

S s X s X ' 2

r

3 Rr' Vs2

Tst

s X s X

And starting torque (slip S=1) is :

' 2

r

For low slip S region, the motor speed near unity or synchronous

X

speed, in this region the impedance motor is : ' 2 R'

s Xr r

Rs

S

3Vs2 S

So, the motor torque is : Td

s R 'r

Rr'

S max

R X X

And the slip at maximum torque is : 1

2 ' 2 2

s s r

3 Rr' Vs2

The maximum motor torque is : Td

' 2

Rr

S s Rs X s X r' 2

S

Stator Voltage Control

AC

Variable

IM

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Voltage

Sources Td

Vs

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

Rr'

2

S s Rs X s X r'

2

S

Td

Vs > Vs1 > Vs2

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tmax

Im Ir

Rr/s

Vs

Po Tst TL

Pi

Tst1

Tst2

air

Stator rotor

gap

2 1

S=1 S=0

s

Nm =0 Ns

Frequency Voltage Control AC

Variable

Voltage

Sources IM

Controlling Induction Motor Speed by

Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Vs Td

f

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

2

S s Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S Td

fs2 < fs1 < fs

Tmax

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tst2

Im Ir Tst1

Tst TL

Vs Rr/s

f

Po

Pi

gap

S=1 S=0 S=0 S=0

m =0 fs2 fs1 fs

If the frequency is increased above its rated value, the flux and torque

would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated

frequency is call the base speed b, the synchronous speed at any other

frequency becomes:

s b

b m

And : S 1 m

b b

3 Rr' Vs2

The motor torque : Td

' 2

R

S s Rs r X s X r'

2

S

3 Rr' Vs2

Td

2

S b Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S

If Rs is negligible, the maximum torque at the base speed as :

3 Vs2

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

2

3 Vs

Tm

2 S b X s X r' 2

Rr '

Sm

At this maximum torque, slip S is :

X s X r'

2

3 Vs

Tm

2 S b X s X r' 2 Tm 1

2

Normalizing :

3 Vs2 Tmb

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

And Tm 2 Tmb

Example :

A three-phase , 11.2 kW, 1750 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, four pole, Y-connected

induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.1W,Rr = 0.38W,Xs =

1.14W,Xr = 1.71W,and Xm = 33.2W.If the breakdown torque requiretment is

35 Nm, Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage, b) speed of motor at

the maximum torque

Solution :

460

Input voltage per-phase : Vs 265 volt

3

Base frequency : b 2 f 2 x 3.14 x 60 377 rad / s

60 Po 60 x 11200

Base Torque : Tmb 61.11 Nm

2 N m 2 x 3.14 x 1750

Motor Torque : Tm 35 Nm

Tm 1 Tmb 61.11

2 1.321

Tmb Tm 35

Synchronous speed at this frequency is :

s b

s 1.321 x 377 498.01rad / s or

60 x 498.01

N s Nb 4755.65 rpm

2 x

p NS 4 x 4755.65

So, the supply frequency is : f s 158.52 Hz

120 b 120

Rr '

Sm

At this maximum torque, slip Sm is :

X s X r'

Rr = 0.38W, Xs = 1.14W, Xr = 1.71Wand 1.31

So, 0.38

Sm 0.101 or,

1.3211.14 1.71

N m N S (1 S ) 4755.65 (1 0.101) 4275 rpm

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

Wound rotor induction motor applications

cranes

CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING

ROTOR RESISTANCE

(Rotor Voltage Control)

3 Rr' Vs2

Equation of Speed-Torque : Td

2

S s Rs

Rr'

X s X r'

2

S

3Vs2 S

In a wound rotor induction motor, an external Td

three-phase resistor may be connected to its s R 'r

slip rings,

RX

Stator

RX

Rotor

RX

Three-phase

supply

These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping

anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to

large motor applications such as materials handling, mine hoists,

cranes etc.

AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors where the resistor is wired into the

motor secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is

removed in steps.

AC Squirrel Cage Motors where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft

starting also known as reduced voltage starting.

the field to control motor current, since torque is directly proportional to

current, for starting and stopping.

The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx

This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current.

The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring

frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane, hoists, etc)

The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier

and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC

chopper varies the effective resistance:

Re R(1 k )

Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper

The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k, (slip power)

Id

Ld

D1 D3 D5

Stator

Vd GTO

Rotor R Vdc

Three-phase

supply D4 D6 D2

The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by

replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full

converter (inverter)

Three-phase

supply

Id Transformer Na:Nb

Ld

D1 D3 D5 T1 T3 T5

Stator

Vd Vdc

Rotor

Slip Power D4 D6 D2 T2 T4 T6

Controlled rectifier/

Diode rectifier

inverter

Example:

A three-phase induction motor, 460, 60Hz, six-pole, Y connected, wound rotor

that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below. The

motor parameters are Rs=0.041 W, Rr=0.044 W, Xs=0.29 W, Xr=0.44 W and

Xm=6.1 W. The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0.9. The

inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple.

The value of Rs, Rr, Xs and Xr for equivalent circuit can be considered

negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The no-load of motor is

negligible. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible.

The load torque, which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm.

(a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm, determine

the resistance R, if the desired speed is 1050 rpm,

(b) Calculate the inductor current Id.

(c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.

(d) The voltage Vd.

(e) The efficiency.

(f) The power factor of input line of the motor.

460

Vs 265.58 volt

3

p 6

2 x 60 377 rad / s

s 2 x 377 / 6 125.66 rad / s

The equivalent circuit :

The dc voltage at the rectifier output is :

Vd I d Re I d R (1 k )

and

Nr

Er S Vs S Vs nm

Ns

Vd 1.65 x 2 Er 2.3394 Er

Nr

Using : Er S Vs S Vs nm

Ns

Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m

Pr

If Pr is the slip power, air gap power is : Pg

S

Pr 3Pr (1 S )

Developed power is : Pd 3( Pg Pr ) 3( S)

S S

Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and Pd TL m

(1 S )Vd I d

So,

Pd TLm TLm (1 S )

S

:

Solving for Id gives : TLs

Id

2.3394Vs nm

So, I d R(1 k ) 2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

Which gives : S

2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

The speed can be found from equation : S as :

2.3394 S Vs n m

I d R(1 k )

m s (1 S ) s 1

2.3394 V s m

n

TLs R(1 k )

m s 1 2

( 2.3394 V n

s m )

Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle, the speed decrease with load

torque. By varying k from 0 to 1, the speed can be varied from minimum

value to s

Kvm

2

From torque equation : T

L

2

800

750 x 347.67 Nm

1175

TLs

From equation : Id The corresponding inductor current is :

2.3394Vs nm

347.67 x 125.66

Id 78.13 A

2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

I d R(1 k )

m s (1 S ) s 1

2.3394 V s m

n

78.13 R

83.77 125.66(1 )

2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

And : R 2.3856 W

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