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Chapter 4

Exercises

Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics

Example 1 Positive and Negative Work

In part a of figure, the system gains 1500J of heat


and 2200J of work is done by the system on its
surroundings.

In part b, the system also gains 1500J of heat, but


2200J of work is done on the system.

In each case, determine the change in internal energy


of the system.
The First Law of Thermodynamics

(a)
U Q W

1500 J 2200 J 700 J

(b)

U Q W

1500 J 2200 J 3700 J


The First Law of Thermodynamics

Example 2 An Ideal Gas

The temperature of three moles of a monatomic ideal gas is reduced


from 540K to 350K as 5500J of heat flows into the gas.

Find (a) the change in internal energy and (b) the work done by the
gas.

U U f U i Q W U 32 nRT
The First Law of Thermodynamics

(a)
U 32 nRT f 32 nRTi

3
2
3.0 mol 8.31 J mol K 350 K 540 K 7100 J

(b) W Q U 5500 J 7100 J 12600 J


Thermal Processes

Example 3 Isobaric Expansion of Water

One gram of water is placed in the cylinder and


the pressure is maintained at 2.0x105Pa. The
temperature of the water is raised by 31oC. The
water is in the liquid phase and expands by the
small amount of 1.0x10-8m3.

Find the work done and the change in internal


energy.
Thermal Processes

W PV

2.0 105 Pa 1.0 10 8 m3 0.0020J

U Q W 130 J 0.0020 J 130 J


Q mcT 0.0010 kg 4186 J kg C 31 C 130 J
Thermal Processes

Example 4 Work and the Area Under a


Pressure-Volume Graph

Determine the work for the process in


which the pressure, volume, and temp-
erature of a gas are changed along the
straight line in the figure.

The area under a pressure-volume graph is


the work for any kind of process.
Thermal Processes

Since the volume increases, the work


is positive.

Estimate that there are 8.9 colored


squares in the drawing.


W 8.9 2.0 105 Pa 1.0 10 4 m 3
180 J
Thermal Processes Using and Ideal Gas

Example 5 Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas

Two moles of the monatomic gas argon expand isothermally at 298K


from and initial volume of 0.025m3 to a final volume of 0.050m3. Assuming
that argon is an ideal gas, find (a) the work done by the gas, (b) the
change in internal energy of the gas, and (c) the heat supplied to the
gas.
Thermal Processes Using and Ideal Gas

Vf
(a) W nRT ln
Vi
0.050 m 3
2.0 mol 8.31 J mol K 298 K ln 3400 J
3
0.025 m

(b) U 32 nRT f 32 nRTi 0

(c) U Q W

Q W 3400 J
Heat Engines

Example 6 An Automobile Engine

An automobile engine has an efficiency of 22.0% and produces


2510 J of work. How much heat is rejected by the engine?

W
e QH W QC
QH

W
QH
e
Heat Engines

QH W QC

W
QH
e
QC QH W

W 1
QC W W 1
e e

1
2510 J 1 8900 J
0.220
Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

Example 7 A Tropical Ocean as a Heat Engine

Water near the surface of a tropical ocean has a temperature of 298.2 K, whereas
the water 700 meters beneath the surface has a temperature of 280.2 K. It has
been proposed that the warm water be used as the hot reservoir and the cool water
as the cold reservoir of a heat engine. Find the maximum possible efficiency for
such and engine.

TC
ecarnot 1
TH
15.9 Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

TC 280.2 K
ecarnot 1 1 0.060
TH 298.2 K
Carnots Principle and the Carnot Engine

Conceptual Example 8 Natural Limits on the Efficiency of a Heat Engine

Consider a hypothetical engine that receives 1000 J of heat as input from a


hot reservoir and delivers 1000J of work, rejecting no heat to a cold reservoir
whose temperature is above 0 K. Decide whether this engine violates the first
or second law of thermodynamics.
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

Conceptual Example 9 You Cant Beat the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Is it possible to cool your kitchen by leaving the refrigerator door open or to


cool your room by putting a window air conditioner on the floor by the bed?
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

QC
Refrigerator or Coefficien t of performanc e
air conditioner W
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

The heat pump uses work to make


heat from the wintry outdoors flow
into the house.
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

Example 10 A Heat Pump

An ideal, or Carnot, heat pump is used to heat a house at 294 K. How much
work must the pump do to deliver 3350 J of heat into the house on a day when
the outdoor temperature is 273 K?

QC TC TC
QC QH
QH TH TH

W QH QC

TC
W QH 1
TH
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

TC 273 K
W QH 1 3350 J 1 240 J
TH 294 K

heat QH
pump Coefficien t of performanc e
W
Entropy

Example 11 The Entropy of the Universe Increases

The figure shows 1200 J of heat spontaneously flowing through


a copper rod from a hot reservoir at 650 K to a cold
reservoir at 350 K. Determine the amount by which
this process changes the entropy of the
universe.
Entropy

QC QH 1200 J 1200 J
S universe 1.6 J K
TC TH 350 K 650 K
Entropy

Example 12 Energy Unavailable for Doing Work

Suppose that 1200 J of heat is used as input for an engine


under two different conditions (as shown on the right).

Determine the maximum amount of work that can be obtained


for each case.

TC W
ecarnot 1 e
TH QH
Entropy

The maximum amount of work will be achieved when the


engine is a Carnot Engine, where

TC 150 K
(a) ecarnot 1 1 0.77
TH 650 K

W ecarnot QH 0.771200 J 920 J

TC 150 K
(b) ecarnot 1 1 0.57
TH 350 K

W ecarnot QH 0.571200 J 680 J

The irreversible process of heat through the copper


rod causes some energy to become unavailable.