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TOEFL SKILLS

BY: MOISS OSWALDO BENITEZ VENTURA.


ANTICIPATING QUESTION ABOUT
DIALOGS.
Between each dialog part a, there is 12 seconds pause. During the
pause, heres what should do:

-answer the question you have just hear as quickly as you can

- Preview the choices for the next item.

- A look at the answers choices may tell you topic of the


upcoming dialog and what questions will be asked about it .
consider the answer below.

- A)before she leaves the dormitory.

- B)during the chemistry class.

- C)after the lab period.

- D) while she is eating lunch.


Even quickly glance Will tell you what the dialogs must
be about setudents Schedule and the question Will
begin, when
If you have an idea about the topic of the topic and if
you know what the question about the dialog Will be, you
Will know what to listen for, and your listening task Will
be easier.
DIALOGS WITH SOUND CONFUSION
Many sound-alike expression in part A are : MINIMAL PAIRS
Are two words that sound alike except for one vowel or consonant.

Ex. Two/too/to. or pray and prey.


Another sound problem involves two words that sound like one
word.
Ex. In tents and intense. or Sent her and Center.
Words that sounds like part of a longer word.
Ex. mind and remind.
STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH
SOUND CONFUSION.
Exclude options that have words with similar sounds in the
conversations.
Use the context of the dialog to identify the correct
word.
DIALOGS WITH HOMONYMS AND
WORDS WITH MULTIPLE MEANINGS
Words with the same pronunciation but different spelling and
different meaning.
Ex. Whole and hole.
Peace and piece.
Now and know.
MULTIPLE MEANINGS.
Right, can, pool, mine,
STRATEGIES

Try to understand the dialog as much as you can.


Dont focus only in single words, because you easly can
make mistakes,
Use the context of the dialog to choose the correct option.
DIALOGS WITH IDEOMATIC
EXPRESSION.
An idiom (also called idiomatic expression) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a
figurative meaning conventionally understood by native speakers. This meaning is different from
the literal meaning of the idiom's individual elements. In other words, idioms don't mean exactly
what the words say. They have, however, hidden meaning.
Ex.
Spill the beans.
Means:
To tell a secret to someone else.
Piece of cake.
Means:
That something is easy.
ANSWERING INFERENCE QUESTIONS
ABOUT DIALOGS.
Inference questions ask the listener to show an understanding
of the meaning of something when it is not directly stated in
the lecture or conversation.
You can recognize inference questions because they use
phrases like
What does the man/woman imply?
What can be inferred from the conversation?
DIALOGS INVOLVING AGREEMENT AND
DISAGREEMENT.
Focus in the second speaker.
it's necessary to understand if the second speaker agrees or
disagrees with the first speaker's idea or proposals.
There are many ways to express agreement and disagreement.
EXAMPLES OF EXPRESSIONS.

Aggrement. Dissagriment.

So do I. Probaly not
Me too. Not neccesarily-
Neither do I.* Im not sure.
I don't either.* Not really
Who wouldn't I dont think so.
isn't he/she/it though! I cant say i agree.
Ill say. I couldnt aggre less with
You bet. you.
INCOMPLETE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
It is a group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence: it
has a subject, a verb, and is a complete thought.
Depent clause: A dependent clause is a group of words that also
contains a subject and a verb, but it is not a complete thought.
Because it is not a complete thought, a dependent clause cannot
stand on its own as a sentence; it is dependent on being
attached to an independent clause to form a sentence.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE < can stand on its own>
Ex. I run in the morning.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE < cant stand on its own>
I run in the morning, because it is a good exercise for me.
INCOMPLETE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
OR RELATIVE CLAUSES.
Adjectives clauses are the words that can join two sentences.
And can make it a complex sentence.
Ex.
-A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in Adjective clause
marker
Who
the nervous system.
Whom
Whose
- This is the hour when the train arrives to Which
That
the station. Where
When
IMCOMPLETE OR MISSING PARTICIPIAL
PHRASES.

A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective and usually ends in


ING or ED.
Past and present participles are use to reduce adjective clauses with
passive and active verbs.
Ex. William an Mary College, which was founded in 1693, is the second
oldest university in the United States.
<adjective clause with passive verb>
William an Mary College, founded in 1963, is the second oldest
university in the United States.
<participial phrase with a past participle>
INCOMPLETE OR MISSING APPOSITIVE

Appositive is a noun phrase that explains or rephrases another noun


phrase.
Ex.
Mrs. Jones, her first teacher, was a strict person.
< appositive following a noun >
Her first teacher, Mrs. Jones, was a strict person.
< appositive before the subject>
INCOMPLETE ADVERB CLAUSES.

Adverb clause consists of a connecting word. Called adverb clause marker


(or subordinate conjuction), and at least a subject and verb.
Show a relationship
Ex.
The demand for economical cars increases when gasoline become
more expensive.

When gasoline become more expensive, The demand for economical


cars increases.
INCOMPLETE NOUN CLAUSES.

Are formed from statements begin with the noun clause market
THAT.
Its formed from yes/no questions
Its formed from information questions with WH/WORDS.
Noun clause function exactly as noun do: as subject, as direct
objects, or complements after verbs to be
Ex. What, where, when and so on.
I dont know what her name is.
MISSING OR INCOMPLETE
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.
Prepositional phrase consist of a PREPOSITION. < in, at , with, for,
until> followed by a noun phrase or pronound, which is called the
prepositional object, prepositional phrase often describe
relationships of time and location, amoung others.
Starts with preposition.
Ends with a noun.
Ex.
The man cook like a master.
In the autumn is my favorite season.
OVERVIEW QUESTIONS

Main idea
Principal idea of the lecture.
Main topic
The reasons why the author wrote a passage.
What is the purpose of the passage.