# Prof Abdul quadir md (SCSE

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Basic Structure of Computers

Functional Units

Arithmetic
Input and
logic

Memory

Output Control

I/O Processor

Figure 1.1. Basic functional units of a computer.

Information Handled by a Computer
• Instructions/machine instructions
 Govern the transfer of information within a computer as well
as between the computer and its I/O devices
 Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed
 Program
• Data
 Used as operands by the instructions
 Source program
• Encoded in binary code – 0 and 1

main memory  Secondary storage – larger and cheaper . Memory Unit • Store programs and data • Two classes of storage  Primary storage  Fast  Programs must be stored in memory while they are being executed  Large number of semiconductor storage cells  Processed in words  Address  RAM and memory access time  Memory hierarchy – cache.

• Registers • Fast control of ALU . • Load the operands into memory – bring them to the processor – perform operation in ALU – store the result back to memory or retain in the processor. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) • Most computer operations are executed in ALU of the processor.

under program control. where the information is processed  Output the processed information through an output unit  Control all activities inside the machine through a control unit . • Operations of a computer:  Accept information in the form of programs and data through an input unit and store it in the memory  Fetch the information stored in the memory. • Control unit is usually distributed throughout the machine instead of standing alone. into an ALU. • The timing signals that govern the I/O transfers are also generated by the control unit. Control Unit • All computer operations are controlled by the control unit.

048. = 0.824 bytes ~ 1 billion • Memory Access Time (read from/ write to memory) – 50-75 nanoseconds (1 nsec.024 bytes ~ 1 thousand – Megabyte(MB) = 220 = 1.000000001 sec.741. Memory Size / Speed • Typical memory in a personal computer (PC): – 64MB .256MB • Memory sizes: – Kilobyte (KB) = 210 = 1.073.) • RAM is – volatile (can only store when power is on) – relatively expensive CMPUT101 Introduction to (c) Yngvi Bjornsson 8 Computing .576 bytes ~ 1 million – Gigabyte (GB) = 230 = 1.

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 Computer software.  Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch. on the other hand. is not something you can touch. Software is a set of instructions for a computer to perform specific operation . hardware and software.  A computer system consists of two major elements: hardware and software.

M. • Different software's are used to solve different problems.” • “Software is a single/collection of programs that performs a particular task. Software • “A set of instructions given to the computer to solve a problem is called Software.” • Software is also called Program. Hammad Waseem 11 .

Hammad Waseem 12 . Types Of Software • There are two types of software on the basis of their functionality: – System Software – Application Software M.

M. • It is also known as application package. Hammad Waseem 13 . • Application Software is created to perform specific tasks for a user. Application Software • Application Software includes programs that do real work for user. • Application software is used to perform various applications on the computer.

Hammad Waseem 14 . Examples – Microsoft Word – Microsoft Excel – Lotus 123 – Photoshop etc M.

M. Packaged Software • Packaged Software is a Software that is ready-made and available for sale. lease . Custom software • Custom software (also known as bespoke software or tailor made software's) is software that is specially developed for some specific organization or other user. Hammad Waseem 15 . or license to the general public.

Hammad Waseem 16 . M. System Software • System Software is set of programs to control and manage the operations of a computer hardware. • It consists of the basic operations as follows: – Saving data on disk – Making computer to work for us – Printing a document etc. • It enables application programs to execute properly.

Examples • Examples of System Software's are: – Operating Systems – Utility Programs – Device Drivers M. Hammad Waseem 17 .

Operating System (OS)
• An operating system (OS) is a collection
of software that manages computer
hardware resources and provides
common services for computer
programs.
• The operating system is a vital component of
the system software in a computer system.
• Application programs usually require an
operating system to function.

Device Driver
• A Device Driver is a computer
program that operates or controls a
particular type of device that is attached to
a computer.
– Like printers

RAM versus ROM comparison chart
RAM ROM
Random Access Memory or RAM is a Read-only memory or ROM is also a
form of data storage that can be form of data storage that can not be
accessed randomly at any time, in any easily altered or reprogrammed.Stores
order and from any physical location., instuctions that are not nescesary for
allowing quick access and re-booting up to make the computer
manipulation. operate when it is switched off.They
are hardwired.

RAM allows the computer to ROM stores the program required to
read data quickly to run applications. It initially boot the computer. It only

RAM is volatile i.e. its contents are lost It is non-volatile i.e. its contents are
when the device is powered off. retained even when the device is
powered off.
The two main types of RAM are static The types of ROM include PROM,
RAM and dynamic RAM. EPROM and EEPROM.

. Compiler Interpreter Compiler Interpreter 1 Takes Entire program as Takes Single instruction input as input .

Single-user/single-tasking operating system 3. Multi-user/multitasking operating system 1. In short OS is the computer’s master control program. A real time OS is needed to run real time application .software that controls the system’s hardware and that interacts with the user and application software. relatively small OS. Real-time operating system A real time operating system is a very fast. Types of operating system: Operating system can be organized into four types. Real-time operating system 2. Single-user/multitasking operating system 4.USING OPERATING SYSTEM: The OS is an example of system software. They are build into the circuitry of a device and are not loaded from a disk drive. The OS provides you with the tool that enables you to Interact with the PC. 1.

The advantage of these operating system is that they can be managed by simply making changes to one server rather than to many desktop computer. Multi-user/multitasking operating system:  A Multi-user/multitasking operating system is an operating system that allows multiple users to use programs that are simultaneously running on a single network server. Ex. all or most of the computing occurs at the server. In a Multi-user/multitasking operating system environment.UNIX. and mainframe operating system such as MVS.4. VMS. A disadvantages is that if the network connection to the server is Broken. the user can not do any work in the application of server. .

000 (1012) bytes * This number is an approximation.000.000. 2000 by Prentice Hall.000 (109) bytes Terrabyte 1.024 bytes.000.000.000 (106) bytes Gigabyte (GB) 1.000 (103) bytes* Megabyte (MB) 1. The exact value is 1. 3-26 .Size and Time Units for Computers Unit Amount of Memory Byte 8 bits Kilobyte (kB) 1.000.000.

3-27 .The Five Computer Components The central processor Secondary storage Input devices Output devices Communication devices 2000 by Prentice Hall.

The Central Processor • The central processor consists of two parts – The central processing unit (CPU) • Arithmetic-log unit (ALU) • The control unit – Primary storage • Random access memory (RAM) • Read-only memory (ROM) • Cache memory 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-28 .

3-29 . Secondary Storage • There are two main types of secondary storage – Sequential • Magnetic tape – Direct access • Magnetic disks • Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) • CD-ROM • Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) 2000 by Prentice Hall.

Input Devices • Input devices are the devices through which a computer accepts data – Touch screens – Voice-recognition systems – Optical character reader (OCR) 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-30 .

Output Devices

• An output device is any device that helps
the user to view the output of the
computer
– Computer screen (video display terminal)
– Printers

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-31

Features of the Three Types of Printers

Type of Printer Features

Dot Matrix Cheapest type of printer. Uses pins to press on a
ribbon to make characters. Noisiest type of printer.
Higher-quality output than the dot matrix. Uses a
Inkjet nozzle to spray ink onto a page. Produces about 2 to 8
ppm. Can print documents in color. Quieter than a dot
matrix printer, but more expensive to operate.
Highest-quality output, comparable to magazine
output. Quietest printer. Typically the most expensive
Laser printer. Produces 4 to 16 ppm or more.

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-32

Communication Devices

• Devices that allow users separated by
distance and time to exchange
documents, files, graphics, and other
digital information.

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-33

Computers That Support Different Work-
group Sizes

Personal Information Enterprise-wide
Work-group Systems
Systems Systems

• PCs
• Midrange or
• Laptops/Notebooks • Supercomputers
Minicomputers
• Hand-held Computers • Mainframes
• Workstations
• Pen-based Computers

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-34

3-35 . Supercomputers • Some of the fastest and largest computers available today are supercomputers • Supercomputers have two common characteristics – The ability to process instructions in parallel (parallel processing) – The ability to automatically recover from failures (fault tolerance) 2000 by Prentice Hall.

payroll. investment analysis. Mainframes • Mainframes are frequently enterprise-wide systems and are ideal for transaction processing. and other applications that require extensive computations • Many users can simultaneously use the mainframe • One large disadvantage of the mainframe is that it is expensive to purchase. 3-36 . and maintain 2000 by Prentice Hall. operate. financial applications.

they are workhorses that can deliver excellent “bang for the buck” • Workstations lie somewhere between midrange and personal computers – They can be used by individuals or groups – They are faster and more sophisticated than PCs – They include numerous productivity tools that increase efficiency 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-37 . Midrange. and Workstations • Although midrange computers are slower and often have less memory than mainframes.or Minicomputers.

Network Computers • The network computer. also known as “thin clients” is a simplified version of a personal computer – They are used mainly to access programs that reside on a company’s network or on the Internet • Network computers are well suited for task-oriented jobs. 3-38 . but they rely heavily on network traffic and can cause bottlenecks 2000 by Prentice Hall. such as data entry. order entry. and assembly line work • Network computers function by downloading all applications from a central computer and obtaining and storing all data back on the central computer • Network computers can offer cost efficiencies.

Microcomputers or Personal Computers (PCs) • The memory size and processing capabilities of microcomputers are less than mainframes and midrange computers • However. hardware technology advances have made the PC a compact and powerful machine • A PC can be configured to meet the specific needs of users 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-39 .

Handheld. 3-40 . anywhere • The portability of notebook and handheld computers has increased the productivity of many employees 2000 by Prentice Hall. Mobile Computers: Laptops. Notebooks. and Pen-based • These computers are battery operated so they can be used anytime.

users input information on the LCD watch face that turns into a small keyboard. Often. Can download text. Smaller than a laptop or notebook computer. 3-41 . Uses an electronic writing pad and a light-sensitive electronic pen to Pen-based input data. Has full PC functionality with a reduced keypad and screen. Has a built-in monitor that Handheld can be operated from the palm of one’s hand so the keyboard and screen are smaller than a laptop. photos. Has a floppy drive. A Comparison of Types of Mobile Computers Type Description Laptop Fits on a user’s lap and is slightly larger than a notebook. and other applications from PCs and transmit Wrist data via infrared rays. Has full PC functionality with a reduced keypad and screen and no floppy Notebook drive. 2000 by Prentice Hall. the keyboard requires an electronic pen to input data.

3-42 .Six Technical Considerations in Buying a PC Clock Monitors Speed Processor RAM Expansion Secondary Slots Storage 2000 by Prentice Hall.

don’t fix it” does not apply to hardware capacity and reliability 2000 by Prentice Hall.Business Guidelines for Hardware Success • Cost Is Only Part of the Story – Many benefits resulting from information systems are intangible and tough to measure • increased productivity • improved decision making • faster customer service • Don’t Compromise on Capacity and Reliability – The motto “If it ain’t broke. 3-43 .

16 8 4 2 1.4 2 1. goes on .8 4 2 1. Binary number systems • 2 1.

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fiber optics.  Two computers are set to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information.What is a Computer Network?  Collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology is called computer network. . microwaves. infrared or satellite.  Connection can be through a copper wire.

CATEGORIES OF NETWORKS .

 Data transferred in High speed which ranges from 100 Mbps to gigabit for system development and have a low implementation cost.  Upper limit: 10 km . . Single room. Lower limit: 1 km  Twisted pair cable or Co-axial cable connects the plug in cards to form a network. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a collection of networking equipment located geographically close together.  Designed to share resources between PCs and workstation such as hardware or data. campus etc. E.g.

A work to internet connections would most likely require broadcast network (LAN) with a connection to the internet (packet switched network) .

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or between individuals. • Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they should not have access to.• Cost reductions through sharing of information and databases. • Networks are difficult to set up and need to be maintained by skilled technicians. • The trend to automate communication and manufacturing process. • If the file server develops a serious fault. • Increased information exchange between different departments in an organization. . resources and network services. rather than just one user in the case of a stand-alone machine. all the users are affected.

 There are three topologies of LAN Network Ring Topology Bus Topology LAN Topologies Star Topology .

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 The metropolitan area network (MAN) is designed to extend over an entire city.  Range: Within 100 km (a city). Bus A MAN Bus B .  It may be a single network such as cable television network available in many cities.  A MAN uses distributed queue dual bus.

. It provides a good back bone for  More cable required for a MAN a large network and provides connection from one place to greater access to WANs.  The dual bus used in MAN helps the transmission of data in both  It is difficult to make the system direction simultaneously. secure from hackers and  A Man usually encompasses industrial espionage (spying) several blocks of a city or an graphical regions. another. entire city.

• Network that provides long distance transmission of data. image and video information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country. voice. • Range: Beyond 100 km. a continent. .

network the more expensive it is. maintaining a network is a anyone else on the network. •Setting up a network can be an expensive. The bigger the connecting workstations. by all the computers on the network Protection against hackers and viruses adds without having to buy a different peripheral more complexity and expense. •Everyone on the network can use the same data. •Shares software and resources with slow and complicated. or supervisors and technicians to be data included with them (called employed. This avoids problems where some users may have older information than others. attachments). •Messages can be sent very quickly to •Once set up. These full-time job which requires network messages can have pictures.•Covers a large geographical area so long •Need a good firewall to restrict outsiders distance businesses can connect on the from entering and disrupting the network one network. sounds. for each computer. . •Security is a real issue when many •Expensive things (such as printers or different people have the ability to use phone lines to the internet) can be shared information from other computers.

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•ISDN ( Integrated service digital network) 2 types Basic rate interface Primary rate interface •Frame relay •Switched multimegabit data service (SMDS) •Synchronous optical network (SONET) •High data link controlled (HDLC) •Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) .

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Range is Beyond 100 10 km Range is100 km km Media Used Uses guided media Uses guided as well as Uses unguided media unguided media Speed A high speed i. switch and hub Modem and router Microwave. radio. BASIS LAN MAN WAN Full Form Local Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network Range A communication network This network shares the A communication network linking a number of stations in characteristics of packet distinguished from a Local Area same local area. infra-red needed laser protocols Attached Resource computer Frame relay and ATM. Network. 100kbps to Optimized for a large Long distance 100mbps geographical area than LAN. Range is 1 to broadcasting networks. FDDI. SMDS network (ARCNET). Cost cheaper costly expensive Equipment NIC. which may or may not be provided by public packet network. Token ring asynchronous transfer mode(ATM) .e. communications.

• . Routers • Routers are small electronic devices that join multiple computer networks together via either wired or wireless connections.

Router .

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the signal is much simpler and doesn't require the analog-to- digital conversion. which was once the most popular way to access the internet. modem • A modem is a hardware device that allows a computer to send and receive data over a telephone line or a cable or satellite connection. • . • In the case of transmission over an analog telephone line. • In the case of the high-speed digital modems popular today. the modem converts data between analog and digital formats in real time for two-way network communication.

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hub • Hub is the most basic networking device that connects multiplecomputers or other network devices together .

hub .

switch
• A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub,
officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that
connects devices together on a computernetwork by using
packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the
destination device.

Internet
• It is a worldwide/global system of
interconnected computer networks. It uses the
standard Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Every computer
in Internet is identified by a unique IP address. IP
Address is a unique set of numbers (such as
110.22.33.114) which identifies a computer’s
location.
• A special computer DNS (Domain Name Server) is
used to provide a name to the IP Address so that
the user can locate a computer by a name. For
example, a DNS server will resolve a
name https://www.google.com to a particular IP
address to uniquely identify the computer on which
this website is hosted

Intranet • Intranet is the system in which multiple PCs are connected to each other. PCs in intranet are not available to the world outside the intranet. . Usually each organization has its own Intranet network and members/employees of that organization can access the computers in their intranet.

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the first commercially available computer. rather than using only text via the command line. 1983. and a group of other researchers in 1981.  The GUI was first developed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay. Apple introduced the Lisa computer. all versions of Microsoft Windows utilize a GUI. on January 19. GUI  Graphical User Interface.  Below is a picture of the Windows 7 Desktop and an example of a GUI. a GUI (pronounced as either G-U-I or gooey) allows the use of icons or other visual indicators to interact with electronic devices. whereas MS-DOS does not. .  For example. Douglas Engelbart. Later.

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deleting. How does a GUI work? • A GUI uses windows. such as opening. icons. . • Although many GUI operating systems are navigated through the use of a mouse. the keyboard can also be utilized by using keyboard shortcuts or arrow keys. and moving files. and menus to carry out commands.

• Because of their ease of use. • GUI operating systems are much easier to learn and use because commands do not need to be memorized. GUI operating systems have become the dominant operating system used by today's end-users. users do not need to know any programming languages. . What are the benefits of GUI? • Unlike a command line operating system or CUI. like Unix or MS-DOS. • Additionally.

However.What are examples of a GUI operating system? • Microsoft Windows • Apple System 7 and macOS • Chrome OS • Linux variants like Ubuntu • How does the user interact with a GUI? • Typically the user uses a pointing device such as the mouse to interact and use most aspects of the GUI. it is also possible to interact with a GUI using a keyboard or other input device. .

Excel. Outlook) • Internet browser (i. Firefox) .e.e. Word. Early command line operating systems like MS- DOS and even some versions of Linuxtoday have no GUI interface. • What are examples of a GUI interface? • GNOME • KDE • Any Microsoft program (i. Chrome.• Are all operating systems GUI? • No. Internet Explorer.

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Windows XP • Multitasking . See the multi-user definition for a complete definition. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux. Windows 2000 • Multiprocessing . Windows 8 • Multithreading .• Multi-user .An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time. Unix.Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux. Unix. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux.An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Unix.A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times. Windows XP . Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux. Unix.

Memory hirerachy .

For example: • Program counter (PC) • Program status word (PSW) • CPU registers (general purpose. • This mechanism is called a Context Switch. Context switching • When an event occurs. the operating system saves the state of the active process and restores the state of the new process. • What must get saved? Everything that the next process could or will damage. floating-point) • File access pointer(s) • Memory (perhaps?) .

• The components of a process are: – the program to be executed. . – the data on which the program will execute. – the resources required by the program—such as memory and file(s)—and – the status of the execution. Process • A process is a program in execution.

First rudimentary operating system. • Resident monitor – initial control in monitor – control transfers to job – when job completes control transfers pack to monitor CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 89 . Mainframe Systems • Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs • Automatic job sequencing – automatically transfers control from one job to another.

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 90 .

programmed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time. and the CPU is multiplexed among them. CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 91 .Multi .

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• CPU scheduling – the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming • I/O routine supplied by the system. CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 93 . • Memory management – the system must allocate the memory to several jobs. • Allocation of devices.

Time-Sharing Systems–Interactive Computing • The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). • A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk. • On-line communication between the user and the system is provided. CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 94 . when the operating system finishes the execution of one command. • On-line system must be available for users to access data and code. it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard.

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Linux) CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 96 . small printers. • User convenience and responsiveness. • Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system’ often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. UNIX. MacOS. • May run several different types of operating systems (Windows. display screens. Desktop Systems • Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a single user. mice. • I/O devices – keyboards.

Parallel Systems
• Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU
in close communication.
• Tightly coupled system – processors share
memory and a clock; communication usually
takes place through the shared memory.
– Increased throughput
– Economical
– Increased reliability
• fail-soft systems

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
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Parallel Systems (Cont.)
• Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
– Each processor runs and identical copy of the
operating system.
– Many processes can run at once without
performance deterioration.
– Most modern operating systems support SMP
• Asymmetric multiprocessing
– Each processor is assigned a specific task; master
processor schedules and allocated work to slave
processors.
– More common in extremely large systems

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
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Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
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Server
• A server is a computer program that provides
services to other computer programs (and
their users) in the same or other computers.

• The computer that a server program runs in is
also frequently referred to as a server. That
machine may be a dedicated server or used
for other purposes as well.

for example. • A Web client is the requesting program associated with the user. Server • Servers are often categorized in terms of their purpose. is a computer program that serves requested HTML pages or files. • A Web server. . • The Web browser in your computer is a client that requests HTML files from Web servers.

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• Advantages of distributed systems. such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. processors communicate with one another through various communications lines. Distributed Systems • Distribute the computation among several physical processors. – Resources Sharing – Computation speed up – load sharing – Reliability – Communications CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 103 . • Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory.

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CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 105 . • Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) • May be either client-server or peer-to- peer systems. Distributed Systems (cont) • Requires networking infrastructure.

both communicating over a computer network or on the same computer. . Client server systems • Client-server is a software architecture model consisting of two parts. client systems and server systems. • A client server application is a distributed system made up of both client and server software.

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General Structure of Client-Server CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 108 .

• Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby. . Clustered Systems • Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. • Provides high reliability. • Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application.

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industrial control systems. . • Well-defined fixed-time constraints. typically without buffer delays. • Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments. and some display systems. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. medical imaging systems. Real-Time Systems • A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in. • Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time.

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What is HTML? • HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages. but use them to render the content of the page . • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language • HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup • HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages • HTML elements are represented by tags • HTML tags label pieces of content such as "heading". "paragraph". and so on • Browsers do not display the HTML tags. "table".

</p> </body> </html> . A Simple HTML Document • Example • <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.

Example Explained • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5 • The <html> element is the root element of an HTML page • The <head> element contains meta information about the document • The <title> element specifies a title for the document • The <body> element contains the visible page content • The <h1> element defines a large heading • The <p> element defines a paragraph .

but with a forward slash inserted before the tag name ..</tagname> • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p> • The first tag in a pair is the start tag. HTML Tags • HTML tags are element names surrounded by angle brackets: • <tagname>content goes here.. the second tag is the end tag • The end tag is written like the start tag.

Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them. Firefox. IE. Web Browsers • The purpose of a web browser (Chrome. but uses them to determine how to display the document: . • The browser does not display the HTML tags.

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• . HTML Page Structure • Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:Note: Only the content inside the <body> section (the white area above) is displayed in a browser.

• The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive. at the top of the page (before any HTML tags). • The <!DOCTYPE> declaration for HTML5 is: • <!DOCTYPE html> . The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration • The <!DOCTYPE> declaration represents the document type. • It must only appear once. and helps browsers to display web pages correctly.

2 1997 HTML 4. there have been many versions of HTML: HTML 3.0 1995 Since the early days of the web. Version Year HTML 1991 HTML Versions HTML 2.01 1999 XHTML 2000 HTML5 2014 .

• Follow the four steps below to create your first web page with Notepad or TextEdit. • However. • We believe using a simple text editor is a good way to learn HTML.Write HTML Using Notepad or TextEdit • Web pages can be created and modified by using professional HTML editors. . for learning HTML we recommend a simple text editor like Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac).

• Windows 7 or earlier: • Open Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad . Step 1: Open Notepad (PC) • Windows 8 or later: • Open the Start Screen (the window symbol at the bottom left on your screen). Type Notepad.

• <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.</p> </body> </html> . Step 2: Write Some HTML • Write or copy some HTML into Notepad.

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htm" and set the encoding to UTF-8 (which is the preferred encoding for HTML files).html as file extension. • Name the file "index. • You can use either . it is up to you.htm or . Step 3: Save the HTML Page • Save the file on your computer. Select File > Save as in the Notepad menu. There is no difference. • .

• The result will look much like this: .and choose "Open with"). Step 4: View the HTML Page in Your Browser • Open the saved HTML file in your favorite browser (double click on the file. or right-click .

<h6> defines the least important heading: . HTML Headings • HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. • <h1> defines the most important heading.

• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1>This is heading 1</h1> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <h3>This is heading 3</h3> • <h4>This is heading 4</h4> • <h5>This is heading 5</h5> • <h6>This is heading 6</h6> • </body> • </html> .

• HTML Paragraphs • HTML paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <p>This is a paragraph.</p> • <p>This is another paragraph.</p> • </body> • </html> .

• HTML Links • HTML links are defined with the <a> tag: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <a href="https://www.w3schools.com">This is a link</a> • </body> • </html> .

and height are provided as attributes: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <img src="w3schools.com" width="104" height="142"> • </body> • </html> . • The source file (src). width.• HTML Images • HTML images are defined with the <img> tag. alternative text (alt).jpg" alt="W3Schools.

The value of the title attribute will be displayed as a tooltip when you mouse over the paragraph: . a title attribute is added to the <p> element.• The title Attribute • Here.

• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h2>The title attribute</h2> • <p title="I'm a tooltip"> • Mouse over this paragraph. • </p> • </body> • </html> . to display the title attribute as a tooltip.

and is most often displayed as a horizontal rule.• HTML Horizontal Rules • The <hr> tag defines a thematic break in an HTML page. • The <hr> element is used to separate content (or define a change) in an HTML page: .

• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1>This is heading 1</h1> • <p>This is some text.</p> • <hr> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <p>This is some other text.</p> • <hr> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <p>This is some other text.</p> • </body> • </html> .

• How to View HTML Source? • Have you ever seen a Web page and wondered "Hey! How did they do that?" • View HTML Source Code: • To find out. • Inspect an HTML Element: • Right-click on an element (or a blank area). This will open a window containing the HTML source code of the page. right-click in the page and select "View Page Source" (in Chrome) or "View Source" (in IE). and choose "Inspect" or "Inspect Element" to see what elements are made up of (you will see both the HTML and the CSS). You can also edit the HTML or CSS on-the-fly in the Elements or Styles panel that opens. . or similar in other browsers.

">I am red</p> • <p style="color:blue.">I am blue</p> • <p style="font-size:36px.">I am big</p> • </body> • </html> . HTML Style • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <p>I am normal</p> • <p style="color:red.

</p> • </body> • </html> . HTML Style • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body style="background-color:powderblue."> • <h1>This is a heading</h1> • <p>This is a paragraph.

">This is a paragraph.">This is a heading</h1> • <p style="color:red.</p> • </body> • </html> .• HTML Text Color • The color property defines the text color for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="color:blue.

</p> • </body> • </html> • .">This is a heading</h1> • <p style="font-size:160%.• HTML Fonts • The font-family property defines the font to be used for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="font-size:300%.">This is a paragraph.

</p> • </body> • </html> • .">Centered Heading</h1> • <p style="text-align:center.">Centered paragraph.• HTML Text Alignment • The text-align property defines the horizontal text alignment for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="text-align:center.

• More so because the term CLOUD is intriguing and some people even wonder how do clouds that rain can even remotely be used in Computing. and many are curious to know what cloud computing is and how it works. Cloud Computing • Cloud computing is currently the buzzword in IT industry. .

Azure. What is Cloud Computing? • Cloud Computing can be defined as delivering computing power( CPU. Network Speeds. Google Cloud . • Example: AWS. Storage OS software) a service over a network (usually on the internet) rather than physically having the computing resources at the customer location. RAM.

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• For them Cloud Computing is a cheaper solution. data storage has become a priority in all fields. • Perhaps its efficiency in storing data. It requires a strong IT support and a storage hub. computation and less maintenance cost has succeeded to attract even bigger businesses as well . • Large and small scale businesses today thrive on their data & they spent a huge amount of money to maintain this data. • Not all businesses can afford high cost of in-house IT infrastructure and back up support services. Why Cloud Computing? • With increase in computer and Mobile user’s.

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Characteristic of Cloud Computing • Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users • Improved performance • Fewer Maintenance issues • Instant software updates • Improved compatibility between Operating systems • Backup and recovery • Performance and Scalability • Increased storage capacity • Increase data safety .

Types of Clouds .

Where the computing resources can be governed. computing resources are deployed for one particular organization. an academic or business organization. computing resources are provided for a community and organizations. This method is more used for intra-business interactions. This deployment method is called hybrid cloud as the computing resources are bound together by different clouds.B2B (Business to Business) private cloud or B2C ( Business to Consumer) public . • Hybrid Cloud: This type of cloud can be used for both type of interactions . . governed and operated by government. • Public Cloud: This type of cloud is used usually for B2C (Business to Consumer) type interactions.• Private Cloud: Here. • Community Cloud: Here. Here the computing resource is owned. owned and operated by the same organization.

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What is Cloud Computing Architecture? .

Cloud Computing Architecture • Cloud computing comprises of two components front end and back end. • It comprise of interfaces and applications that are required to access the cloud computing platform. • Front end consist client part of cloud computing system. .

it comprises of the resources that are required for cloud computing services. • It consists of virtual machines. data storage. It is under providers control. security mechanism etc. Cloud Computing Architecture • While back end refers to the cloud itself. . servers.

• Data is never stored in one place only and in case one unit fails the other will take over automatically. . while another important component is algorithm for resource allocation. • The user disk space is allocated on the distributed file system. Cloud Computing Architecture • Cloud computing distributes the file system that spreads over multiple hard disks and machines.

In 1997. Deep Thought was designed at Carnegie Mellon University and IBM. This represented the first time that a machine had defeated the top human chess player. IBM came back with an improved version of Deep Blue that finally defeated Kasparov in a six game match. Vladimir Kramnik... Can a Computer Do a Lawyer's Job? • IF ROBOTS CAN PLAY CHESS. • In 1996. Garry Kasparov. It seems highly likely that. lost a match against a German software program called Deep Fritz. running on virtually any cheap laptop computer. Again Kasparov defeated the computer. • Since then. computer chess has continued to progress. will be able to defeat the best chess players in the world. the world chess champion faced off against a special computer called Deep Thought. a program like Deep Fritz. In 2006. Kasparov easily defeated the machine in a two game match. the new world chess champion. Deep Fritz is a program that runs on a computer using two standard Intel processors. While IBM's Deep Blue was a completely custom computer about the size of a refrigerator. Kasparov faced a new computer developed by IBM called Deep Blue. in the near future. • In 1989. .

But the question for us here is: will that protect us from brute force algorithms that can do our . It is using a brute force algorithm. The computer's advantage arises not from the fact that it is genuinely smart. And therefore it becomes to us something mysterious and especially creative. • Who can say what is going on in a human chess master's head when he or she plays a match? • We simply don't know. • Yet. but because it is almost unimaginably fast. • The computer is simply calculating through millions of different possible moves and then picking the best one. however. we know exactly what is happening. Could a computer formulate a strategy for an important legal case? • When we think of what it takes for a human being to be a world chess champion. creativity is a trait that we are very reluctant to ascribe to a machine--even if that machine can beat a human at chess. • In the case of the computer. degree of creativity--at least within the confines of a highly defined set of rules. • It's natural for us to give this brute force accomplishment a lower status than the creativity and precise thinking exhibited by an exceptional human being.

if ever. • They review contracts and look for loopholes. They work at law firms and spend much of their time in the library or accessing legal databases through their computers. . They research case law. They suggest possible strategies and legal arguments for new cases that come to their firms. go into a courtroom. CAN THEY PRACTICE LAW? • If you agree that the game of chess requires creativity within a set of defined rules. • These attorneys are employed in the areas of legal research and contracts. then could not something similar be said about the field of law? • Currently there are jobs in the United States for many thousands of lawyers who rarely. and write briefs which summarize relevant court cases and legal strategies from the past.

• there are already teams of lawyers who specialize in researching case in the United States. .

and then eventually evolve into a full automation solution. evaluate and summarize information. • We can expect that such smart algorithms will increasingly be used in the field of legal research. . What about automation? • Can a computer do the lawyer's job? • One of the primary research areas in artificial intelligence has focused on creating "smart" algorithms that can quickly search. • We see the fruition of this body of research every time we use Google or any other advanced Internet search engine. • The software may start out as a productivity tool to make the lawyer's job easier.

but as we saw in the case of chess. • As I pointed out with the radiologist automating even a portion of the lawyer's job will quickly result in fewer attorneys on the payroll. But would that matter to our lawyer's employer? • . finding and summarizing relevant case law would be a likely target for an initial effort. If a computer can evaluate millions of possible chess moves. then why can it not also iterate through every known legal argument since the days when Cicero held forth in the Roman Forum? Would this be a "lesser" form of legal creativity? Perhaps it would. • For example. • What about the more advanced or creative aspects of the lawyer's job? • Could a computer formulate a strategy for an important legal case? • For the time being. it is easier to automate some parts of the lawyer's job than others. this may be a challenge.• Obviously. a brute force algorithm may ultimately prevail.

which are a special type of computer that is built upon a model of the human brain. we can probably expect some important advances in this area. . it is by no means true that this is the only approach being taken in the field. • In the future. especially as the engineers who design neural nets work more closely with scientists who are uncovering the secrets of how our brains work. • A very important area of study revolves around the idea of neural nets. HUMANIZING THE ROBOT MIND • Although the practical applications of artificial intelligence have so far emphasized brute force solutions. • Neural nets are currently being used in areas such as visual pattern recognition.

he archetypal example is the Microsoft Office suite. drafting. . Productivity software.Essential Software for the Modern Law Practice • 1. creating presentations. If there is one thing lawyers universally understand. it’s that they need productivity software to do all the basic things required of desk jockeys: emailing. now gone online. building spreadsheets and databases.

but Nuance’s Power PDF is a lower-cost alternative. since most law firms still. add encryption. PDF conversion software. remove metadata and build forms. Adobe Acrobat continues to be the leader in the clubhouse. • PDF conversion software allows you to scan paper to PDF and. so you can edit it. • Free conversion tools. let’s face it — a PDF conversion program is a must- have. where necessary.• 2 . . you can then apply OCR to your scanned images — that renders the text. • Among other general features. with enterprise-level options. receive paper documents. you’ll be able to package PDFs. at least. If you want to be paperless — and who doesn’t these days. include PDFCreator and CutePDf.

including by adding client information .• 3. A document automation program allows you to customize existing templates in a number of ways. I shudder to think that there are not insignificant pockets of lawyers out there still dedicated to mail merge. Document automation/document assembly software. But clearly. there are better ways to build documents in this bright future. or worse yet. typewriters.

Document management software. Outlook). check-in/check-out features (an additional level of access control). matter management. your server). Although most document automation tools feature some level of document management control. integration with existing folder systems (Google Drive. standalone document management tools offer more robust versions of those features. labeling/tagging and global search capability (with in-depth search functionality) . or different features altogether. generally speaking. • Major features common to a number of these applications include version control. offline access/briefcase. integration with related software (Microsoft Word.• 4 .

• 6. in that it will wrap the majority of common features for law firm management into a single. billing and accounting . accessible package. Case management software (sometimes referred to as practice management software) purports to be a holistic solution. case management software includes: • Contact management (with global search for conflicts checks) • Email archive • Document management • Calendar management (with sync options for your existing email/calendar system) • Time. Case management software. Generally speaking.

you may set your mind far more at ease by using two systems in conjunction — and it probably makes sense to pair a local backup with a cloud version. • Since that’s the case. it makes good sense to back up the data you already have. Data backup tools. though.• 7. Data management is the holy grail of law firm management. Because no one system is fail-safe. .

and more robust features that will walk you through the many pathways from leads to conversions. Gaining a better understanding of how you close business will help you to close more of it. and which ones are not.• 8. Customer relationship management (CRM) software. • CRM tools allow you to better render the data you take in — assuming you take it in effectively in the first place. • If you do. including the ability to add notes to files. when you learn what tactics are successful. a CRM will provide basic contact management tools. Using data to drive marketing decisions is next-level law firm management. .

Internal communication platform. internal communication systems. • That’s what’s so vexing about unfiltered spam — you don’t have to reply. sometimes referred to as enterprise social networks. but you still have to delete it. Programs with calendaring features allow you to assign tasks and make notes on those items . The problem with email is that literally anybody can send you one. Many law firms are turning to restricted-access.• 9.

• The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act. forgery. defamation and mischief. 2000. fraud. all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. . such as theft. Cyber Law of India • Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature.

• The computer as a weapon :-using a computer to commit real world crimes.g. • e. Cyber Crime regulated by Cyber Laws or Internet Laws. IPR violations. Credit card frauds. • e. Cyber Terrorism.g. We can categorize Cyber crimes in two ways • The Computer as a Target :-using a computer to attack other computers. DOS attack etc. Hacking. EFT frauds. Virus/Worm attacks. . Pornography etc.

• TechnicalAspects Technological advancements have created new possibilities for criminal activity. in particular the criminal misuse of information technologies such as .

• Unauthorized access would therefore mean any kind of access without the permission of either the rightful owner or the person in charge of a computer. arithmetical. instructing or communicating with the logical. computer system or computer network. or memory function resources of a computer. Unauthorized access & Hacking:- • Access means gaining entry into. computer system or computer network .

transferring money from various bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money. • They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. • Some hackers hack for personal monetary gains.• Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking. • Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. such as to stealing the credit card information. .

. • The name Trojan Horse is popular. • Trojans come in two parts. a Client part and a Server part. the attacker will then use the Client to connect to the Server and start using the trojan. The programs of this kind are called as Trojans. Trojan Attack:- • The program that act like something useful but do the things that are quiet damping. When the victim (unknowingly) runs the server on its machine.

Virus and Worm attack:- • A program that has capability to infect other programs and make copies of itself and spread into other programs is called virus. . • Programs that multiply like viruses but spread from computer to computer are called as worms.

Trojans etc through emails as an attachment or by sending a link of website which on visiting downloads malicious code. • 5. • 3 Sending malicious codes through email • E-mails are used to send viruses. Email spoofing • Email spoofing refers to email that appears to have been originated from one source when it was actually sent from another source. E-mail & IRC related crimes:- • 1. Email Spamming • Email "spamming" refers to sending email to thousands and thousands of users . Sending threatening emails • 6. • 4. Email bombing • E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address. • 2. Email frauds . Defamatory emails • 7.similar to a chain letter.

. Denial of Service attacks:- • Flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle. thereby preventing legitimate network traffic • attempts to disrupt connections between two machines. This causes the resource to crash thereby denying access of service to authorized users. • Examples include • attempts to "flood" a network. thereby preventing access to a service • attempts to prevent a particular individual from accessing a service • attempts to disrupt service to a specific system or person.

films. etc.There are more than 420 million individual pornographic webpages today. in addition to text and images. • Pornography delivered over mobile phones is now a burgeoning business. “driven by the increase in sophisticated services that deliver video clips and streaming video. photos. • Adult entertainment is largest industry on internet.” • This would include pornographic websites. Pornography • The literal mining of the term 'Pornography' is “describing or showing sexual acts in order to cause sexual excitement through books. This indicates that abusive images of children over Internet have been highly commercialized. • Research shows that 50% of the web-sites containing potentially illegal contents relating to child abuse were ‘Pay-Per-View’. pictures. writings etc. pornographic material produced using computers and use of internet to download and transmit pornographic videos.” .

power plants. Cyber Terrorism:- • Targeted attacks on military installations. telecommunication networks are the most likely targets. • Cyberterrorism is an attractive option for modern terrorists for several reasons. • 4.Cyberterrorism can be conducted remotely. medical. . • 1. trail traffic control.The variety and number of targets are enormous. • 5.It is cheaper than traditional terrorist methods. Others like police.Cyberterrorism is more anonymous than traditional terrorist methods. • 2. fire and rescue systems etc. • 3. banks.Cyberterrorism has the potential to affect directly a larger number of people. a feature that is especially appealing to terrorists. air traffic control.

• Use of stolen card information or fake credit/debit cards are common. Internet hackers are continually looking for opportunities to compromise a company’s security in order to gain access to confidential banking and financial information. Banking/Credit card Related crimes:- • In the corporate world. • Bank employee can grab money using programs to deduce small amount of money from all customer accounts and adding it to own account also called as salami. .

. Online gambling:- • There are millions of websites hosted on servers abroad. it is believed that many of these websites are actually fronts for money laundering. that offer online gambling. In fact.

. the harasser intends to cause emotional distress and has no legitimate purpose to his communications. • In general. entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim. constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Cyber Stacking:- • Cyber stalking involves following a persons movements across the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim.

. • Identity theft is a vehicle for perpetrating other types of fraud schemes.• . Identity Theft :- Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in countries like America. • Identity theft occurs when someone appropriates another's personal information without their knowledge to commit theft or fraud.

financial status etc. Breach of Privacy and Confidentiality • Privacy • Privacy refers to the right of an individual/s to determine when. • . • u. how and to what extent his or her personal data will be shared with others. some part(s) of a computer or a peripheral attached to the computer. such information should be protected.• Theft of computer system (Hardware):- • This type of offence involves the theft of a computer. • v. • Confidentiality • It means non disclosure of information to unauthorized or unwanted persons. Physically damaging a computer system:- • Physically damaging a computer or its peripherals either by shock. • In addition to Personal information some other type of information which useful for business and leakage of such information to other persons may cause damage to business or person. fire or excess electric supply etc. sexual preferences. • Breach of privacy means unauthorized use or distribution or disclosure of personal information like medical records.