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Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Criteria and Methods


of Sweda Karma

Dr KSR Prasad
On 12-12-2016@CME on Panchakarma at
SV Ayurveda College, Tirupathi

1
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Learning Objectivities
Criteria for selection of suitable
sweda kkarma in various diseases
Enumeration of the most beneficial
sweda karma
Standard operational procedure of
sweda karma
Modified sweda karma vis--vis
classical methods
Pinda sweda varieties with
indications and rationality

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Introduction
Sweating is defined as The process of the
sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
or simply Being wet with perspiration
How a physiological process is brought
forward as therapeutic in Ayurveda long
long ago is a big question
Ayurveda a traditional health system of Indian
continent brought many minute observations
of common processes with therapeutic values

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Mala Nirharana
Sweda karma a process of methodical and
regulative sweating process with the aid of direct
or indirect heat that generates the sweat to
eliminate the bio-waste materials from the body
As the sweating is removing the Mala (waste)
from the body and protective natured, it may not
be termed as putative (Shodhana) but certainly a
factor to influence the elimination process in
purification methods of Panchakarma

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Shodhana Panchakarma
The shodhana Panchakarma are mainly four
(Charaka) and became five along with
Raktamokshana and adopted Agnikarma also.
The shodhana Panchakarma are capable of
eliminating the Dosha from Koshta only
The Koshta is mainly Gastrointestinal Tract and
its attachments like Liver, Pancreas, Kidney,
Heart, Lungs, etc.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

No place as Shodhana
Swedana is only one of the Upakrama but not
has its place as Shodhana
It clearly states that the shodhana purva karma
and upakrama are different
It is to understand that the Upakrama is Shamana
and the Shodhana purva Swedana is adjunct to
shodhana
Thus we derive three terms Purva Karma
Swedana, Upakrama (Shamana) Swedana and
Paschat Karma Swedana
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Sweat is
Either because of weather or any heating
mechanism like steam or due to exercise or
fever even the body temperature is raised
and sweat is released through ducts of skin.
It moistens the surface of body and cools the
individual down as it evaporates.
Sweat is made mostly of water, but about 1
percent of sweat is a combination of salts
and fat.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Criteria for selection


The Salt and Fat of the body are regulated
through temperature to sweat
The criteria of selection of different sweda
mentioned in texts or adaptations and new
trends and developments is not a simple task
Ayurvedic method of examination of the patient
and the Dosha-Dushya randomization and its
impact analysis is essential to determine for the
selection of Swedana method for better results

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Functions of Swedana vs selection


Main functions of Sweda karma are
Sthambhagna stiffness is removed
Commonly cramps, muscle stiffness are observed in Vata
vyadhi viz. Grudhrasi, Manyasthambha, etc.
Gouravahara heaviness is removed
Heaviness is a symptom of Kapha in diseases like obesity
(sthoulya), circulatory collapse, pakshaghata, etc.
Sheetaghna coldness is removed
All cold intolerance diseases viz. Hypothyroidism,
Hypopitutarism, Rynauds Phenomenon, SLE, etc.
Swedana inducts perspiration
All the people of Hypohydrosis viz. Diabetes, Alcoholism,
Kampavata, Amyloidosis, etc.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Salt retention
In salt retention diseases, edema occurs
primarily because of the body's retention of
too much salt (sodium chloride).
The excess salt causes the body to retain
water, which then leaks into the interstitial
tissue spaces, where it appears as edema.
Few medications also can cause pitting
edema.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Fat retention
Lack of physical activity or decreased thyroid
activity, increased production of the adrenal
hormone cortisol, and resistance to the hormone
insulin can be causes of abnormal weight gain or
fat depositions
First system is Endo-cannabinoid system that stores
fat to use as reserve energy
The second system involves the enzyme AMP kinase
normally mobilizes the fat to be burned and releases
the stored energy. Inactivity of AMP kinase results in
to fat depositions.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Different factors of Examination


Examine a patient thoroughly for
the Sweda indications told in Samhita
Hot intolerance causes (contra indications)
Anxiety
Hyperthyroidism
Menopause
Multiple sclerosis
Cancer
Peripheral /Autonomous neuropathy

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Enumeration of the
Most beneficial sweda karma

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Swedana Varieties
Sushruta, I consider the latest scientific
compendium of Ayurveda classify Swedana as
Taapa sweda: The heat is transmitted through any
material cloth, metallic vessels, hands, etc.
Ushma sweda (bhaspa) It is done with water steam
either through a nozzle or in a vessel
Upanaha sweda material applied (lepa) or tied over
surface (Bandhana) or material tied in to pottali (pinda)
for sudation
Drava sweda liquids are used here for submerging
(Avagaha) or pouring (parisheka) or showering
(Varshulika)

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Enumeration based on Temperature


Taapa sweda: (28-32 degrees) Delicate,
soft skinned people or people required
low to medium temperature constantly
for longer duration or for the Rasa, Rakta
diseases
Upanaha sweda (32-36 degrees)
when ever Utsedha or swellings are
observed Bnadhana, muscle diseases
(pseudo muscular atrophy), paralysis, etc
where medium duration or for the
Mamsa & tendon diseases

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Enumeration based on Temperature


Drava sweda (36-40 degrees) it is
commonly used for the skeletal
diseases, spinal diseases, IVDP,
Ankylosis, Arthritis, etc. especially for
Asthi dhatugata vyadhi
Ushma sweda: (40-46degrees) common
comfortable method of steaming (wet)
or hot wind (dry heat) in either open
(nadi) or closed (box) methods with
duration regulations for all dhatugata
diseases

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Which is beneficial?
The benefits are cumulated with
Space maintenance
Material economy
Manpower requirement
Cost effectiveness
Season suitability
Person suitability
Disease suitability

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

SOP of sweda karma -Patient


Check vitals BP, Pulse, Weight, Height, BMI
Note any cardiac or skin problems are there
Enquire for the psychological interventions or
phobia
Check the condition of patients for the
selection of type of swedana
According to the dhatu involvement or
availability the schedule can be fixed

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

SOP of sweda karma


Record BP and Pulse
Check whether Abhyanga is done or not
Note whether the swedana is for Local or Full
body
Check the medicine & material for the type of
swedana required each SOP differs
Steam for the required time or till the forehead
sweating is recorded
Record BP and Pulse

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Modified Sweda karma vis--vis


classical methods
Standard sweda karma are done by closed or
open method
Modifications are done according to the situation
as it demands
Use of Infra Red Lamp directly
Infra Red lamp on Kativasti / Januvasti, etc
Hot air blowers
Heat eliminating reflectors
Heat transmitting colour plates (Chromato therapy)

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Pinda sweda varieties with


indications and rationality
Pinda /Pottali is a pack of materials according to
the condition to transmit the heat initially and
therapeutic values embedded in it
GUNANUSARA Snigdha, Rooksha, Snigha Rooksha.
STHANA BEDHA Ekanga, Sarvanga.
PRAYOGA BEDHA Mridhu, Madhyama, Mahaan
DRAVYA BHEDA Valuka, Churns, Shastikashali, etc.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Pinda sweda Application


Preparation of Pinda
Application procedure

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Gunanusara Sweda
Snigdha sweda :- Tila, Masha, Shali, Mamsa rasa, and
Amlavarga dravya.
Used in Vatavyadhi, Vatapradhana Roga.
Eg. :- Patra Pinda Sweda, Shashtika Shali Pinda Sweda
Ruksha sweda:- Purisha of cow, horse, donkey, sand
Used in Amadosha, Urustambha, Medoroga, Granthi,
Kaphaja vikara & Sashotha shoola.
Eg. :- Valuka Sweda

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Patra Pinda Sweda


500gm Leaves selected according to the condition -
Shigru, Arka, Dhattura, Chincha, Eranda, Nirgundi
Patra
25gm of Prakshepa with - Shatapushpa, Devadaru,
Rasna etc.
10gm Saindhava lavana (especially in Vata or
Vatakapha vyadhi)
50ml of Vatahara Taila Kottamchukkadi taila,
Karpura tailam, Dhanvantaram tailam, etc.
Lemon (Amlavarga) Good to add in Vata vyadhi
100gm wet Coconut grinded commonly used in Kerala to
induce unction

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Few Specific Patra Pinda sweda


PPS is a Snigdha rooksha type of sweda used
in - Rheumatoid arthritis, Pakshaghata
Osteoarthritis, Myalgia, Neuralgia, Lumbago,
Paresthesia etc.
Eranda patra Pinda sweda In Mootrakrichra
Eranda chincha patra Pinda sweda in Avabahuka

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Shastika Shali Pinda Sweda


Indications
Balavata (Poliomyelitis)
Pakshaghata (Paralysis) / post polio residual paralysis
Vatashonita
Shosha (Emaciation)
Vata roga associated with dhatukshaya (Neurological)
Mamsa sosha, peripherial neuritis etc. and other
conditions which result in to atrophy of muscles.
Spasticity, reduced mobility, rigidity, low backache,
sciatica, scoliosis, kyphosis, arthritis, etc

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

SSPS standard method


12 pala (600gm) - Bala
3 Aadaka (8 litres) Water
3 Prastha (2 litres) Decoction bala
1 Prastha (1 litre) Cows milk
Prastha (500gm) Shashtika shali
This makes 100gms each 5 pottali that can run by the 4
therapist at once
If minimum number of therapist (2) are working 250-300 gms
of shashtika Shali can be use to make 3 pottali

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

SSPS
There seems to have been about a hundred
varieties of rice but only about 20 types are said
to be existing. Njavara is one of the 20.
Njavara is a traditional Keralian Rice called as
Gold With Fragrance , commonly red rice
reaped within 60 days needed longer time to
cook (38 min)
Black glumed Njavara has been used in Ayurveda
treatment from the age of Charaka-ie, BC.600.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

SSPS
Dehusked Njavara rice consisted of 73%
carbohydrates, 9.5% protein, 2.5% fat, 1.4% ash
and 1628 kJ per 100 g of energy
The Njavara has more carbohydrate (non-starch
polysaccharides) that makes the bolus slimy in
nature
Research CFTRI states that - 16.5% higher
protein, Thiamine (2732%), Riboflavin (425%)
,Niacin (236%) Dietary fibre 3444%
G. Deepa et al., Nutrient composition and physicochemical
properties of Indian medicinal rice Njavara, Food
Chemistry 106 (2008) 165171

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Variations of Pinda
Jambeera Pinda Sweda
Kukkutanda sweda
Basically Mamsarasa, Amlavarga,
Lavanavarga, Vatahara Sneha (taila),
Doshahara dravya, Vyadhihara dravya
are the ingredients
Any ingredients of Dosha Vyadhi
based are used for transmitting the heat
Easily available sand, husk, wood,
stone, etc materials are good

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Tapa sweda
Pansa patra tapa sweda
Arka patra tapa sweda
Most of the time these tapa sweda are used for
local heat transmitting
It relives local stiffness and pain
The leaves used are usually thick to retain heat
and transmit

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Conclusion
Swedana is only sweating the individual
The purpose is
To bring the dosha from shakha to koshta
(purvakarma)
To relieve the stiffness (Shanama karma)
The components involved are
Heating elements, Heat transmitters, Heat conversion,
Heat transportation, Heat elimination in the system
Heat resistance and tolerances are also to be
considered

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/


Criteria and Methods of Sweda Karma

Thank You

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/