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Basic Structure of Computers

Functional Units

Arithmetic
Input and
logic

Memory

Output Control

I/O Processor

Figure 1.1. Basic functional units of a computer.

Information Handled by a Computer
• Instructions/machine instructions
 Govern the transfer of information within a computer as well
as between the computer and its I/O devices
 Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed
 Program
• Data
 Used as operands by the instructions
 Source program
• Encoded in binary code – 0 and 1

Memory Unit • Store programs and data • Two classes of storage  Primary storage  Fast  Programs must be stored in memory while they are being executed  Large number of semiconductor storage cells  Processed in words  Address  RAM and memory access time  Memory hierarchy – cache. main memory  Secondary storage – larger and cheaper .

• Load the operands into memory – bring them to the processor – perform operation in ALU – store the result back to memory or retain in the processor. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) • Most computer operations are executed in ALU of the processor. • Registers • Fast control of ALU .

into an ALU. • Control unit is usually distributed throughout the machine instead of standing alone. where the information is processed  Output the processed information through an output unit  Control all activities inside the machine through a control unit . • The timing signals that govern the I/O transfers are also generated by the control unit. Control Unit • All computer operations are controlled by the control unit. under program control. • Operations of a computer:  Accept information in the form of programs and data through an input unit and store it in the memory  Fetch the information stored in the memory.

256MB • Memory sizes: – Kilobyte (KB) = 210 = 1. = 0.000000001 sec.741. Memory Size / Speed • Typical memory in a personal computer (PC): – 64MB .048.) • RAM is – volatile (can only store when power is on) – relatively expensive CMPUT101 Introduction to (c) Yngvi Bjornsson 8 Computing .576 bytes ~ 1 million – Gigabyte (GB) = 230 = 1.824 bytes ~ 1 billion • Memory Access Time (read from/ write to memory) – 50-75 nanoseconds (1 nsec.024 bytes ~ 1 thousand – Megabyte(MB) = 220 = 1.073.

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hardware and software. Software is a set of instructions for a computer to perform specific operation .  Computer software. on the other hand. is not something you can touch.  Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch.  A computer system consists of two major elements: hardware and software.

” • Software is also called Program. Hammad Waseem 11 . • Different software's are used to solve different problems.” • “Software is a single/collection of programs that performs a particular task. Software • “A set of instructions given to the computer to solve a problem is called Software. M.

Types Of Software • There are two types of software on the basis of their functionality: – System Software – Application Software M. Hammad Waseem 12 .

• Application Software is created to perform specific tasks for a user. Hammad Waseem 13 . • It is also known as application package. M. • Application software is used to perform various applications on the computer. Application Software • Application Software includes programs that do real work for user.

Hammad Waseem 14 . Examples – Microsoft Word – Microsoft Excel – Lotus 123 – Photoshop etc M.

M. lease . Hammad Waseem 15 . or license to the general public. Packaged Software • Packaged Software is a Software that is ready-made and available for sale. Custom software • Custom software (also known as bespoke software or tailor made software's) is software that is specially developed for some specific organization or other user.

Hammad Waseem 16 . System Software • System Software is set of programs to control and manage the operations of a computer hardware. • It enables application programs to execute properly. • It consists of the basic operations as follows: – Saving data on disk – Making computer to work for us – Printing a document etc. M.

Examples • Examples of System Software's are: – Operating Systems – Utility Programs – Device Drivers M. Hammad Waseem 17 .

Operating System (OS)
• An operating system (OS) is a collection
of software that manages computer
hardware resources and provides
common services for computer
programs.
• The operating system is a vital component of
the system software in a computer system.
• Application programs usually require an
operating system to function.

Device Driver
• A Device Driver is a computer
program that operates or controls a
particular type of device that is attached to
a computer.
– Like printers

RAM versus ROM comparison chart
RAM ROM
Random Access Memory or RAM is a Read-only memory or ROM is also a
form of data storage that can be form of data storage that can not be
accessed randomly at any time, in any easily altered or reprogrammed.Stores
order and from any physical location., instuctions that are not nescesary for
allowing quick access and re-booting up to make the computer
manipulation. operate when it is switched off.They
are hardwired.

RAM allows the computer to ROM stores the program required to
read data quickly to run applications. It initially boot the computer. It only

RAM is volatile i.e. its contents are lost It is non-volatile i.e. its contents are
when the device is powered off. retained even when the device is
powered off.
The two main types of RAM are static The types of ROM include PROM,
RAM and dynamic RAM. EPROM and EEPROM.

Compiler Interpreter Compiler Interpreter 1 Takes Entire program as Takes Single instruction input as input . .

They are build into the circuitry of a device and are not loaded from a disk drive. In short OS is the computer’s master control program.USING OPERATING SYSTEM: The OS is an example of system software. Types of operating system: Operating system can be organized into four types. The OS provides you with the tool that enables you to Interact with the PC. Real-time operating system A real time operating system is a very fast. Real-time operating system 2. Multi-user/multitasking operating system 1. Single-user/multitasking operating system 4. Single-user/single-tasking operating system 3. A real time OS is needed to run real time application .software that controls the system’s hardware and that interacts with the user and application software. relatively small OS. 1.

UNIX. In a Multi-user/multitasking operating system environment. A disadvantages is that if the network connection to the server is Broken. VMS.4. Multi-user/multitasking operating system:  A Multi-user/multitasking operating system is an operating system that allows multiple users to use programs that are simultaneously running on a single network server. Ex. the user can not do any work in the application of server. . and mainframe operating system such as MVS. The advantage of these operating system is that they can be managed by simply making changes to one server rather than to many desktop computer. all or most of the computing occurs at the server.

000 (109) bytes Terrabyte 1.000. 3-26 .000.000.024 bytes.000 (1012) bytes * This number is an approximation. 2000 by Prentice Hall.000 (103) bytes* Megabyte (MB) 1.000 (106) bytes Gigabyte (GB) 1.000.000.000. The exact value is 1.Size and Time Units for Computers Unit Amount of Memory Byte 8 bits Kilobyte (kB) 1.

The Five Computer Components The central processor Secondary storage Input devices Output devices Communication devices 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-27 .

The Central Processor • The central processor consists of two parts – The central processing unit (CPU) • Arithmetic-log unit (ALU) • The control unit – Primary storage • Random access memory (RAM) • Read-only memory (ROM) • Cache memory 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-28 .

3-29 . Secondary Storage • There are two main types of secondary storage – Sequential • Magnetic tape – Direct access • Magnetic disks • Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) • CD-ROM • Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) 2000 by Prentice Hall.

3-30 . Input Devices • Input devices are the devices through which a computer accepts data – Touch screens – Voice-recognition systems – Optical character reader (OCR) 2000 by Prentice Hall.

Output Devices

• An output device is any device that helps
the user to view the output of the
computer
– Computer screen (video display terminal)
– Printers

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-31

Features of the Three Types of Printers

Type of Printer Features

Dot Matrix Cheapest type of printer. Uses pins to press on a
ribbon to make characters. Noisiest type of printer.
Higher-quality output than the dot matrix. Uses a
Inkjet nozzle to spray ink onto a page. Produces about 2 to 8
ppm. Can print documents in color. Quieter than a dot
matrix printer, but more expensive to operate.
Highest-quality output, comparable to magazine
output. Quietest printer. Typically the most expensive
Laser printer. Produces 4 to 16 ppm or more.

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-32

Communication Devices

• Devices that allow users separated by
distance and time to exchange
documents, files, graphics, and other
digital information.

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-33

Computers That Support Different Work-
group Sizes

Personal Information Enterprise-wide
Work-group Systems
Systems Systems

• PCs
• Midrange or
• Laptops/Notebooks • Supercomputers
Minicomputers
• Hand-held Computers • Mainframes
• Workstations
• Pen-based Computers

2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-34

Supercomputers • Some of the fastest and largest computers available today are supercomputers • Supercomputers have two common characteristics – The ability to process instructions in parallel (parallel processing) – The ability to automatically recover from failures (fault tolerance) 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-35 .

financial applications. investment analysis. operate. and maintain 2000 by Prentice Hall. and other applications that require extensive computations • Many users can simultaneously use the mainframe • One large disadvantage of the mainframe is that it is expensive to purchase. Mainframes • Mainframes are frequently enterprise-wide systems and are ideal for transaction processing. 3-36 . payroll.

3-37 . Midrange. they are workhorses that can deliver excellent “bang for the buck” • Workstations lie somewhere between midrange and personal computers – They can be used by individuals or groups – They are faster and more sophisticated than PCs – They include numerous productivity tools that increase efficiency 2000 by Prentice Hall.or Minicomputers. and Workstations • Although midrange computers are slower and often have less memory than mainframes.

Network Computers • The network computer. also known as “thin clients” is a simplified version of a personal computer – They are used mainly to access programs that reside on a company’s network or on the Internet • Network computers are well suited for task-oriented jobs. 3-38 . order entry. such as data entry. but they rely heavily on network traffic and can cause bottlenecks 2000 by Prentice Hall. and assembly line work • Network computers function by downloading all applications from a central computer and obtaining and storing all data back on the central computer • Network computers can offer cost efficiencies.

3-39 . Microcomputers or Personal Computers (PCs) • The memory size and processing capabilities of microcomputers are less than mainframes and midrange computers • However. hardware technology advances have made the PC a compact and powerful machine • A PC can be configured to meet the specific needs of users 2000 by Prentice Hall.

and Pen-based • These computers are battery operated so they can be used anytime. Notebooks. Handheld. 3-40 . anywhere • The portability of notebook and handheld computers has increased the productivity of many employees 2000 by Prentice Hall. Mobile Computers: Laptops.

Has a built-in monitor that Handheld can be operated from the palm of one’s hand so the keyboard and screen are smaller than a laptop. Uses an electronic writing pad and a light-sensitive electronic pen to Pen-based input data. Can download text. the keyboard requires an electronic pen to input data. Smaller than a laptop or notebook computer. Often. users input information on the LCD watch face that turns into a small keyboard. Has full PC functionality with a reduced keypad and screen. Has full PC functionality with a reduced keypad and screen and no floppy Notebook drive. 3-41 . 2000 by Prentice Hall. and other applications from PCs and transmit Wrist data via infrared rays. Has a floppy drive. A Comparison of Types of Mobile Computers Type Description Laptop Fits on a user’s lap and is slightly larger than a notebook. photos.

Six Technical Considerations in Buying a PC Clock Monitors Speed Processor RAM Expansion Secondary Slots Storage 2000 by Prentice Hall. 3-42 .

Business Guidelines for Hardware Success • Cost Is Only Part of the Story – Many benefits resulting from information systems are intangible and tough to measure • increased productivity • improved decision making • faster customer service • Don’t Compromise on Capacity and Reliability – The motto “If it ain’t broke. 3-43 . don’t fix it” does not apply to hardware capacity and reliability 2000 by Prentice Hall.

16 8 4 2 1. Binary number systems • 2 1. goes on .4 2 1.8 4 2 1.

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microwaves.What is a Computer Network?  Collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology is called computer network. fiber optics. . infrared or satellite.  Two computers are set to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information.  Connection can be through a copper wire.

CATEGORIES OF NETWORKS .

. campus etc. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a collection of networking equipment located geographically close together. Single room.  Upper limit: 10 km .  Designed to share resources between PCs and workstation such as hardware or data. E.  Data transferred in High speed which ranges from 100 Mbps to gigabit for system development and have a low implementation cost.g. Lower limit: 1 km  Twisted pair cable or Co-axial cable connects the plug in cards to form a network.

A work to internet connections would most likely require broadcast network (LAN) with a connection to the internet (packet switched network) .

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rather than just one user in the case of a stand-alone machine. . resources and network services. • Increased information exchange between different departments in an organization. • If the file server develops a serious fault. • Special security measures are needed to stop users from using programs and data that they should not have access to. all the users are affected. • Networks are difficult to set up and need to be maintained by skilled technicians.• Cost reductions through sharing of information and databases. • The trend to automate communication and manufacturing process. or between individuals.

 There are three topologies of LAN Network Ring Topology Bus Topology LAN Topologies Star Topology .

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Bus A MAN Bus B .  A MAN uses distributed queue dual bus.  Range: Within 100 km (a city). The metropolitan area network (MAN) is designed to extend over an entire city.  It may be a single network such as cable television network available in many cities.

another. secure from hackers and  A Man usually encompasses industrial espionage (spying) several blocks of a city or an graphical regions. . entire city. It provides a good back bone for  More cable required for a MAN a large network and provides connection from one place to greater access to WANs.  The dual bus used in MAN helps the transmission of data in both  It is difficult to make the system direction simultaneously.

a continent. . image and video information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country.• Network that provides long distance transmission of data. • Range: Beyond 100 km. voice.

•Setting up a network can be an expensive. by all the computers on the network Protection against hackers and viruses adds without having to buy a different peripheral more complexity and expense. sounds. for each computer. maintaining a network is a anyone else on the network. attachments). . The bigger the connecting workstations. •Everyone on the network can use the same data. •Messages can be sent very quickly to •Once set up. •Shares software and resources with slow and complicated. network the more expensive it is. or supervisors and technicians to be data included with them (called employed. This avoids problems where some users may have older information than others. These full-time job which requires network messages can have pictures. •Security is a real issue when many •Expensive things (such as printers or different people have the ability to use phone lines to the internet) can be shared information from other computers.•Covers a large geographical area so long •Need a good firewall to restrict outsiders distance businesses can connect on the from entering and disrupting the network one network.

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•ISDN ( Integrated service digital network) 2 types Basic rate interface Primary rate interface •Frame relay •Switched multimegabit data service (SMDS) •Synchronous optical network (SONET) •High data link controlled (HDLC) •Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) .

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Cost cheaper costly expensive Equipment NIC. communications. Range is Beyond 100 10 km Range is100 km km Media Used Uses guided media Uses guided as well as Uses unguided media unguided media Speed A high speed i. Token ring asynchronous transfer mode(ATM) . Range is 1 to broadcasting networks. FDDI. radio. switch and hub Modem and router Microwave. SMDS network (ARCNET). BASIS LAN MAN WAN Full Form Local Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network Range A communication network This network shares the A communication network linking a number of stations in characteristics of packet distinguished from a Local Area same local area. which may or may not be provided by public packet network.e. infra-red needed laser protocols Attached Resource computer Frame relay and ATM. Network. 100kbps to Optimized for a large Long distance 100mbps geographical area than LAN.

Routers • Routers are small electronic devices that join multiple computer networks together via either wired or wireless connections. • .

Router .

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• In the case of the high-speed digital modems popular today. • In the case of transmission over an analog telephone line. • . which was once the most popular way to access the internet. the modem converts data between analog and digital formats in real time for two-way network communication. modem • A modem is a hardware device that allows a computer to send and receive data over a telephone line or a cable or satellite connection. the signal is much simpler and doesn't require the analog-to- digital conversion.

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hub • Hub is the most basic networking device that connects multiplecomputers or other network devices together .

hub .

switch
• A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub,
officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that
connects devices together on a computernetwork by using
packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the
destination device.

Internet
• It is a worldwide/global system of
interconnected computer networks. It uses the
standard Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Every computer
in Internet is identified by a unique IP address. IP
Address is a unique set of numbers (such as
110.22.33.114) which identifies a computer’s
location.
• A special computer DNS (Domain Name Server) is
used to provide a name to the IP Address so that
the user can locate a computer by a name. For
example, a DNS server will resolve a
name https://www.google.com to a particular IP
address to uniquely identify the computer on which
this website is hosted

PCs in intranet are not available to the world outside the intranet. Intranet • Intranet is the system in which multiple PCs are connected to each other. . Usually each organization has its own Intranet network and members/employees of that organization can access the computers in their intranet.

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Later. on January 19. . rather than using only text via the command line.  Below is a picture of the Windows 7 Desktop and an example of a GUI. the first commercially available computer.  The GUI was first developed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay. GUI  Graphical User Interface. all versions of Microsoft Windows utilize a GUI. Apple introduced the Lisa computer. Douglas Engelbart. and a group of other researchers in 1981. a GUI (pronounced as either G-U-I or gooey) allows the use of icons or other visual indicators to interact with electronic devices. whereas MS-DOS does not. 1983.  For example.

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such as opening. • Although many GUI operating systems are navigated through the use of a mouse. the keyboard can also be utilized by using keyboard shortcuts or arrow keys. . icons. and menus to carry out commands. and moving files. deleting. How does a GUI work? • A GUI uses windows.

users do not need to know any programming languages. • Additionally. GUI operating systems have become the dominant operating system used by today's end-users. What are the benefits of GUI? • Unlike a command line operating system or CUI. • GUI operating systems are much easier to learn and use because commands do not need to be memorized. . • Because of their ease of use. like Unix or MS-DOS.

What are examples of a GUI operating system? • Microsoft Windows • Apple System 7 and macOS • Chrome OS • Linux variants like Ubuntu • How does the user interact with a GUI? • Typically the user uses a pointing device such as the mouse to interact and use most aspects of the GUI. . it is also possible to interact with a GUI using a keyboard or other input device. However.

Firefox) .e. Outlook) • Internet browser (i.• Are all operating systems GUI? • No. Early command line operating systems like MS- DOS and even some versions of Linuxtoday have no GUI interface. Excel.e. Word. • What are examples of a GUI interface? • GNOME • KDE • Any Microsoft program (i. Chrome. Internet Explorer.

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Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux.Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently.An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time.• Multi-user . Windows XP • Multitasking . Unix. See the multi-user definition for a complete definition. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux. Windows 2000 • Multiprocessing . Unix. Windows 8 • Multithreading . Unix.A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times. Windows XP . Unix. Examples of operating systems that would fall into this category are: • Linux.An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor.

Memory hirerachy .

floating-point) • File access pointer(s) • Memory (perhaps?) . • What must get saved? Everything that the next process could or will damage. the operating system saves the state of the active process and restores the state of the new process. For example: • Program counter (PC) • Program status word (PSW) • CPU registers (general purpose. Context switching • When an event occurs. • This mechanism is called a Context Switch.

• The components of a process are: – the program to be executed. . – the resources required by the program—such as memory and file(s)—and – the status of the execution. Process • A process is a program in execution. – the data on which the program will execute.

• Resident monitor – initial control in monitor – control transfers to job – when job completes control transfers pack to monitor CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 89 . First rudimentary operating system. Mainframe Systems • Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs • Automatic job sequencing – automatically transfers control from one job to another.

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 90 .

Multi . CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 91 .programmed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time. and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

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CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 93 . • CPU scheduling – the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. • Allocation of devices. OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming • I/O routine supplied by the system. • Memory management – the system must allocate the memory to several jobs.

• On-line system must be available for users to access data and code. it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard. when the operating system finishes the execution of one command. Time-Sharing Systems–Interactive Computing • The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 94 . • On-line communication between the user and the system is provided. • A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk.

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• I/O devices – keyboards. mice. • User convenience and responsiveness. Desktop Systems • Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a single user. display screens. Linux) CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 96 . • Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system’ often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. MacOS. small printers. UNIX. • May run several different types of operating systems (Windows.

Parallel Systems
• Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU
in close communication.
• Tightly coupled system – processors share
memory and a clock; communication usually
takes place through the shared memory.
– Increased throughput
– Economical
– Increased reliability
• fail-soft systems

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
97

Parallel Systems (Cont.)
• Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
– Each processor runs and identical copy of the
operating system.
– Many processes can run at once without
performance deterioration.
– Most modern operating systems support SMP
• Asymmetric multiprocessing
– Each processor is assigned a specific task; master
processor schedules and allocated work to slave
processors.
– More common in extremely large systems

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
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Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture

CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I
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Server
• A server is a computer program that provides
services to other computer programs (and
their users) in the same or other computers.

• The computer that a server program runs in is
also frequently referred to as a server. That
machine may be a dedicated server or used
for other purposes as well.

• The Web browser in your computer is a client that requests HTML files from Web servers. • A Web client is the requesting program associated with the user. • A Web server. Server • Servers are often categorized in terms of their purpose. . for example. is a computer program that serves requested HTML pages or files.

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such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. processors communicate with one another through various communications lines. Distributed Systems • Distribute the computation among several physical processors. – Resources Sharing – Computation speed up – load sharing – Reliability – Communications CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 103 . • Advantages of distributed systems. • Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory.

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• Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) • May be either client-server or peer-to- peer systems. Distributed Systems (cont) • Requires networking infrastructure. CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 105 .

. Client server systems • Client-server is a software architecture model consisting of two parts. client systems and server systems. both communicating over a computer network or on the same computer. • A client server application is a distributed system made up of both client and server software.

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General Structure of Client-Server CS1252-OPERATING SYSTEM UNIT I 108 .

Clustered Systems • Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. • Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application. • Provides high reliability. • Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby. .

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• Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments. medical imaging systems. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time. • Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time. industrial control systems. Real-Time Systems • A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in. typically without buffer delays. • Well-defined fixed-time constraints. and some display systems. .

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"table". • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language • HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup • HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages • HTML elements are represented by tags • HTML tags label pieces of content such as "heading". "paragraph". but use them to render the content of the page . and so on • Browsers do not display the HTML tags. What is HTML? • HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages.

A Simple HTML Document • Example • <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.</p> </body> </html> .

Example Explained • The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines this document to be HTML5 • The <html> element is the root element of an HTML page • The <head> element contains meta information about the document • The <title> element specifies a title for the document • The <body> element contains the visible page content • The <h1> element defines a large heading • The <p> element defines a paragraph .

HTML Tags • HTML tags are element names surrounded by angle brackets: • <tagname>content goes here... the second tag is the end tag • The end tag is written like the start tag.</tagname> • HTML tags normally come in pairs like <p> and </p> • The first tag in a pair is the start tag. but with a forward slash inserted before the tag name .

Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them. • The browser does not display the HTML tags. but uses them to determine how to display the document: . Web Browsers • The purpose of a web browser (Chrome. IE. Firefox.

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• . HTML Page Structure • Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:Note: Only the content inside the <body> section (the white area above) is displayed in a browser.

at the top of the page (before any HTML tags). and helps browsers to display web pages correctly. • The <!DOCTYPE> declaration for HTML5 is: • <!DOCTYPE html> . • It must only appear once. The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration • The <!DOCTYPE> declaration represents the document type. • The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive.

0 1995 Since the early days of the web. Version Year HTML 1991 HTML Versions HTML 2.2 1997 HTML 4.01 1999 XHTML 2000 HTML5 2014 . there have been many versions of HTML: HTML 3.

Write HTML Using Notepad or TextEdit • Web pages can be created and modified by using professional HTML editors. . • We believe using a simple text editor is a good way to learn HTML. • However. • Follow the four steps below to create your first web page with Notepad or TextEdit. for learning HTML we recommend a simple text editor like Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac).

Type Notepad. Step 1: Open Notepad (PC) • Windows 8 or later: • Open the Start Screen (the window symbol at the bottom left on your screen). • Windows 7 or earlier: • Open Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad .

Step 2: Write Some HTML • Write or copy some HTML into Notepad.</p> </body> </html> . • <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph.

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• You can use either . it is up to you. There is no difference. Step 3: Save the HTML Page • Save the file on your computer. • .htm" and set the encoding to UTF-8 (which is the preferred encoding for HTML files).html as file extension. Select File > Save as in the Notepad menu.htm or . • Name the file "index.

Step 4: View the HTML Page in Your Browser • Open the saved HTML file in your favorite browser (double click on the file. • The result will look much like this: .and choose "Open with"). or right-click .

<h6> defines the least important heading: . • <h1> defines the most important heading. HTML Headings • HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.

• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1>This is heading 1</h1> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <h3>This is heading 3</h3> • <h4>This is heading 4</h4> • <h5>This is heading 5</h5> • <h6>This is heading 6</h6> • </body> • </html> .

• HTML Paragraphs • HTML paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <p>This is a paragraph.</p> • </body> • </html> .</p> • <p>This is another paragraph.

• HTML Links • HTML links are defined with the <a> tag: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <a href="https://www.com">This is a link</a> • </body> • </html> .w3schools.

com" width="104" height="142"> • </body> • </html> . and height are provided as attributes: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <img src="w3schools.• HTML Images • HTML images are defined with the <img> tag. • The source file (src).jpg" alt="W3Schools. width. alternative text (alt).

• The title Attribute • Here. The value of the title attribute will be displayed as a tooltip when you mouse over the paragraph: . a title attribute is added to the <p> element.

• </p> • </body> • </html> .• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h2>The title attribute</h2> • <p title="I'm a tooltip"> • Mouse over this paragraph. to display the title attribute as a tooltip.

• The <hr> element is used to separate content (or define a change) in an HTML page: . and is most often displayed as a horizontal rule.• HTML Horizontal Rules • The <hr> tag defines a thematic break in an HTML page.

</p> • <hr> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <p>This is some other text.</p> • <hr> • <h2>This is heading 2</h2> • <p>This is some other text.</p> • </body> • </html> .• <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1>This is heading 1</h1> • <p>This is some text.

• Inspect an HTML Element: • Right-click on an element (or a blank area). You can also edit the HTML or CSS on-the-fly in the Elements or Styles panel that opens. and choose "Inspect" or "Inspect Element" to see what elements are made up of (you will see both the HTML and the CSS). . or similar in other browsers.• How to View HTML Source? • Have you ever seen a Web page and wondered "Hey! How did they do that?" • View HTML Source Code: • To find out. This will open a window containing the HTML source code of the page. right-click in the page and select "View Page Source" (in Chrome) or "View Source" (in IE).

">I am red</p> • <p style="color:blue.">I am blue</p> • <p style="font-size:36px.">I am big</p> • </body> • </html> . HTML Style • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <p>I am normal</p> • <p style="color:red.

</p> • </body> • </html> ."> • <h1>This is a heading</h1> • <p>This is a paragraph. HTML Style • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body style="background-color:powderblue.

">This is a paragraph.</p> • </body> • </html> .">This is a heading</h1> • <p style="color:red.• HTML Text Color • The color property defines the text color for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="color:blue.

">This is a heading</h1> • <p style="font-size:160%.• HTML Fonts • The font-family property defines the font to be used for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="font-size:300%.</p> • </body> • </html> • .">This is a paragraph.

• HTML Text Alignment • The text-align property defines the horizontal text alignment for an HTML element: • <!DOCTYPE html> • <html> • <body> • <h1 style="text-align:center.">Centered Heading</h1> • <p style="text-align:center.</p> • </body> • </html> • .">Centered paragraph.

. • More so because the term CLOUD is intriguing and some people even wonder how do clouds that rain can even remotely be used in Computing. Cloud Computing • Cloud computing is currently the buzzword in IT industry. and many are curious to know what cloud computing is and how it works.

Storage OS software) a service over a network (usually on the internet) rather than physically having the computing resources at the customer location. Network Speeds. RAM. What is Cloud Computing? • Cloud Computing can be defined as delivering computing power( CPU. Azure. Google Cloud . • Example: AWS.

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Why Cloud Computing? • With increase in computer and Mobile user’s. • For them Cloud Computing is a cheaper solution. • Perhaps its efficiency in storing data. • Large and small scale businesses today thrive on their data & they spent a huge amount of money to maintain this data. • Not all businesses can afford high cost of in-house IT infrastructure and back up support services. data storage has become a priority in all fields. It requires a strong IT support and a storage hub. computation and less maintenance cost has succeeded to attract even bigger businesses as well .

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Characteristic of Cloud Computing • Lower IT infrastructure and computer costs for users • Improved performance • Fewer Maintenance issues • Instant software updates • Improved compatibility between Operating systems • Backup and recovery • Performance and Scalability • Increased storage capacity • Increase data safety .

Types of Clouds .

• Hybrid Cloud: This type of cloud can be used for both type of interactions . computing resources are deployed for one particular organization. owned and operated by the same organization.• Private Cloud: Here. governed and operated by government. • Community Cloud: Here. This method is more used for intra-business interactions. Here the computing resource is owned. Where the computing resources can be governed.B2B (Business to Business) private cloud or B2C ( Business to Consumer) public . This deployment method is called hybrid cloud as the computing resources are bound together by different clouds. . an academic or business organization. computing resources are provided for a community and organizations. • Public Cloud: This type of cloud is used usually for B2C (Business to Consumer) type interactions.

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What is Cloud Computing Architecture? .

• It comprise of interfaces and applications that are required to access the cloud computing platform. . Cloud Computing Architecture • Cloud computing comprises of two components front end and back end. • Front end consist client part of cloud computing system.

security mechanism etc. it comprises of the resources that are required for cloud computing services. servers. data storage. Cloud Computing Architecture • While back end refers to the cloud itself. It is under providers control. • It consists of virtual machines. .

• The user disk space is allocated on the distributed file system. . Cloud Computing Architecture • Cloud computing distributes the file system that spreads over multiple hard disks and machines. • Data is never stored in one place only and in case one unit fails the other will take over automatically. while another important component is algorithm for resource allocation.

It seems highly likely that. This represented the first time that a machine had defeated the top human chess player. Again Kasparov defeated the computer. the new world chess champion. will be able to defeat the best chess players in the world. a program like Deep Fritz.. computer chess has continued to progress. Garry Kasparov. the world chess champion faced off against a special computer called Deep Thought. Deep Thought was designed at Carnegie Mellon University and IBM. • In 1989. Can a Computer Do a Lawyer's Job? • IF ROBOTS CAN PLAY CHESS. in the near future. IBM came back with an improved version of Deep Blue that finally defeated Kasparov in a six game match. • In 1996. Kasparov easily defeated the machine in a two game match.. Vladimir Kramnik. running on virtually any cheap laptop computer. Deep Fritz is a program that runs on a computer using two standard Intel processors. While IBM's Deep Blue was a completely custom computer about the size of a refrigerator. lost a match against a German software program called Deep Fritz. . In 1997. In 2006. • Since then. Kasparov faced a new computer developed by IBM called Deep Blue.

but because it is almost unimaginably fast. It is using a brute force algorithm. • In the case of the computer. however. Could a computer formulate a strategy for an important legal case? • When we think of what it takes for a human being to be a world chess champion. creativity is a trait that we are very reluctant to ascribe to a machine--even if that machine can beat a human at chess. degree of creativity--at least within the confines of a highly defined set of rules. • Yet. • It's natural for us to give this brute force accomplishment a lower status than the creativity and precise thinking exhibited by an exceptional human being. The computer's advantage arises not from the fact that it is genuinely smart. And therefore it becomes to us something mysterious and especially creative. • The computer is simply calculating through millions of different possible moves and then picking the best one. But the question for us here is: will that protect us from brute force algorithms that can do our . we know exactly what is happening. • Who can say what is going on in a human chess master's head when he or she plays a match? • We simply don't know.

• These attorneys are employed in the areas of legal research and contracts. if ever. • They review contracts and look for loopholes. They work at law firms and spend much of their time in the library or accessing legal databases through their computers. CAN THEY PRACTICE LAW? • If you agree that the game of chess requires creativity within a set of defined rules. and write briefs which summarize relevant court cases and legal strategies from the past. then could not something similar be said about the field of law? • Currently there are jobs in the United States for many thousands of lawyers who rarely. . They suggest possible strategies and legal arguments for new cases that come to their firms. go into a courtroom. They research case law.

• there are already teams of lawyers who specialize in researching case in the United States. .

and then eventually evolve into a full automation solution. • The software may start out as a productivity tool to make the lawyer's job easier. • We can expect that such smart algorithms will increasingly be used in the field of legal research. evaluate and summarize information. . • We see the fruition of this body of research every time we use Google or any other advanced Internet search engine. What about automation? • Can a computer do the lawyer's job? • One of the primary research areas in artificial intelligence has focused on creating "smart" algorithms that can quickly search.

• What about the more advanced or creative aspects of the lawyer's job? • Could a computer formulate a strategy for an important legal case? • For the time being. If a computer can evaluate millions of possible chess moves. finding and summarizing relevant case law would be a likely target for an initial effort. this may be a challenge. it is easier to automate some parts of the lawyer's job than others. But would that matter to our lawyer's employer? • . • As I pointed out with the radiologist automating even a portion of the lawyer's job will quickly result in fewer attorneys on the payroll. but as we saw in the case of chess. • For example.• Obviously. then why can it not also iterate through every known legal argument since the days when Cicero held forth in the Roman Forum? Would this be a "lesser" form of legal creativity? Perhaps it would. a brute force algorithm may ultimately prevail.

• Neural nets are currently being used in areas such as visual pattern recognition. . • In the future. which are a special type of computer that is built upon a model of the human brain. HUMANIZING THE ROBOT MIND • Although the practical applications of artificial intelligence have so far emphasized brute force solutions. it is by no means true that this is the only approach being taken in the field. especially as the engineers who design neural nets work more closely with scientists who are uncovering the secrets of how our brains work. • A very important area of study revolves around the idea of neural nets. we can probably expect some important advances in this area.

Essential Software for the Modern Law Practice • 1. building spreadsheets and databases. Productivity software. If there is one thing lawyers universally understand. now gone online. he archetypal example is the Microsoft Office suite. . it’s that they need productivity software to do all the basic things required of desk jockeys: emailing. drafting. creating presentations.

let’s face it — a PDF conversion program is a must- have. PDF conversion software. remove metadata and build forms. you’ll be able to package PDFs. • PDF conversion software allows you to scan paper to PDF and. receive paper documents. at least. If you want to be paperless — and who doesn’t these days. • Among other general features. you can then apply OCR to your scanned images — that renders the text. so you can edit it. • Free conversion tools. add encryption.• 2 . with enterprise-level options. . but Nuance’s Power PDF is a lower-cost alternative. since most law firms still. where necessary. Adobe Acrobat continues to be the leader in the clubhouse. include PDFCreator and CutePDf.

Document automation/document assembly software. But clearly. typewriters. or worse yet. there are better ways to build documents in this bright future. including by adding client information . I shudder to think that there are not insignificant pockets of lawyers out there still dedicated to mail merge. A document automation program allows you to customize existing templates in a number of ways.• 3.

Outlook). integration with existing folder systems (Google Drive. or different features altogether. • Major features common to a number of these applications include version control. labeling/tagging and global search capability (with in-depth search functionality) . matter management. offline access/briefcase. Although most document automation tools feature some level of document management control. check-in/check-out features (an additional level of access control). Document management software. generally speaking. your server). integration with related software (Microsoft Word.• 4 . standalone document management tools offer more robust versions of those features.

billing and accounting .• 6. Case management software (sometimes referred to as practice management software) purports to be a holistic solution. accessible package. case management software includes: • Contact management (with global search for conflicts checks) • Email archive • Document management • Calendar management (with sync options for your existing email/calendar system) • Time. Generally speaking. in that it will wrap the majority of common features for law firm management into a single. Case management software.

Because no one system is fail-safe. Data management is the holy grail of law firm management. Data backup tools. . though. • Since that’s the case.• 7. it makes good sense to back up the data you already have. you may set your mind far more at ease by using two systems in conjunction — and it probably makes sense to pair a local backup with a cloud version.

Customer relationship management (CRM) software. Gaining a better understanding of how you close business will help you to close more of it. • CRM tools allow you to better render the data you take in — assuming you take it in effectively in the first place. a CRM will provide basic contact management tools. and which ones are not.• 8. . when you learn what tactics are successful. Using data to drive marketing decisions is next-level law firm management. and more robust features that will walk you through the many pathways from leads to conversions. • If you do. including the ability to add notes to files.

• That’s what’s so vexing about unfiltered spam — you don’t have to reply. Internal communication platform. sometimes referred to as enterprise social networks. but you still have to delete it.• 9. internal communication systems. Programs with calendaring features allow you to assign tasks and make notes on those items . The problem with email is that literally anybody can send you one. Many law firms are turning to restricted-access.

• The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act. all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. defamation and mischief. fraud. Cyber Law of India • Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature. such as theft. forgery. 2000. .

Pornography etc. • e. Cyber Crime regulated by Cyber Laws or Internet Laws. IPR violations. Credit card frauds. We can categorize Cyber crimes in two ways • The Computer as a Target :-using a computer to attack other computers. EFT frauds.g. Hacking. . Virus/Worm attacks. DOS attack etc.g. Cyber Terrorism. • The computer as a weapon :-using a computer to commit real world crimes. • e.

• TechnicalAspects Technological advancements have created new possibilities for criminal activity. in particular the criminal misuse of information technologies such as .

arithmetical. computer system or computer network. computer system or computer network . Unauthorized access & Hacking:- • Access means gaining entry into. • Unauthorized access would therefore mean any kind of access without the permission of either the rightful owner or the person in charge of a computer. or memory function resources of a computer. instructing or communicating with the logical.

• They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. . • Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. transferring money from various bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money. • Some hackers hack for personal monetary gains. such as to stealing the credit card information.• Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking.

the attacker will then use the Client to connect to the Server and start using the trojan. Trojan Attack:- • The program that act like something useful but do the things that are quiet damping. . The programs of this kind are called as Trojans. • The name Trojan Horse is popular. • Trojans come in two parts. a Client part and a Server part. When the victim (unknowingly) runs the server on its machine.

Virus and Worm attack:- • A program that has capability to infect other programs and make copies of itself and spread into other programs is called virus. • Programs that multiply like viruses but spread from computer to computer are called as worms. .

• 2.similar to a chain letter. Email Spamming • Email "spamming" refers to sending email to thousands and thousands of users . Trojans etc through emails as an attachment or by sending a link of website which on visiting downloads malicious code. Sending threatening emails • 6. Email bombing • E-mail "bombing" is characterized by abusers repeatedly sending an identical email message to a particular address. Email spoofing • Email spoofing refers to email that appears to have been originated from one source when it was actually sent from another source. • 4. E-mail & IRC related crimes:- • 1. Email frauds . • 5. Defamatory emails • 7. • 3 Sending malicious codes through email • E-mails are used to send viruses.

Denial of Service attacks:- • Flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle. thereby preventing access to a service • attempts to prevent a particular individual from accessing a service • attempts to disrupt service to a specific system or person. • Examples include • attempts to "flood" a network. This causes the resource to crash thereby denying access of service to authorized users. . thereby preventing legitimate network traffic • attempts to disrupt connections between two machines.

• Adult entertainment is largest industry on internet.” • This would include pornographic websites. writings etc. etc. • Pornography delivered over mobile phones is now a burgeoning business.” . “driven by the increase in sophisticated services that deliver video clips and streaming video. in addition to text and images. Pornography • The literal mining of the term 'Pornography' is “describing or showing sexual acts in order to cause sexual excitement through books.There are more than 420 million individual pornographic webpages today. films. • Research shows that 50% of the web-sites containing potentially illegal contents relating to child abuse were ‘Pay-Per-View’. photos. This indicates that abusive images of children over Internet have been highly commercialized. pictures. pornographic material produced using computers and use of internet to download and transmit pornographic videos.

air traffic control. banks. power plants. • Cyberterrorism is an attractive option for modern terrorists for several reasons.The variety and number of targets are enormous. • 5. Others like police. Cyber Terrorism:- • Targeted attacks on military installations. • 4. • 3.It is cheaper than traditional terrorist methods. . a feature that is especially appealing to terrorists.Cyberterrorism has the potential to affect directly a larger number of people. • 2. fire and rescue systems etc. medical.Cyberterrorism is more anonymous than traditional terrorist methods. • 1.Cyberterrorism can be conducted remotely. telecommunication networks are the most likely targets. trail traffic control.

• Use of stolen card information or fake credit/debit cards are common. Banking/Credit card Related crimes:- • In the corporate world. Internet hackers are continually looking for opportunities to compromise a company’s security in order to gain access to confidential banking and financial information. . • Bank employee can grab money using programs to deduce small amount of money from all customer accounts and adding it to own account also called as salami.

that offer online gambling. Online gambling:- • There are millions of websites hosted on servers abroad. . it is believed that many of these websites are actually fronts for money laundering. In fact.

constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Cyber Stacking:- • Cyber stalking involves following a persons movements across the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim. • In general. the harasser intends to cause emotional distress and has no legitimate purpose to his communications. . entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim.

. • Identity theft is a vehicle for perpetrating other types of fraud schemes.• . Identity Theft :- Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in countries like America. • Identity theft occurs when someone appropriates another's personal information without their knowledge to commit theft or fraud.

• u. • Confidentiality • It means non disclosure of information to unauthorized or unwanted persons. • Breach of privacy means unauthorized use or distribution or disclosure of personal information like medical records. financial status etc. such information should be protected. Physically damaging a computer system:- • Physically damaging a computer or its peripherals either by shock.• Theft of computer system (Hardware):- • This type of offence involves the theft of a computer. how and to what extent his or her personal data will be shared with others. • v. some part(s) of a computer or a peripheral attached to the computer. fire or excess electric supply etc. • . • In addition to Personal information some other type of information which useful for business and leakage of such information to other persons may cause damage to business or person. Breach of Privacy and Confidentiality • Privacy • Privacy refers to the right of an individual/s to determine when. sexual preferences.