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# Chapter 4

Exercises

Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics

## In part a of figure, the system gains 1500J of heat

and 2200J of work is done by the system on its
surroundings.

## In part b, the system also gains 1500J of heat, but

2200J of work is done on the system.

## In each case, determine the change in internal energy

of the system.
The First Law of Thermodynamics

(a)
U Q W

(b)

U Q W

## 1500 J 2200 J 3700 J

The First Law of Thermodynamics

## The temperature of three moles of a monatomic ideal gas is reduced

from 540K to 350K as 5500J of heat flows into the gas.

Find (a) the change in internal energy and (b) the work done by the
gas.

U U f U i Q W U 32 nRT
The First Law of Thermodynamics

(a)
U 32 nRT f 32 nRTi

3
2
3.0 mol 8.31 J mol K 350 K 540 K 7100 J

## (b) W Q U 5500 J 7100 J 12600 J

Thermal Processes

## One gram of water is placed in the cylinder and

the pressure is maintained at 2.0x105Pa. The
temperature of the water is raised by 31oC. The
water is in the liquid phase and expands by the
small amount of 1.0x10-8m3.

## Find the work done and the change in internal

energy.
Thermal Processes

W PV

2.0 105 Pa 1.0 10 8 m3 0.0020J

## U Q W 130 J 0.0020 J 130 J

Q mcT 0.0010 kg 4186 J kg C 31 C 130 J
Thermal Processes

## Example 4 Work and the Area Under a

Pressure-Volume Graph

## Determine the work for the process in

which the pressure, volume, and temp-
erature of a gas are changed along the
straight line in the figure.

## The area under a pressure-volume graph is

the work for any kind of process.
Thermal Processes

is positive.

## Estimate that there are 8.9 colored

squares in the drawing.

W 8.9 2.0 105 Pa 1.0 10 4 m 3
180 J
Thermal Processes Using and Ideal Gas

## Two moles of the monatomic gas argon expand isothermally at 298K

from and initial volume of 0.025m3 to a final volume of 0.050m3. Assuming
that argon is an ideal gas, find (a) the work done by the gas, (b) the
change in internal energy of the gas, and (c) the heat supplied to the
gas.
Thermal Processes Using and Ideal Gas

Vf
(a) W nRT ln
Vi
0.050 m 3
2.0 mol 8.31 J mol K 298 K ln 3400 J
3
0.025 m

(c) U Q W

Q W 3400 J
Heat Engines

## An automobile engine has an efficiency of 22.0% and produces

2510 J of work. How much heat is rejected by the engine?

W
e QH W QC
QH

W
QH
e
Heat Engines

QH W QC

W
QH
e
QC QH W

W 1
QC W W 1
e e

1
2510 J 1 8900 J
0.220
Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

## Example 7 A Tropical Ocean as a Heat Engine

Water near the surface of a tropical ocean has a temperature of 298.2 K, whereas
the water 700 meters beneath the surface has a temperature of 280.2 K. It has
been proposed that the warm water be used as the hot reservoir and the cool water
as the cold reservoir of a heat engine. Find the maximum possible efficiency for
such and engine.

TC
ecarnot 1
TH
15.9 Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

TC 280.2 K
ecarnot 1 1 0.060
TH 298.2 K
Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

## Consider a hypothetical engine that receives 1000 J of heat as input from a

hot reservoir and delivers 1000J of work, rejecting no heat to a cold reservoir
whose temperature is above 0 K. Decide whether this engine violates the first
or second law of thermodynamics.
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

## Is it possible to cool your kitchen by leaving the refrigerator door open or to

cool your room by putting a window air conditioner on the floor by the bed?
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

QC
Refrigerator or Coefficien t of performanc e
air conditioner W
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

## The heat pump uses work to make

heat from the wintry outdoors flow
into the house.
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

## Example 10 A Heat Pump

An ideal, or Carnot, heat pump is used to heat a house at 294 K. How much
work must the pump do to deliver 3350 J of heat into the house on a day when
the outdoor temperature is 273 K?

QC TC TC
QC QH
QH TH TH

W QH QC

TC
W QH 1
TH
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

TC 273 K
W QH 1 3350 J 1 240 J
TH 294 K

heat QH
pump Coefficien t of performanc e
W
Entropy

## The figure shows 1200 J of heat spontaneously flowing through

a copper rod from a hot reservoir at 650 K to a cold
reservoir at 350 K. Determine the amount by which
this process changes the entropy of the
universe.
Entropy

QC QH 1200 J 1200 J
S universe 1.6 J K
TC TH 350 K 650 K
Entropy

## Suppose that 1200 J of heat is used as input for an engine

under two different conditions (as shown on the right).

for each case.

TC W
ecarnot 1 e
TH QH
Entropy

## The maximum amount of work will be achieved when the

engine is a Carnot Engine, where

TC 150 K
(a) ecarnot 1 1 0.77
TH 650 K

## W ecarnot QH 0.771200 J 920 J

TC 150 K
(b) ecarnot 1 1 0.57
TH 350 K

## The irreversible process of heat through the copper

rod causes some energy to become unavailable.