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# AC DRIVES

## AC motor Drives are used in many industrial and domestic

application, such as in conveyer, lift, mixer, escalator etc.

## The AC motor have a number of advantages :

Lightweight (20% to 40% lighter than equivalent DC motor)
Inexpensive
Low maintenance

## The Disadvantages AC motor :

* The power control relatively complex and more expensive

## There are two type of AC motor Drives :

1. Induction Motor Drives
2. Synchronous Motor Drives
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

drives (ASD).

## Basic part of three-phase induction motor :

Three-phase
windings Rotor windings
Stator
Three-
phase
supply
Rotor

Air gap
Stator Air gap Rotor
m T
s
Three-phase
windings Rotor windings

Three-
phase
supply

Stator Air gap Rotor
m T
s

## The stator winding are supplied with balanced three-phase AC voltage,

which produce induced voltage in the rotor windings. It is possible to
arrange the distribution of stator winding so that there is an effect of
multiple poles, producing several cycle of magnetomotive force (mmf) or
field around the air gap.
The speed of rotation of field is called the synchronous speed s , which
is defined by :
s is syncronous speed [rad/sec]
2
s or
Ns is syncronous speed [rpm]
p is numbers of poles
p
is the supply frequency [rad/sec]
f is the supply frequency [Hz]
120 f
Ns Nm is motor speed
p
The motor speed

## The rotor speed or motor speed is : m s (1 S )

m NS Nm
S S S
Where S is slip, as defined as : Or
S NS

Three-phase
windings Rotor windings

Three-
phase
supply

Stator Air gap Rotor
m T
s
Equivalent Circuit Of Induction Motor

Three-phase
windings Rotor windings Where :
Rs is resistance per-phase of stator winding
Three-
phase Rr is resistance per-phase of rotor winding
supply
Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
winding stator
Stator Air gap Rotor
m T Xs is leakage reactance per-phase of the
s winding rotor
Is Xs Rs Xr Xm is magnetizing reactance

Im Ir
Rm is Core losses as a reactance

Rr/s
Vs
Xm Rm

## Stator Air gap motor

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor
Is Xs Rs Xr

Im Ir

Rr/s
Vs
Xm Rm

## Stator Air gap motor

Ps cu 3 I s Rs
2
Stator copper loss :

Pr cu 3 ( I r ) 2 Rr
' '
Rotor copper loss :
2 2
V V
Core losses : Pc 3 m 3 s
Rm Rm
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

## - Power developed on air gap (Power fropm stator to

rotor through air gap) : ' 2 Rr
'
Pg 3 ( I r )
S '
R
- Power developed by motor : Pd Pg Pr cu 3 ( I r ) r (1 S )
' 2

S
or Pd Pg (1 S )

Pd Pd 60
- Torque of motor : Td or Td
m 2 N m
Pg (1 S ) Pg
or
S (1 S ) s
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

Pc Ps cu Pg

## Output power of motor : Po Pd Pnoload

Po Pd Pnoload
Efficiency :
Pi Pc Ps cu Pg
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

If Pg ( Pc Ps cu )
and Pd Pnoload

## so, the efficiency can calculated as :

Pd Pg (1 S )
1 S
Pg Pg
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

## Generally, value of reactance magnetization Xm >> value Rm (core

losses) and also X m 2 ( Rs 2 X s 2 )

## Therefore, the equivalent circuit is ;

Is Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir
Xs Rs Xr

Im Ir
Im Ir

Rr/s Rr/s
Vs Xm
Vs
Xm Rm Po
Pi

## Stator Air gap motor Stator Air gap rotor

Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

## Total Impedance of this circuit is :

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir
'
R
X m ( X s X r ) jX m ( Rs r )
Im Ir '

Rr/s Zi S
Vs Xm '
Rr
Rs j( X m X s X r )
'
Po
Pi
S

## Stator Air gap rotor

Vs
Ir
'
The rotor current is : 1

2
Rr'
2
2
Rs X s X r
'

S
Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir

3 Rr' Vs2
Im Ir Td
' 2
Rr

Rr/s
S s Rs X s X r'
2

Vs
Po
Pi
S
Stator Air gap rotor

Tmax Td

Tst TL
Tm=TL
Operating point

S=1 m s
Nm =0 Nm Ns

## Torque speed Characteristic

Three region operation :
1. Motoring : 0 S 1
2. Regenerating : S 0
3. Plugging : 1 S 2

Torque
Forward Forward Reverse
regeneration motoring plugging
Tmax

m s m s
m s
Tst
S=Sm

-Smax
s s Smax s =0 s
S=-1 S=0 S=1 S=2
Ns Nm =0

-Tmax
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

## Starting speed of motor is m = 0 or S = 1,

3 Rr' Vs2
Starting torque of motor is : Tst
' 2
Rr

s Rs X s X r'
2

S

d Td
Slip for the maximum torque Smax can be found by setting : 0
dS

## So, the slip on maximum torque is : S max Rr'

R X X
1
2 ' 2 2
s s r
Performance Characteristic of
Induction Motor

3 Vs2
Tmax

Torque maximum is :
2s Rs Rs X s X r'
2 2

## And the maximum regenerative torque can be found as :

3 Vs2
Tmax

2

2s Rs Rs X s X r' 2

## Where the slip of motor s = - Sm

3 Rr' Vs2
Td
Speed-Torque Characteristic : Rr'
2

S s Rs X s X r'
2

S

2
R
X
'
' 2
For the high Slip S. (starting) s X r Rs r

3 Rr' Vs2
So, the torque of motor is :
Td

S s X s X ' 2
r

3 Rr' Vs2
Tst
s X s X
And starting torque (slip S=1) is :
' 2
r
For low slip S region, the motor speed near unity or synchronous

X
speed, in this region the impedance motor is : ' 2 R'
s Xr r
Rs
S

3Vs2 S
So, the motor torque is : Td
s R 'r
Rr'
S max
R X X
And the slip at maximum torque is : 1
2 ' 2 2
s s r

3 Rr' Vs2
The maximum motor torque is : Td
' 2
Rr
S s Rs X s X r' 2

S
Stator Voltage Control
AC
Variable
IM
Controlling Induction Motor Speed by Voltage

## Adjusting The Stator Voltage

Sources Td
Vs

3 Rr' Vs2
Td
Rr'
2

S s Rs X s X r'
2

S
Td
Vs > Vs1 > Vs2
Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tmax

Im Ir

Rr/s
Vs
Po Tst TL
Pi
Tst1
Tst2
air
Stator rotor
gap

2 1
S=1 S=0
s
Nm =0 Ns
Frequency Voltage Control AC
Variable
Voltage
Sources IM
Controlling Induction Motor Speed by
Adjusting The Frequency Stator Voltage Vs Td
f

3 Rr' Vs2
Td

2

S s Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S Td
fs2 < fs1 < fs
Tmax

Ii Xs Rs Xr Is=Ir Tst2

Im Ir Tst1
Tst TL
Vs Rr/s
f
Po
Pi

## Stator Air rotor 2 1 s

gap
S=1 S=0 S=0 S=0
m =0 fs2 fs1 fs
If the frequency is increased above its rated value, the flux and torque
would decrease. If the synchronous speed corresponding to the rated
frequency is call the base speed b, the synchronous speed at any other
frequency becomes:
s b

b m
And : S 1 m
b b

3 Rr' Vs2
The motor torque : Td
' 2
R

S s Rs r X s X r'
2

S

3 Rr' Vs2
Td

2

S b Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S
If Rs is negligible, the maximum torque at the base speed as :

3 Vs2

Tmb

2S b X s X r'

## And the maximum torque at any other frequency is :

2
3 Vs
Tm
2 S b X s X r' 2
Rr '
Sm
At this maximum torque, slip S is :
X s X r'
2
3 Vs
Tm
2 S b X s X r' 2 Tm 1
2
Normalizing :
3 Vs2 Tmb

Tmb

2S b X s X r'
And Tm 2 Tmb
Example :
A three-phase , 11.2 kW, 1750 rpm, 460 V, 60 Hz, four pole, Y-connected
induction motor has the following parameters : Rs = 0.1W,Rr = 0.38W,Xs =
1.14W,Xr = 1.71W,and Xm = 33.2W.If the breakdown torque requiretment is
35 Nm, Calculate : a) the frequency of supply voltage, b) speed of motor at
the maximum torque

Solution :
460
Input voltage per-phase : Vs 265 volt
3
Base frequency : b 2 f 2 x 3.14 x 60 377 rad / s
60 Po 60 x 11200
Base Torque : Tmb 61.11 Nm
2 N m 2 x 3.14 x 1750
Motor Torque : Tm 35 Nm

## a) the frequency of supply voltage :

Tm 1 Tmb 61.11
2 1.321
Tmb Tm 35
Synchronous speed at this frequency is :

s b
s 1.321 x 377 498.01rad / s or

60 x 498.01
N s Nb 4755.65 rpm
2 x
p NS 4 x 4755.65
So, the supply frequency is : f s 158.52 Hz
120 b 120

## b) speed of motor at the maximum torque :

Rr '
Sm
At this maximum torque, slip Sm is :

X s X r'
Rr = 0.38W, Xs = 1.14W, Xr = 1.71Wand 1.31
So, 0.38
Sm 0.101 or,
1.3211.14 1.71
N m N S (1 S ) 4755.65 (1 0.101) 4275 rpm
CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING
ROTOR RESISTANCE
(Rotor Voltage Control)
Wound rotor induction motor applications

cranes
CONTROLLING INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED USING
ROTOR RESISTANCE
(Rotor Voltage Control)

3 Rr' Vs2
Equation of Speed-Torque : Td

2

S s Rs
Rr'

X s X r'
2

S

3Vs2 S
In a wound rotor induction motor, an external Td
three-phase resistor may be connected to its s R 'r
slip rings,
RX
Stator

RX
Rotor

RX
Three-phase
supply
These resistors Rx are used to control motor starting and stopping
anywhere from reduced voltage motors of low horsepower up to
large motor applications such as materials handling, mine hoists,
cranes etc.

## The most common applications are:

AC Wound Rotor Induction Motors where the resistor is wired into the
motor secondary slip rings and provides a soft start as resistance is
removed in steps.

AC Squirrel Cage Motors where the resistor is used as a ballast for soft
starting also known as reduced voltage starting.

## DC Series Wound Motors where the current limiting resistor is wired to

the field to control motor current, since torque is directly proportional to
current, for starting and stopping.
The developed torque may be varying the resistance Rx

## The torque-speed characteristic for variations in rotor resistance

This method increase the starting torque while limiting the starting current.
The wound rotor induction motor are widely used in applications requiring
frequent starting and braking with large motor torque (crane, hoists, etc)
The three-phase resistor may be replaced by a three-phase diode rectifier
and a DC chopper. The inductor Ld acts as a current source Id and the DC
chopper varies the effective resistance:
Re R(1 k )
Where k is duty cycle of DC chopper

The speed can controlled by varying the duty cycle k, (slip power)

Id

Ld
D1 D3 D5
Stator

Vd GTO
Rotor R Vdc

Three-phase
supply D4 D6 D2
The slip power in the rotor circuit may be returned to the supply by
replacing the DC converter and resistance R with a three-phase full
converter (inverter)

Three-phase
supply

Id Transformer Na:Nb

Ld
D1 D3 D5 T1 T3 T5
Stator

Vd Vdc
Rotor

Slip Power D4 D6 D2 T2 T4 T6

Controlled rectifier/
Diode rectifier
inverter
Example:
A three-phase induction motor, 460, 60Hz, six-pole, Y connected, wound rotor
that speed is controlled by slip power such as shown in Figure below. The
motor parameters are Rs=0.041 W, Rr=0.044 W, Xs=0.29 W, Xr=0.44 W and
Xm=6.1 W. The turn ratio of the rotor to stator winding is nm=Nr/Ns=0.9. The
inductance Ld is very large and its current Id has negligible ripple.

The value of Rs, Rr, Xs and Xr for equivalent circuit can be considered
negligible compared with the effective impedance of Ld. The no-load of motor is
negligible. The losses of rectifier and Dc chopper are also negligible.
The load torque, which is proportional to speed square is 750 Nm at 1175 rpm.
(a) If the motor has to operate with a minimum speed of 800 rpm, determine
the resistance R, if the desired speed is 1050 rpm,
(b) Calculate the inductor current Id.
(c) The duty cycle k of the DC chopper.
(d) The voltage Vd.
(e) The efficiency.
(f) The power factor of input line of the motor.
460
Vs 265.58 volt
3
p 6

2 x 60 377 rad / s
s 2 x 377 / 6 125.66 rad / s
The equivalent circuit :
The dc voltage at the rectifier output is :

Vd I d Re I d R (1 k )
and
Nr
Er S Vs S Vs nm
Ns

## For a three-phase rectifier, relates Er and Vd as :

Vd 1.65 x 2 Er 2.3394 Er
Nr
Using : Er S Vs S Vs nm
Ns
Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m
Pr
If Pr is the slip power, air gap power is : Pg
S
Pr 3Pr (1 S )
Developed power is : Pd 3( Pg Pr ) 3( S)
S S
Because the total slip power is 3Pr = Vd Id and Pd TL m
(1 S )Vd I d
So,
Pd TLm TLm (1 S )
S

## Substituting Vd from Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m In equation Pd above, so

:
Solving for Id gives : TLs
Id
2.3394Vs nm

## From equation : Vd I d Re I d R (1 k ) and equation : Vd 2.3394 S Vs n m

So, I d R(1 k ) 2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
Which gives : S
2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
The speed can be found from equation : S as :
2.3394 S Vs n m
I d R(1 k )
m s (1 S ) s 1
2.3394 V s m
n

TLs R(1 k )
m s 1 2
( 2.3394 V n
s m )

Which shows that for a fixed duty cycle, the speed decrease with load
torque. By varying k from 0 to 1, the speed can be varied from minimum
value to s

## m 180 / 30 83.77 rad / s

Kvm
2
From torque equation : T
L
2
800
750 x 347.67 Nm
1175
TLs
From equation : Id The corresponding inductor current is :
2.3394Vs nm
347.67 x 125.66
Id 78.13 A
2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

## The speed is minimum when the duty-cycle k is zero and equation :

I d R(1 k )
m s (1 S ) s 1
2.3394 V s m
n
78.13 R
83.77 125.66(1 )
2.3394 x 265.58 x 0.9

And : R 2.3856 W