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Ethics serve as a means of self regulation

and a source of guidelines for individual


behavior and responsibilities.

Professional code of ethics is a system of


rules and principles by which that profession
is expected to regulate its members and
demonstrate its responsibilities to society.
DEFINITION:

Nursing ethics is a branch of applied ethics


that concern itself with activities in the field of
nursing.
NURSES AND PEOPLE:

O The nurses primary responsibility is to those


who require nursing care.

O The nurse provide care, promotes an


environment in which the value, customs and
spiritual believes of individuals are respected.

O The nurse holds in confidence and maintain


confidentiality.
NURSE AND SOCIETY:

O Share the responsibilities for initiating


and supporting actions to meet the health
and social needs of the community.
NURSE AND CO-WORKERS:

O Sustain an cooperative relationship.

O Take appropriate actions to safeguard the


individual.
NURSE AND PRACTICE:

O The nurse carries personal responsibilities


for nursing practice and maintain
competency.

O The nurse uses judgment in relation to


individual competence when accepting and
delegating responsibilities.

O Maintain standards of personal conduct.


NURSE AND PROFESSION:

O Plays a major role in determining and


implementing desirable standards of
nursing practice and education.

O Develop professional knowledge.

O Participate in stabilizing and maintaining


equitable social and economic working
condition in nursing.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES:

Nursing ethics shares many principles with medical


ethics, such as beneficence, non- maleficence and
respect for autonomy. The various principles may be
listed as:

O Respect for persons- It directs to treat individuals


with respect.
O Respect for autonomy- People honor anothers right to
govern himself or herself.
O Respect for freedom- Patients be exempt from
control by others to select and peruse personal
health goals.

O Respect for beneficence- Obligation to do well and


not harm other people.

O Respect for non-maleficence- Prevent doing harm to


others. Eg, administration of harmful drugs .

O Respect for veracity- It is concern about truth telling.


Professionals should always provide accurate and
reality based information.
O Respect for rights- Right is a claim to a specific
good or service.

O Respect for fidelity- Keeping ones promises or


commitments. Important to keep patients faith on
nurses.

O Confidentiality- It is the duty to respect privileged


information. Respect the patients need for privacy.

O Respect for justice- Person should be treated with


equality and fairly.
O The code of ethics for nurses was developed as
a guide for carrying out nursing responsibilities
in a manner consistent with quality in nursing
care and the ethical obligations of the
profession.

O The ICN code of ethics guide nurses in everyday


choices and it supports their refusal to
participate in activities that conflict with caring
and healing.
In India, nurses are following the International council of
nurses code for nurses 1973 as given below:

1. The nurse respects the uniqueness of individual in


provision of care

1.1 Provides care of individuals without consideration of


caste, religion, culture, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic
and political status, personal attributes, or any other
grounds.
1.2 Develops and promotes trustful relationship
with individual(s)

1.3 Recognizes uniqueness of response of


individuals to interventions and adapts
accordingly.
2. The nurse respects the rights of individuals as
partner in care and help in making informed choices
Nurse

2.1 Appreciates individuals right to make decisions


about their care and therefore gives adequate and
accurate information for enabling them to make
informed choices.
2.2 Respects the decisions made by individual(s)
regarding their care.
2.3 Protects public from misinformation and
misinterpretations
3. The nurse respects individuals right to privacy,
maintains confidentiality, and shares information
judiciously

3.1 Respects the individuals right to privacy of their


personal information.

3.2 Maintains confidentiality of privileged information


except in life threatening situations and uses discretion
in sharing information.
3.3 Takes informed consent and maintains
anonymity when information is required for quality
assurance/ academic/legal reasons.

3.4 Limits the access to all personal records written


and computerized to authorized persons only.
4. Nurse maintains competence in order to
render Quality Nursing Care

4.1 Nursing care must be provided only by registered


nurse.

4.2 Nurse strives to maintain quality nursing care


and upholds the standards of care.

4.3 Nurse values continuing education, initiates and


utilizes all opportunities for self development.
4.4 Nurses values research as a means of
development of nursing profession and participates in
nursing research adhering to ethical principles.
5.The nurse if obliged to practice within the
framework of ethical, professional and legal
boundaries

5.1 Adheres to code of ethics and code of


professional conduct for nurses in India developed by
Indian Nursing Council.
5.2 Familiarizes with relevant laws and practices in
accordance with the law of the state
6. Nurse is obliged to work harmoniously with
members of the health team
Nurse
6.1 Appreciates the team efforts in rendering care.

6.2 Cooperates, coordinates and collaborates with


members of the health team to meet the needs of
people
7. Nurse commits to reciprocate the trust invested in
nursing profession by society

7.1 Demonstrates personal etiquettes in all dealings.

7.2 Demonstrates professional attributes in all


dealings.
EHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH CARE:

1. Bioethical issues concerning birth


2. Bioethical issues concerning death
3. Specific bioethical issues
1. Bioethical issues concerning birth:

O Family planning
O Amniocentesis
O Sterilization
O In vitro fertilization
O Surrogate mothers
O Abortion
2. Bioethical issues concerning death:

O Euthenics
O Right to die issue
- withholding treatment
- withdrawing treatment
- Right to refuse treatment
3. Specific bioethical issues:

O Organ transplantation
O Xenon transplantation
O Truth telling
ETHICAL DILEMMA IN NURSING:

A dilemma is defined as a situation requiring choice


between two equally desirable or undesirable
alternatives. Usually there is no perfect solution in most
of the ethical dilemmas some of the current ethical
dilemma in nursing profession are-

O Euthanasia
O Abortion
O Right to refuse treatment
O Truth telling