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By -
Pooja Sinha
Kaushalya Bakde
Data Warehouse
A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-
variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of
managements decision-making process.W. H. Inmon

A decision support system (DSS) is a computer program

application that analyzes business data and presents it so that
users can make business decisions more easily.

A Data Warehouse is used for On-Line-Analytical-

Processing: Class of tools that enables the user to gain
insight into data through interactive access to a wide variety of
possible views of the information
Understanding the term Data Warehousing

Subject Oriented:
Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of
about a company's ongoing operations.

Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of
sources and merged into a coherent whole.

All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time
period. It keeps historical data.

Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is
never removed. This enables management to gain a consistent
picture of the business.
Data Warehouse for Decision
A data base is a collection of data organized by a database
management system.

A data warehouse is a read-only analytical database used

for a decision support system operation.

A data warehouse for decision support is often taking data

from various platforms, databases, and files as source data.

The use of advanced tools and specialized technologies may

be necessary in the development of decision support systems,
which affects tasks, deliverables, training, and project
Decision Support System in datawarehouse

Information Sources Data Warehouse OLAP Servers Clients

Server (Tier 2) (Tier 3)
(Tier 1)
e.g., MOLAP
Semistructured OLAP
Sources Data
extract Query/Reporting
transform serve
refresh e.g., ROLAP
Operational etc.
Data Mining
DBs serve

Data Marts
Characteristics Of DSS
DSS should give well structured information.

DSS attempts to combine the use of models or analytic

techniques with traditional data access and retrieval functions

DSS specifically focuses on features which make them easy to

use by non computer people in an interactive mode

DSS emphasizes flexibility and adaptability to accommodate

changes in the environment and the decision making
approach of the user.
Application Area
OLAP, Online Analytical Processing, is capable of providing
highest level of functionality and support for decision which is
linked for analyzing large collections of historical data. The
functionality of an OLAP tool is purely based on the existing /
current data.

DSS, Decision Support System, helps in taking decisions for top

executive professionals. Data accessing, time-series data
manipulation of an enterprises internal / some times external
data is emphasized by DSS. The manipulation is done by tailor
made tools that are task specific and operators and general tools
for providing additional functionality.
Introduction to OLAP
OLAP(Online Analytical Processing )is computer
processing that enables user to easily & selectively extract
& view data from different points of view.

OLAP data is stored in multidimensional databases.

Present in Tier II in Data Warehouse architecture.

Data warehouse for On Line Analytical Processing
(OLAP) features

Complex queries that access millions of records.

Contains historical data for analysis.
Provides summarized and multidimensional view of data.
Database size : 100 GB -TB
Fast response time for interactive queries.
Navigation in & out of details(drill down & roll up, slice & dice
or rotation).
Ability to perform complicate calculations.
Types Of OLAP Servers
1.Relational OLAP(ROLAP) :- ROLAP servers are placed between
relational back-end server and client front-end tools.
Data is stored in tables in relational database or extended-relational
They use RDBMs to manage the warehouse data.

2. Multidimensional OLAP(MOLAP) :-
It stores data in an optimized multi- dimensional array rather than
relational database.
Fast indexing to pre-computed aggregations.

3. Hybrid OLAP(HOLAP) :- Hybrid OLAP is a combination of both ROLAP

and MOLAP. It offers higher scalability of ROLAP and faster computation
HOLAP servers allow to store large data volumes of detailed
information. The aggregations are stored separately in MOLAP store.
The list of OLAP operations:

Slice and dice
Pivot (rotate)
Common OLAP Operations
1.Roll-up: Move up the

By dimension reduction.
When roll-up is
performed, one or more
dimensions from the data
cube are removed.
E.g. Given total sales by
city, we can roll-up to get
sales by state or by
OLAP Operations

2.Drill-down: Move down

the hierarchy

By introducing a new
Lowest level can be the
detail records (drill-
It navigates the data
from less detailed data
to highly detailed data.
E.g., Given total sales by
state, can drill-down to
get total sales by city.
3. Slice & Dice :- Select and Project on one or more dimensions. The user
can view the data from many angles.
The slice operation selects one particular dimension from a given cube
Dice selects two or more dimensions from a given cube and provides a
new sub-cube.

customer = Smith
4. Pivot(Rotate):-
Changing the dimensions.
It rotates the data axes in
view in order to provide an
alternative presentation of data
Applications Of OLAP

Business reporting for sales & Marketing

Management reporting
Financial Service industry (insurance, banks, etc).